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Murād III

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, twelfth Ottoman Sultan (ruled 982-1003/1574-95). He was born on 5 D̲j̲umāda I 953/4 July 1546 in the princely summer camp at Bozdaǧ Yayla near Manisa [ q.v.] where his father, the later Sultan Selīm II [ q.v.], resided as sand̲j̲aḳ-begi . His mother was the Venetian-born k̲h̲āṣṣekī Nūr Bānū [ q.v.]. His ceremonial circumcision took place at Manisa in April 1557. At the time, prince Selīm was appointed sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Ḳaramān [ q.v.] in 1558 and Sultan Süleymān I [ q.v.] made his grandson sand̲j̲aḳ-begi of Aḳs̲h̲ehir. In 1561 Murād stayed with his grandfather in Istanbul, and…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Rūm

(722 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
or Rūmī (d. 883/1478), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Being of ḳul status, his origins, whether Greek or Albanian, are obscure. Sultan Meḥemmed II [ q.v.] admitted him into his intimate circle after the unsuccessful Albanian campaign of 870/1466 during which Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a became Second Vizier. In 1468/872 he joined the campaign against Ḳaramān [see ḳaramān-og̲h̲ullari̊ ], during which he manifested his rivalry with the Grand Vizier Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Instead of him, Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was charged with the deportation of selected members of the populations of the cities of Ḳaramān, Ḳonya [ q.v…

Ṣari̊ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a

(801 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Baḳḳāl-zāde , Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī , S̲h̲ehrī , Defterdār (?-1129/1717), Ottoman statesman, born in Istanbul (hence: S̲h̲ehrī), a son of a Muslim Turkish grocer. He styled himself El-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Meḥmed ed-Defterī in the preface to his chronicle. He made his career in the financial department of the Porte [see māliyye ]. In 1081/1671 he was employed in the office of the rūznāmd̲j̲e-yi ewwel ḳalemi [ q.v.]. He won the patronage of the defterdār Ḳi̊li̊č ʿAlī Efendi, bas̲h̲defterdār (in function 1102/1691-2) and was promoted to mektūbd̲j̲u (= mektūbī ), head of the secretariat of the principal deft…

Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a

(459 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Topal (d. 1041/1632), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Murād IV [ q.v.]. Of Bosnian origin, he began his career in the bostand̲j̲i̊ corps and attained the high office of Bostand̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.] in the reign of Aḥmed I [ q.v.]. Although slightly invalid (a sufferer from gout, hence topal ), he continued his career: a vizier since 1031/1622, he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Black Sea. With his squadron he defeated a Cossack fleet of 600 s̲h̲ayḳas . Red̲j̲eb Pas̲h̲a was Ḳapudān-pas̲h̲a 1032-5/1623-26. Commanding the fleet in Rad̲j̲ab-Ramaḍ…

Ḳoylu Ḥiṣār

(371 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
( Ḳoyunlu Ḥiṣār ), modern Koyulhisar, centre of an ilçe of the province ( il) of Sivas in the valley of the Kelkit River along the old route from Niksar to S̲h̲ābīn Ḳaraḥiṣār and Erzurum in the so-called “left wing” ( sol ḳol ) of Anatolia within the framework of the Ottoman road and postal system. The site has changed a few times because of earthquakes (most recently in 1939). Before ca. 1850 the township probably lay on the site of the actual Yukari Kale. The town and fortress were lost by the Byzantines after the battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). After direct Sald̲j̲ūḳid rule,…

Ḳod̲j̲a Eli

(577 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, modern Turkish Kocaeli: a region between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, covering a part of ancient Bithynia with its centre Izmīd [ q.v.] (ancient Nicomedia), and the name of a sand̲j̲aḳ of the Ottoman empire. Nowadays it is the name of a province ( il) of Turkey (population 385,408 in 1970), with Izmit as its capital. In 1954 the eastern part of the province Kocaeli was separated to form the Sakarya (Saḳārya) province with its capital Adapazari. Since this administrative reform, Kocaeli has comprised the ilces (formerly ḳaḍāʾs ) of (Izmit-) Merkez, Gebze…

Ḳoč Ḥiṣār

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, a name of several towns and villages in Asia Minor, derived from Ḳod̲j̲a-Ḥiṣar; compare such names as Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyun Ḥiṣāri̊, Ḳoyul Ḥiṣāri̊, Keči Ḥiṣārī and Ṭoḳlu Ḥiṣāri̊ Confusion is often prevented by the addition of the name of the nearby provincial capital or of another word, e.g. Čanki̊ri̊ Ḳoč-Ḥiṣāri̊, S̲h̲erefli Koč Ḥiṣār. For the same reason, the toponyms of places with this name have been changed in recent times. I. S̲h̲erefli Ḳoč Ḥiṣāri̊ (in modern usage Şerefli Koçhisarı , centre of an ilçe (previously ḳaḍāʾ ) formerly called Esb-kes̲h̲ān, in …

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, ʿIwaḍ

(620 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī ( el-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ ) (1085 or 1086-1156/1675-1743), Ottoman Grand Vizier. He was the son of a descendant of the Ewlād-i Fātiḥān , one Naṣr Allāh, a tīmār holder at Jagodina. Educated for state service (hence ʿiwaḍ ), he served with high-placed officials at Belgrade (1100/1689) and at Ḏj̲udda (1107-8/1696), during which period he made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Having returned to Istanbul just before the Patrona Ḵh̲alīl rebellion of 1730, he acted as Gümrük Emīni , Commissioner of the Istanbul customs house, on behalf of Yegen Meḥmed Efendi…


(1,584 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(Turkish form of the Greek Λῆμνος, in older Ottoman historical works Limoz and Ilimli, in older Greek sources also Λῆμος, Stalimene in mediaeval western sources, Lemnos in modern usage) an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea, 80 km. west of the entrance of the Dardanelles ( Čanaḳḳalʿe Bog̲h̲azi̊ [ q.v.]) halfway between Mount Athos and Tenedos [ Bozd̲j̲a-Ada [ q.v.]). The island, of ca. 470 km2, has been virtually treeless since long before Ottoman times. Agriculture is of local importance only. Its famous export product since antiquity is a sort of vo…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Yegen

(531 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Gümrükčü (d. 1158/1745), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Son of a sister of the then influential statesman Defterdār Kel Yūsuf Efendi (hence the surname “Nephew”), he was born in Antalya and began public life as a Mültezim in the region of his origin. He went to Istanbul to take up a career in the secretarial service, becoming a k̲h̲ad̲j̲egān . From 1140/1728 to 1141/1729 he was Commissioner of the Customs of Istanbul ( Gümrük Emīni ). Around 1144/1732 he became Ḳapu-Ketk̲h̲udāsi̊ of the Beglerbegi of Erzurum, Topal ʿOt̲h̲mān Pas̲h̲a, as well. In 1145/1733 he acquired the post of Mewḳūfātči̊


(463 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(transliterated also sālyāne ), a technical term in Ottoman administrative usage derived from the Persian sāl (year) meaning "yearly", "yearly allowance" or "stipend". The term is applied especially to the yearly income allotted to some categories of provincial rulers and governors (16th-19th centuries). These were the members of the Girāy [ q.v.] dynasty, some governors of maritime districts and other sand̲j̲aḳ-beg̲i s and beglerbegi s whose income did not derive from k̲h̲āṣṣ [ q.v.] domains ¶ but consisted of a yearly allowance fixed at the time of their appointment.…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḳayṣariyyeli

(2,821 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ottoman Grand Vizier and admiral, born probably ca. 1570, in the village of Zeytun (now Süleymanh) in the province of Maraş on the way to Ḳayseri, near Furnuz, at that time an Armenian village with a rich population (iron mines nearby, Andreasyan, 1964). It suffered heavily from destructions done by Ḏj̲elālī rebels. As a young boy, K̲h̲alīl was recruited by the Devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], (Uzunçarşih, Kapikulu , i, 27, n. 4) and received the full education of the palace-school as an ič og̲h̲lān . His career may have been promoted by the fact that he had an elde…

Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, al-Faransawī (Sèves or Sève Pas̲h̲a, 1788-1860), one of the French officers serving in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s Pas̲h̲a’s [ q.v.] army. Joseph Anthelme Sève was the son of a Lyons draper. When fifteen years old, he enlisted as a gunner in the French army, and later served in the Hussars. He fought in Napoleon’s Prussian campaign (1806-7) and was promoted to the rank of adjutant, and during the “Hundred Days” (1814), he served on the staff of Marshal Grouchy. Dismissed by the royal government, he went to Egypt in 1815, and was eventually attached to the staff of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Sève became an…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Balṭad̲j̲i̊

(1,644 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ṭeberdār (1071-1124/1660-1 to 1712), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed III [ q.v.]. Born in Osmancık (Merzifon), as the son of Turkish Muslim parents, he was able to enter the outside service of the Sultan’s palace thanks to patronage ( intisāb ). He began his career in a secretarial function. By favour and through the patronage of Ḥabes̲h̲ī ʿAlī Ag̲h̲a and other bīrūn ag̲h̲a s, he entered the service of the Wālide Sulṭān Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲e Tark̲h̲ān, attaining the rank of k̲h̲alīfe in 1099/1687. The prince Aḥmed (the later Aḥmed III) appointed Meḥmed…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Arnawud

(886 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Groot, A.H. de
, Grand Vizier under the Ottoman Sulṭān Aḥmad III. He was an Albanian from Elbaṣān born ca. 1655. At the time his elder brother Sinān Āg̲h̲ā was Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ [ q.v.], he entered the Bostand̲j̲i̊ corps. After the latter’s death ca. 1105/1649, he became attached to Ḳalayli̊ḳoz Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a and served under him in Bag̲h̲dād, where his protector was beglerbegi . On his return to Istanbul, K̲h̲alīl became K̲h̲āṣṣaki [ q.v.] and in 1123/1711, Bostand̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊. On 16 Muḥarram 1128/11 January 1716, having been appointed beglerbegi of Erzurum, he was sent by the Grand Vizi…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Ḳaramānī

(1,300 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ , (d. 886/1481), Ottoman Grand Vizier and historian. A descendant of Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.], he grew up in Ḳonya where he received his education as an ʿālim from Muṣannifak al-Ṣiddīḳī who introduced him into the patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a served as a clerk in the dīwān of that Grand Vizier and later became müderris in the medrese founded by the same at Istanbul, being at the same time a general adviser to his patron. Thanks to the latter, he became nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.] in 869/1464, which high office he kept for about 12 years. From 4 Ḏ…

Siyāwus̲h̲ Pas̲h̲a

(889 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, J. | Groot, A.H. de
, the name of two Ottoman Grand Viziers. 1. Kaniz̲h̲eli (i.e. from Kaniz̲h̲e, modern Nagykanizsa in Hungary), of Hungarian or Croatian descent, b. at an unknown date, d. 1010/1602. He was educated in the Istanbul palace and steadily followed a career through the posts of mīrāk̲h̲ur , siliḥdār , Janissary ag̲h̲a and beglerbegi of Rumelia. Having attained the rank of vizier in 988/1580, he was married to Fāṭima Sulṭān, a sister of sultan Murād III [ q.v.], by whom he had two sons and a daughter. Three times he attained the highest state office as Grand Vizier, which he oc…

Murād Pas̲h̲a, Ḳuyud̲j̲u

(1,399 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Ḳod̲j̲a , ( ca. 928-1020/ ca. 1520-1611), Ottoman Grand Vizier under Sultan Aḥmed I. A dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] boy of Croat origin, he received his education in the imperial palace. His career began under patronage of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, the beglerbegi of Yemen and Egypt. Between 1560 and 1565 he was the latter’s ketk̲h̲udā . In Egypt, Murād also held the office of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ . which opened the way to public high office. In 983/1576 Murād (Pasha) became beglerbegi of Yemen himself for about four years. Dismissed in 988/1580 because of corruption, he was summoned to the c…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Muḥsin-Zāde

(630 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
(1116?-1188/1704?-74), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Son of the Grand Vizier Muḥsin-zāde ʿAbd Allāh Pas̲h̲a (held office in 1150/1737) and born in Istanbul, he entered the Palace service as a Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ . In 1150/1737 he became Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊lar Ketk̲h̲udāsi̊ and in 1151/1738 vizier and Beglerbegi of Marʿas̲h̲. After 10 years of provincial governmental posts he was in 1160/1747 appointed to the reorganised province of Adana with special orders to hunt down the rebellious elements in Anatolia. From 1162/1749 onwards …

Nūr Bānū

(901 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
Wālide Suḷtān ( ca. 932-91/ca. 1525-83), K̲h̲aṣṣekī (principal consort) of the Ottoman sultan Selīm II [ q.v.] and mother of the sultan Murād III [ q.v.]. She was born on Paros [see para ] as Cecilia, illegitimate daughter of Nicolo Venier (d. 1520), the penultimate sovereign ruler of the island and of Violante Baffo. The identity of this “Venetian Sultana” is often confused with that of her successor, the Wālide Sulṭān Ṣāfiye [ q.v.]. Some Turkish historians persist in ascribing a Jewish origin to her. At the time of the conquest of the island in 1537, she was selec…
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