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Iṣfahān

(11,844 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Sourdel-Thomine, J. | J. Sourdel-Thomine
(in Arabic Iṣbahān), a town and province in Persia, whose name, according to Hamza al-Iṣfahānī, means “the armies” (Māfarruk̲h̲ī, Kitāb Maḥāsin Iṣfahān , ed. Sayyid D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Tihrāni, Tehran n.d., 5-6). 1. history The province, whose precise boundaries have varied at different times, is bounded on the north-east and east by the central desert. In the south-east by Yazd and Fārs, in the south and south-west by the Bak̲h̲tiyārī mountains, with peaks rising to over 11,000 ft., in the north-west by Luristān, Kazzāz, Kamara, a…

Dihḳan

(700 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, arabicized form of dehkān , the head of a village and a member of the lesser feudal nobility of Sāsānian Persia. The power of the dihḳāns derived from their hereditary title to the local administration. They were an immensely important class, although the actual area of land they cultivated as the hereditary possession of their family was often small. They were the representatives of the government vis-à-vis the peasants and their principal function was to collect taxes; and, in the opinion of Chr…

al-Dawānī

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, Muḥammad b. Asʿad D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn , was born in 830/1427 at Dawān in the district of Kāzarūn, where his father was Ḳāḍī; he claimed descent from the Caliph Abū Bakr whence his nisba al-Ṣiddīḳī. He studied with his father and then went to S̲h̲īrāz where he was a pupil of Mawlānā Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Gūs̲h̲a Kinārī and Mawlānā Humām al-Dīn Gulbārī and Ṣafī al-Dīn Īd̲j̲ī. He held the office of Ṣadr under Yūsuf b. D̲j̲ahāns̲h̲āh, the Ḳarā Ḳoyūnlū, and after resigning this office became Mudarris of the Begum Madrasa, also known as the Dār al-Aytām . Under the Āḳ Ḳoyūnlū he beca…

Īlāt

(17,009 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
The term īlāt (pl. of īl ), first used in Persian in Ilk̲h̲ānid times, denotes nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes. ʿAs̲h̲āʾir , ḳabāʾil and tawāʾif ¶ are also used in this sense, and for tribes generally, whether strictly speaking nomadic or not. The combination īlāt wa ʿas̲h̲āʾir is a phrase frequently encountered in both medieval and modern times, and suggests that the two terms are broadly synonymous. In medieval times īlāt also occurs in conjunction with ulūs , i.e. tribal followers, and oymaḳ . From early times the population of many parts of Persia has derived its living fro…

Imtiyāzāt

(19,300 words)

Author(s): Wansbrough, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Lambton, A.K.S. | Baer, G.
, commercial privileges, capitulations. i. The earliest documentary evidence for commercial privileges emanating from Muslim chanceries in the Mediterranean world dates from the 6th/12th century. While it is unlikely that these documents represent the earliest manifestation of that diplomatic and commercial activity between rulers of Islam and Christendom which culminated in the Ottoman Capitulations, it is probably useless to speculate upon either the form or the language of chancery instruments bef…

S̲h̲iḥna

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(a.), an administrative-military term in the mediaeval eastern Islamic world. From the end of the 3rd/9th century, the term, which in a general sense meant a body of armed men, sufficing for the guarding and control of a town or district on the part of the sultan, is occasionally found in the specific sense of the s̲h̲urṭa [ q.v.] (Tyan, L’organisation judicaire en pays d’Islam , Paris 1938-43, ii, 366, n. 5). As the designation for a military governor of a town or province, the term s̲h̲iḥna belongs primarily to the period of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs, though Ab…

Māʾ

(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…

Muḥammad S̲h̲āh

(4,825 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the third ruler of the Ḳād̲j̲ār dynasty [ q.v.], was born on 5 January 1808. He succeeded to the throne in 1834 on the death of his grandfather Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. He was the eldest ¶ son of ʿAbbās Mīrzā [ q.v.]. His mother was the daughter of Muḥammad K̲h̲ān Beglarbegi Ḳād̲j̲ār Develu. He had two full brothers, Ḳahramān Mīrzā and Bahman Mīrzā and twenty-three half-brothers. He died on 6 S̲h̲awwāl 1264/4 September 1848 and was buried at Ḳum. His chief wife, the mother of Nāṣir al-Dīn S̲h̲āh [ q.v.], was Malik D̲j̲ahān K̲h̲ānum, whose father was Muḥammad Ḳāsim K̲h̲ān Ẓahīr al-Da…

Fatḥ-ʿAlī S̲h̲āh

(931 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, the second ruler of the Ḳād̲j̲ār [ q.v.] dynasty, was born in 1185/1771 and bore the name Bābā K̲h̲ān. He was made governor of Fārs, Kirmān, and Yazd by his uncle, Āḳā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān, and heir apparent in 1211/1796-7. He succeeded to the throne in 1212/1797. He died in 1250/18 34 and was buried at Ḳumm. Much of his reign of 38 years and 5 months was spent in military expeditions against internal rebels and external foes. On the assassination of Aḳā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān in 1212/1797 Bābā K̲h̲ān hastened fr…

Iran

(85,490 words)

Author(s): McLachlan, K.S. | Coon, C.S. | Mokri, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Savory, R.M. | Et al.
i.—Geography The geological background: The alignments of Iran’s principal topographie features, represented by the Kūhhā-yi Alburz and the Zagros Chain, are west to east and north-west to south-east, respectively. In broad context, the Alburz is a continuation of the European Alpine structures, while the Zagros chain has been linked through Cyprus with the Dinaric Alps (Fisher, 1956). The structure of the mountain rim of the country has been influenced strongly by tectonic movements which have n…

Ḳazwīn

(6,427 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Hillenbrand, R.
, a town and district north-west of Tehran and south of Gīlān. The town is situated in 36° 15 N. and 50° E., at a height of 4,165 ft. above sea level, about 90 miles from Tehran, on the edge of a wide alluvial plain with mountains about five miles to the north. It stands on the site of an ancient city built by S̲h̲āpūr II, which according to tradition was in turn on the site of a city built by S̲h̲āpūr b. Ardas̲h̲īr (Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Taʾrīk̲h̲-i guzīda , ed. E. G. Browne and R. A. Nicholson, 1910-13, 830, French tr. Barbier de Meynard, Description historique de la ville de Kazvin , in JA (1857)). Its po…

Marʿā

(9,855 words)

Author(s): Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Güriz, Adnan
(a.), pasture. 1. In nomadic Arab life. The word marʿā is used only twice in the Ḳurʾān, where it has the purpose of praising the divine power (LXXIX, 31, and LXXXVII,4). In ḥadīt̲h̲ there are also two uses of this substantive to be noted (cf. Wensinck, Concordance ); one of them touches incidentally on the problem of the exploitation of pastures, but ḥadīt̲h̲ is more explicit with reference to kalaʾ , dry and green forage. In fact, a tradition asserts that “the Muslims are united ( s̲h̲urakāʾ ) in three things: water, forage and fire”; it is the principle of…

Marāsim

(20,279 words)

Author(s): Sanders, P. | Chalmeta, P. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Groot, A.H. de | Burton-Page, J.
(a), official court ceremonies, both processional and non-processional. The whole range of ceremonial, including protocol and etiquette, is called also rusūm other terms found frequently are mawsim [ q.v.] and mawkib . Mawākib [ q.v.] refer specifically to solemn processions, but seem also to have had the more general meaning of audiences (for the ʿAbbāsids, see references in D. Sourdel, Le vizirat ʿabbāside de 749 à 946, Damascus 1960, ii, 684, n. 3; for the Fāṭimids, see e.g. al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 494: d̲j̲ulūs [ al-k̲h̲alīfa ] fi ’l-mawākib; ayyām al-mawākib ). 1. Under the …

al-Marʾa

(28,871 words)

Author(s): Tomiche, N. | Chelhod, J. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Afshar, Haleh | Ansari, Ghaus
(a) Woman. 1. In the Arab world. For a long time, the problem of woman has been avoided or dealt with only partially or in a biased way, but now a general twinge of conscience has brought it to the focus of our attention. Not just one but many different problems confront the Arab woman and affect how she is seen by society. There is the legal aspect, defining the precise relationship between divine and human law; there is the collection of “distorted pictures” (the expression used by Etiemble ¶ with which literature in particular presents the “myth” of woman; and there is feminine b…

Kirmāns̲h̲āh

(4,294 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
, a town and province in western Persia. The province is situated between lat. 34° N. and 35° N. long. 44° 5′ to 48° 0′ E. It lies to the east and north of ʿIrāḳ and Lurīstān-i Kūčik (or Pus̲h̲t-i Kūh) and to the south and west of Kurdistān and Asadābād. In the early 20th century the province was divided into nineteen bulūks . These were Bālādih, Wastām, Miyān Darband or Bīlawar, Pus̲h̲t-i Darband or Bālā Darband, Dīnawar, Kuliyāʾī Saḥna, Kanguwār, Asadābād, Harsīn, Čamčamāl, Durū Faramān, Māhīdas̲h̲t, Hārūnābād, Gūrān, ¶ Kirind, Zuhāb, Aywān and Hulaylān (Gove…

Filāḥa

(13,214 words)

Author(s): Shihabi, Mustafa al- | Colin, G.S. | Lambton, A.K.S. | İnalcık, Halil | Habib, Irfan
, agriculture. Falḥ , the act of cleaving and cutting, when applied to the soil has the meaning of “to break up in order to cultivate”, or “to plough”. Fallāḥ “ploughman”, filāḥa “ploughing”. But from pre-Islamic times the word filāḥa has assumed a wider meaning to denote the occupation of husbandry, agriculture. In this sense it is synonymous with zirāʿa , to which the ancients preferred filāḥa (all the earlier writers called their works on agriculture Kitāb al-Filāḥa ). At the present time this latter word is very widely used in North Africa, both …

Ḳawmiyya

(15,445 words)

Author(s): Vatikiotis, P.J. | Brett, M. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Dodd, C.H. | Wheeler, G.E. | Et al.
(a.), nationalism. 1. In the Arab world east of the Mag̲h̲rib. The term derives from ḳawm , a term of tribal provenance used to denote a group of people having or claiming a common ancestor, or a tribe descended from a single ancestor. One’s ḳawm is simply one’s people, either genealogically determined or mythologically and folklorishly depicted. In this century, ḳawmiyya refers to the movement of nationalism among the Arabs of the Ottoman dominions in the Fertile Crescent that were conquered by the Allies in the Great War. The use …

K̲h̲alīfa

(19,029 words)

Author(s): Sourdel, D. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Jong, F. de | Holt, P.M.
(i) The history of the institution of the caliphate A study of the caliphate, its institution and subsequent developments, has never been attempted in its entirety until the present. The principal reason is that it has not seemed possible to conduct such a survey independently of historical studies relating to different reigns, which are still in most cases insufficient, or even non-existent, whereas studies of doctrine, while more advanced, have not been developed to the same extent with regard to the v…

K̲h̲āliṣa

(8,539 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S.
(pl. k̲h̲āliṣad̲j̲āt ) as a term signifying crown lands comes into general use in Persian sources in the middle ages. It is also applied to lesser rivers, ḳanāts [ q.v.] and wells belonging to the crown. In early Islamic times the term ṣawāfī [ q.v.] is used to denote crown lands in general, while the terms ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲āṣṣa , ḍiyāʿ al-sulṭān and ḍiyāʿ al-k̲h̲ulafāʾ are applied to the private estates of the caliph. Under the early semi-independent dynasties which arose in Persia on the fragmentation of the caliphate, the terms k̲h̲āṣṣ and k̲h̲āṣṣa are used of the …

Maḥkama

(51,808 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | İnalcık, Halil | Findley, C.V. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Layish, A. | Et al.
(a.), court. The subject-matter of this article is the administration of justice, and the organisation of its administration, in the Muslim countries, the office of the judge being dealt with in the art. ḳāḍī . The following topics are covered: 1. General The judicial functions of the Prophet, which had been expressly attributed to him in the Ḳurʾān (IV, 65, 105; V, 42, 48-9; XXIV, 48, 51), were taken over after his death by the first caliphs, who administered the law in person in Medina. Already under ʿUmar, the expansion of the Islami…
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