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Bülow, Karl von

(467 words)

Author(s): Kleine Vennekate, Erik
Bülow, Karl von (March 24, 1846, Berlin – August 31, 1921, Berlin), German field marshal. The son of a Prussian lieutenant colonel, he fought in the wars of 1866 and 1870–1871. A captain with the General Staff in 1877, he was given command of the 4th Foot Guards Regiment in 1894. In 1897 he was promoted to major general and appointed director of the Central Department at the Prussian War Ministry. In 1902 he became deputy chief of the General Staff. In 1903 he commanded IIIrd Army Corps, and while …

Eichhorn, Hermann von

(315 words)

Author(s): Kleine Vennekate, Erik
Eichhorn, Hermann von (February 13, 1848, Breslau [current Wrocław] – July 30, 1918, Kiev), German field marshal. Eichhorn attended military academy after participating in the wars of 1866 and 1870/1871, and joined the general staff in 1883. In 1904 he became commanding general of the XVIIIth Army Corps in Frankfurt am Main, and in 1912 moved to Saarbrücken as inspector-general of the Seventh Army inspectorate; here in 1913 he was promoted to colonel general ( Generaloberst). Eichhorn was to take over command of the Fifth Army in Metz in the event of mobilization, but, when the time came, he was prevented from doing so by a riding accident. After his recovery, in January 1915 he took part in the winter battle in Masuria (Polish Mazury), as commander of the newly formed …

Below, Otto von

(480 words)

Author(s): Kleine Vennekate, Erik
Below, Otto von (January 18, 1857, Danzig, modern Gdańsk – March 9, 1944, Besenhausen near Göttingen), German general. After attending secondary school, Below joined the Prussian army as a cadet in 1871. From 1884 to 1887 he attended the Prussian Military Academy and was subsequently appointed to the General Staff. He was given command of a battalion in 1897, a regiment in 1905, and a brigade in 1909. In 1912 he was promoted to lieutenant-general, with command of the 2nd Division at Insterburg (Chernyakhovsk) in East Prussia.…