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Natural Law

(3,710 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG)
Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG) [German version] A. General (CT) Natural law (NL) ( ius naturae, ius naturale) is the measure, corrective, reason for the validity and permanent critique of positive law. It juxtaposes benchmarks derived from nature and the divine order for all creatures or rational beings with the universal behavioural rules imposed by rulers or the state. It constitutes the discrepancy between the actual state of the law or the constitution on the one hand and the ideal established by God o…


(1,100 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG)
Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG) [German version] Crown (CT) The crown (Latin corona, Greek stémma) is first and foremost a wreath made of various materials (leaves, twigs, fruits, grass, and later metal)and worn on the head, in order to single out its bearer from among the common people. In Antiquity objects such as sacrificial gifts and ships were also provided with a crown. Decisive for and common to the multiform crown is the magic-religious symbolism of the circle, which served in Biblical times as a…

Feudal Law

(1,486 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG)
Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg RWG) [German version] A. Terms (CT) Feudal law ( ius feodale) (FL) describes legal norms relating to the medieval feudal system in general and, more specifically, the feudal relationship between lord and vassal. The German word Lehen ('fief') is derived from Old High German lehan ('loan', 'lend') and describes the transfer of economically useful land (property, law, office, etc.,) against the performance of services. From the late 9th cent., the Middle Latin term feodum/feudum was also used. In Latin texts lehan, lehen, len is routinely called benefici…


(849 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg) RWG
Lück, Heiner (Halle-Wittenberg) RWG [English version] A. Einleitung (RWG) K. (lat. corona, griech. stémma) ist zunächst ein Kranz aus verschiedenen Materialien (Blätter, Zweige, Früchte, Gras, später Metall), welcher auf dem Kopf getragen wird, um den Träger/die Trägerin aus der Gemeinschaft herauszuheben. Auch Sachen (Opfergaben, Schiffe) wurden in der Ant. mit einer K. versehen. Entscheidendes und Gemeinsames der mannigfachen K. ist die magisch-rel. Symbolik des Kreises, dessen Nachbildung in biblischer Ze…