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Sandon

(302 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[English version] (Σάνδων, auch Σάνδας, Σάνδης, lat. Sandan) war wohl urspr. ein luwischer Wetter- und Vegetationsgott mit kriegerischen, weniger mit solaren Zügen. Im Ritual des Zarpiya von Kizzuwatna im sö. Kleinasien (KUB IX 31 II 22 f.; [7. 141; 8. 340]) erscheint er als d ša-an-ta-aš LUGAL-uš, “König Šantaš”. Er wird mit dem ideographisch d AMAR.UD geschriebenen Marduk identifiziert. Eine bildliche Darstellung enthält das Felsrelief von Ivriz am Nordabhang des Tauros (7./6. Jh. v. Chr. [6. 331; 1. 21], das S. mit Trauben und einem Ährenbüsch…

Salambo

(181 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[English version] (Σαλαμβώ). S. ist eine der um den sterbenden Vegetationsgott Adonis trauernden Göttinnen, eine Variante der syro-phöniz. Astarte. Hesychios s. v. Σαλαμβώ nennt sie ‘die Aphrodite bei (den) Babyloniern’; zu ihrer Rolle bei dem Hochsommerfest der Adonien vgl. Etym. m. s. v. Σ.), ferner SHA Heliog. 7,3, Acta Sanctorum Bollandia zum 19. Juli (p. 585 Florez) und Breviarium Eborense [1. 332 f.]. Eine phöniz. Erwähnung der S. steckt hinter der Wendung mqdš bt ṣdmbl (“das Heiligste des Tempels der S.”), auf einer Inschr. aus Gaulos (heute Gozo bei Malta, K…

Phönizier, Punier

(7,502 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[English version] I. Namen und Begriff, Quellen Name und Begriff der Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phönizier (=Ph.) sind in der griech. Welt geprägt worden [1]. Die damit Bezeichneten verstanden sich selbst in erster Linie als Bürger/Angehörige eines städtischen Verbandes, z.B. als Tyrier, Sidonier oder - nach der gemeinsamen Kulturlandschaft - als Kanaanäer [2]. Sie bezogen sich damit auf eine aus der altvorderasiatischen Brz. tradierte polit. oder ethnische Identität. Die unterschiedlichen Bezeichnungen können nu…

Salambo

(192 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Σαλαμβώ; Salambṓ). S. is one of the goddesses who mourn the dying vegetation god Adonis, a version of the Syro-Phoenician Astarte. Hesychius s. v. Σαλαμβώ calls her 'the Aphrodite of (the) Babylonians'; for her role in the midsummer festival of the Adonia, cf. EM s.v. Σαλαμβώ), also SHA Heliogab. 7,3, Acta Sanctorum Bollandia for 19 July (p. 585 Florez) and Breviarium Eborense [1. 332 f.]. A Phoenician reference to S. is behind the phrase mqdš bt ṣdmbl ('the holiest of the temples of S.'), on an inscription from Gaulus (modern Gozo in Malta, KAI 62,2),…

Tinnit

(634 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] The Phoenician goddess T., worshipped since the 5th/4th cent. BC primarily in Carthage, originates in the Phoenician motherland; mentions on 9th-6th cent. stelai found at Tyrus [7. 113; 8. 54] and in a 7th cent. BC inscription in Sarepta (cf. [3]), the phrase tnt blbnn, 'T. in/from Lebanon' (KAI 81,1), documented (names of) persons, modern Lebanese place names and diverse small finds provide indications for excluding converse north-African (Numidian) derivation. The pronunciation T., instead of the previously usual tanit, is confirmed by the spellings tynt (K…

Tinnit

(573 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[English version] Die seit dem 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. v. a. in Karthago verehrte phöniz. Göttin T. entstammt dem phöniz. Mutterland; Erwähnungen auf Stelenfunden des 9.-6. Jh. bei Tyros [7. 113; 8. 54], auf einer Inschr. des 7. Jh. v. Chr. in Sarepta (vgl. [3]), die Wendung tnt blbnn, “T. im/vom Libanon” (KAI 81,1), Personen(namen)befunde, rezente libanesische Ortsnamen und diverse Kleinfunde liefern dafür Hinweise, die umgekehrt eine nordafrikanische (numidische) Ableitung ausschließen. Die Aussprache “T.” statt des früher üblichen tanit ist durch die Schreibungen tynt (K…

Sandon

(334 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Σάνδων/ Sándōn, also Σάνδας/ Sándas, Σάνδης/ Sándēs, Lat. Sandan) was probably originally a Luwian god of weather and vegetation with characteristics of a war god and, to a lesser extent, of a sun god. In the Zarpiya ritual of Kizzuwatna in southeastern Asia Minor (KUB IX 31 II 22 f.; [7. 141; 8. 340]) he appears as d ša-an-ta-aš- LUGAL-uš, 'king Šantaš'. He is identified with Marduk, written ideographically as d AMAR.UD. A rock relief at Ivriz on the northern slopes of the Taurus (7th/6th cent. BC [6. 331; 1. 21] contains a pictorial representat…

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to cas…

Monotheism and Polytheism

(5,621 words)

Author(s): Ahn, Gregor | Müller, Hans-Peter | Hübner, Hans | Gunton, Colin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament. – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies Monotheistic ideas of God, which take as their starting point the existence and activity of a single God, have long dominated the understanding of religion in historically Christian Europe. The term monotheism itself is a modern coinage, first appearing in 1660 in the work of the English philosopher Henry More. As a contrast ¶ to the term polytheism, which goes back originally to Philo of Alexandria and was rediscovered for the…

Myth and Mythology

(12,158 words)

Author(s): Segal, Robert Alan | Kamel, Susan | Müller, Hans-Peter | Graf, Fritz | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Fundamental Theology. – V. Missiology I. Religious Studies 1. The Concept and Its History Myth may be defined by either content or function. Defined by content, myth is a belief about something significant, such as the world or society. Defined by function, myth accomplishes something significant, such as explaining the world or supporting society. Most theories of myth are concerned with the function of myth, but many are also concerned with either the origin or the subject matter of myth. Myt…

Bible

(23,143 words)

Author(s): Schnelle, Udo | Fischer, Georg | Becker, Hans-Jürgen | Fischer Georg | Müller, Hans-Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology – VII. Judaism – VIII. Cultural History I.  Concept “Bible” is the predominant designation in church, theology, and society for the collection of OT and NT scriptures recognized by the church. The word “Bible” and its close equivalents in other European languages derive from the middle Latin “biblia.” This Latin feminine derives from the Greek neuter plural τὰ βιβλία/ tá biblía. Grammatically, the sg. βιβλίον/ biblíon is a diminu¶ tive form of ἡ βίβλος/ hē b…

Semitic Languages

(2,070 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter | Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] I. General Survey 1. Origin and classification. Like the Indo-European and Hamitic languages, the Semitic languages are inflectional; in contrast to isolating and agglutinative languages, they can change the form of a root, for example Arabic singular rūḥ, “spirit, breath,” plural ʾ arwāḥ. The relationship between the Semitic and Hamitic languages is clearly the product of prehistoric migrations of groups speaking proto-Afro-Asiatic (formerly called Hamito-Semitic) from North Africa – from a Sahara still “green” from the …

Vivekānanda

(297 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Swāmī (born Narendranāth Datta; Jan 12, 1863, Calcutta – Jul 4, 1902, Belur, Karnataka). As a member of the upcoming middle class, the multi-talented youth attended English colleges. Plunged into an existential crisis by the death of his father, he turned increasingly to the sainted Rāmakrishna and became his disciple. In 1887 he performed the ritual of renouncing the world and dedicated himself to the study of the religious literature of India. From 1890 to 1893 he traveled throu…

Roy, Raja Rammohun

(412 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (May 22, Radhanagar, Bengal – Sep 27, 1833, Bristol, England). During the era of British colonial rule in India, Roy was an advocate of religious and social reforms in Hinduism. Drawing on Vedānta and the Upaniṣads while appealing to reason and common sense, Roy argued for aniconic worship of the one God and a philanthropic ethics, which he defended against both Western and Hindu traditionalist critics as original, authentic features of Hinduism. At the same time, he called for o…

Olcott, Henry Steel

(294 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1832, Orange, NJ – Feb 17, 1907, Adyar near Madras). Olcott grew up in a Presbyterian family. As a young man he turned to spiritualist circles (Spiritualism). Following a career as a journalist (from 1853), he was an agricultural expert, an officer of the Union in the American Civil War (1861–1865), and an attorney (from 1868). In 1875, he, together with H.P. Blavatsky, founded in New York the ¶ Theosophical Society (Theosophy) for scientific research into paranormal experiences. Two additional aims appeared later: to spread in the West the “…

Tilak, Nārāyan Vāman

(244 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (1862, Karazgāon, Ratnāgiri district – May 9, 1919, Bombay [Mumbai]). Tilak’s father, a Chitpavan-Brahmin, was a registrar. Tilak studied Sanskrit with a Vedic scholar and attended an English highschool for two years. His literary gifts were apparent early on. In 1880 he married Manubai (later Kakshmibai), an 11-year-old from the Brahmin family of the Gokhales. He spent the next ten years traveling through India, visiting holy men and working as a reciter and teacher. In 1893 he b…

Upadhyaya, Brahmabandhab

(325 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (real name Bhavani Charan Banerjee; Feb 11, 1861, Khanyan, Bengal – Oct 27, 1907, Calcutta [Kolkata]). Upadhyaya’s father, a Brahmin, was a police inspector in British service. Upadhyaya attended English schools and colleges as well as a traditional Sanskrit school. He became familiar with Christianity through his uncle, the Protestant pastor Kalicharan Banerjee (1847–1907) and the Brāhmo Samāj, which he joined in 1887. He worked as a teacher and journalist, publishing his own per…

Gandhi, Mahātmā

(493 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (honorific title meaning “great self,” actual name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; Oct 2, 1869, Porbandar, India – Jan 30, 1948, New Delhi). Gandhi's parents were Vaiṇava Hindus and belonged to the merchant caste of the Banias in Rajkot and Porbandar, where Gandhi's father was a government minister. Gandhi studied law in London from 1888 to 1891. While living in South Africa (1893–1914), he gradually assumed the role of civil rights attorney for the Indian minority and organized thei…

Westermann, Claus

(453 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1909, Berlin – Jun 11, 2000, Heidelberg), Old Testament scholar. His father Diedrich Westermann was a specialist in African languages. After schooling and university studies, he served in the Confessing Church; after military service and imprisonment, he served as a pastor in (West) Berlin, where after 1949 he also taught as a lecturer in the theological seminary, being appointed professor in 1954. From 1958 until his retirement in 1977, he was a professor in the faculty o…

Eschatology

(22,095 words)

Author(s): Filoramo, Giovanni | Müller, Hans-Peter | Lindemann, Andreas | Sautter, Gerhard | Rosenau, Hartmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Philosophy of Religion – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam (cf. Present and Future Eschatology, Consistent Eschatology) I. Religious Studies 1. The Problem of Terminology Eschatology (“discourse” or “doctrine” [Gk λόγος/ lógos] concerning the “last things” [Gk ἔσχατα/ éschata]) is a neologism that was introduced in the late 18th century in the con- text of the definition of the “last things,” i.e. of the novissima of medieval theology (death, …
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