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Autokephalie

(689 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
A., ein Terminus technicus des orth. Kirchenrechts, bezeichnet die Selbständigkeit einer Kirche. Diese manifestiert sich in der unabhängigen Wahl und Weihe des Oberhauptes (vgl. die Bedeutung der griech. Begriffe autós = selbst; kephal椃= Haupt) und aller Bischöfe sowie der eigenständigen Regelung aller inner- und zwischenkirchlichen Angelegenheiten auf der Grundlage der die orth. Kirchen verbindenden liturgischen, dogmatischen und kanonischen Tradition. Die A. wird von der Autonomie unterschieden, die eine bedingte Selbständigkeit bedeutet, insofern bei der …
Date: 2019-11-19

Autocephaly

(775 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
The word autocephaly, a technical term in Orthodox canon law, denotes the independence of a church, manifested in the independent election and consecration of its head (compare the meaning of the Greek words autós, “self,” and kephal , “head”) and all bishops as well as the independent regulation of all internal and ecumenical affairs on the basis of the liturgical, doctrinal, and canonical tradition that links all Orthodox churches. Autocephaly is distinct from  Autonomy, which denotes a limited independence, in which a church is…
Date: 2019-10-14

Fernandez, Alonso

(188 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1573, Malpartida de Plasencia – c.1633, Plasencia, Spain), OP (1587), historian and preacher. He was honored in 1618 at the General Chapter of Lisbon with the title Preacher General. Fernandez authored works on the history of the Dominicans in Spain, of which a few remain unpublished. He was prior in Zamora, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Cáceres and finally in Plasencia. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works: Historia ecclesiastica de nuestros tiempos, 1611 Historia y anales de la devoción y milagros del Rosario, 1613 De los servicios que a los Reinos de España ha hecho la …

Excommunication

(2,394 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Ohme, Heinz | Link, Christoph | Oppenheimer, Aharon
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox – III. Protestantism – IV. Judaism I. Catholic Excommunication must be defined as a privative term from communicatio and κοινωνíα/ koinōnía (cf. 1 Cor 10:16: sharing and participating in the body and blood of Jesus ¶ Christ; cf. 2 Cor 13:13: communion in the Holy Spirit). The word excommunication does not occur in the New Testament. The competence of the church to excommunicate is traced back to Matt 16:18f.…

Androutsos, Chrestos

(86 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1869, Kios – 1935, Athens), professor of theology and ethics at Chalki (1895–1911) and Athens (1911–1935). Androutsos was a preeminent figure in 20th-century Greek theology. His Dogmatics has been considered the first complete and authentic systematic exposition of Orthodox doctrine. To “neopatristic” theologians, Androutsos embodies a scholastic theology infiltrated by Western rationalism, unrooted in the life of Orthodoxy. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works (Greek and Romanian): Συμβολική ἐξ ἐπόφεως ὀρθοδόξου, 21930 Δογματικὴ …

Synod

(3,747 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. History As it developed in the Early Church and the Middle Ages, the term synod (from Gk σύνοδος/ sýnodos, “assembly, being together on the way”) cannot be separated from the term council. Only in 19th- and 20th-century Protestantism is a separate treatment warranted; in that context – with roots going back to the 16th century – the synod represents a new constitutional phenomenon (Church polity: IV, 2; V, 1.c). Its antecedents include medieval diocesan synods (as extensions of the provincial syn…

Stavropigial Monasteries

(263 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 for the first time set out to “integrate” monasticism, placing it under the authority of the local bishop; the erection of monasteries was made subject to episcopal approval (c. 4). The external sign of a monastic foundation was the erection of a cross, the so-called stavropigia (from Gk σταυρὸν πηγνύναι/ staurón pēgnýnai), mentioned in the civil ecclesiastical laws of Emperor Justinian I ( Cod. Iust. I 3.26; Novella 5.1; 67.1; 131.7), which adopted this canonical legislation ( Cod. Iust. I 3.39; Novella 133.4). The bishop h…

Blastares, Matthew

(104 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (died after 1346). A monastic priest and canonist, c. 1335 Blastares compiled a handbook of Byzantine ecclesiastical law ( Syntagma kata stoicheion), in which kanones and nomoi were arranged in alphabetic association with juristic lemmas. It comprises 24 chapters, each with subdivisions. It came into widespread use in Slavic as well as Byzantine areas. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Sources: G.A. Ralles & M. Potles, eds., Σύνταγμα τῶν θείων καὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων, vol. VI, 1859 PG 144, 959–1399 On Blastares: A. Soloviev, “L'œuvre juridique de M. Blastares,” SBNE 5, 1939, …

Jeremiah II of Constantinople

(160 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1536, Anchialos – Sep, 1595, Constantinople), patriarch of Constantinople (1572–1579, 1580–1584, 1587–1595), contributed to the consolidation of Orthodoxy with important decisions: in his correspondence with Tübingen theologians (1573–1581) concerning the Confessio Augustana Graeca (Augsburg) he had been sent, he rejected their positions in three written responses. In 1583 and 1593, he refused to adopt the calendar reforms of Gregory XIII and a new edition of the Union and effected reconciliation with the Russi…

Constantinople/Byzantium

(7,786 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Ritter, Adolf Martin | Ludwig, Claudia | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Ohme, Heinz | Et al.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Early Church – III. After 600 – IV. Councils – V. Patriarchate – VI. Literature – VII. Art – VIII. Church Music – IX. Judaism I. Archaeology Settlers from Megara settled Byzantium in the early 7th century on a previously inhabited hill on the Bosphorus, the most important water route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea; a deep bay, the “Golden Horn” offered additional protection. In 324 ce, after the victory over Licinius, Constantine chose Byzantium as a new capital and dedicated it on May 11, 330 as Nea Roma, “New Rome”; soon the name …

Canons/Canon Collections

(812 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] Into the 4th century, synods did not call their decisions “canon” or “regula.” In the Greek East, they used the term horos as the older term for ecclesiastical decisions (Ankyra, cc. 6, 19, et passim). In the Latin language sphere, designations including placita, statuta, instituta, decreta, sententiae were drawn from Roman legal language as the specific terminology applicable in such cases. The designation as canons appeared for the first time at the Synod of Antioch c. 330 (cc. 19 etc.) and quickly established itself in the East (Bas. Ep. 188, cc. 4, 10). Th…

Allatius, Leo(n)

(160 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1588, Chios – Jan 18, 1669, Rome), Catholic theologian and learned humanist of Greek origin, promoter of church union and the Counter-Reformation. In 1618, he was appointed Scriptor graecus of the Vatican Library, of which he became custodian in 1660. In 1622/23, he was responsible for incorporating the Bibliotheca Palatina into the collection. He authored some 60 works; 236 autograph volumes remain unpublished. His major work, De ecclesiae occidentalis atque orientalis perpetua consensione (1648), answers Orthodox charg…

Isidore of Kiev

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1385, Peloponnese – Apr 27, 1463, Rome). As an abbot in Constantinople and a proponent of union, he was appointed “metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia” in 1436. He led the Russian delegation to the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438/1439; Basel, Council of") and signed the union bull. As cardinal legate commissioned with the execution of the union in Russia in 1439, he was imprisoned in Moscow in 1441. After his escape, he was active for the union and finally succeeded in achie…

Antimension

(115 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] is, in the Byzantine tradition since the 13th century, an altar cloth consecrated by a bishop and with relics sown to it, necessary for the performance of the divine liturgy, on which is placed the chalice and the paten. It can also represent the altar (III) and make it possible to perform the liturgy in any suitable place. Previously, from the 7th century, it was the designation in the Christian East for the portable wooden altar (Greco-Lat.: anti-mensa, “instead of the altar table”). Heinz Ohme Bibliography I.M. Izzo, The Antimension in the Liturgical and …

Alivisatos, Hamilcar Spiridonus

(111 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 17, 1887, Lixurion – Aug 14, 1969, Athens) was professor of canon law and practical theology in Athens 1919–1956; academically, ecclessially and politically, he was one of the most important personalities in the Greek church in the 20th century. He authored almost 300 publications, co-authored the Church Constitution of 1923, organized the first Orthodox theological congress in Athens in 1936, was a pioneer in the ecumenical movement beginning in 1920, and was a member of the executive committee of the WCC from 1948 to 1968. Heinz Ohme Bibliography G.I. Konidares…

Theophanes the Greek

(136 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Feofan Grek; c. 1325–1404/1415), an important Byzantine artist who worked in Russia from 1378 until his death. Indisputably from his hand are the frescoes in the Church of the Transfiguration in Novgorod. It has recently come into question whether the Deesis series in the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Proclamation in the Kremlin in Moscow is also his work. According to a 1415 letter by the hagiographer Epifanij Premudryj of 1415 (the most comprehensively preserved personal eval…

Episcopal Titles

(878 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm | Ohme, Heinz | Müller, Ludger | Pree, Helmuth | Schima, Stefan | Et al.
[German Version] I. Auxiliary Bishop – II. Chorbishop – III. Regional Bishop – IV. Suffragan Bishop – V. Titular Bishop – VI. Vicar Bishop I. Auxiliary Bishop An auxiliary bishop is a bishop appointed at the request of a diocesan bishop to assist him in administration of the diocese. His rights, duties, and official functions are defined by canon law ( CIC cc. 403–411) and his letter of appointment. An auxiliary bishop is a member of the Bishops' Conference. Unlike a coadjutor, an auxiliary bishop does not have the right of succession. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography J. Listl, “Koadjutor-…

Nicea, Council of (787)

(435 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] This synod ended the first phase of the controversy over the veneration of images (VI). The Synod of Hiereia in 754 (Constantinople: IV, 5) had made iconoclasm the theological teaching of the Empire. The resistance of a few monks led to the destruction of icons and several martyrdoms. The iconophile empress Irene (780–802) worked to reverse the decision. Because only a new ecumenical council could have the authority to annul the decision of the synod in 754, she laid the groundwor…

Millet System

(372 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The word millet (from Arab. milla, “religion”) means “religious nationality”; it was used in the Ottoman Empire for the national religious communities allowed self-government in ethnic, cultural, and religious matters on the basis of Islamic interna-¶ tional law. It was based on the overriding identification of the peoples governed with their religion regardless of all ethnic bonds and differences, together with contact between the sultan and the communities regarding their religious leadership. Thus these religious…

Zonaras, Joannes

(181 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (mid-11th cent. – mid-12th cent.), Byzantine historian and canonist who held high offices under Emperor Alexius I (1081–1118). After the emperor’s death, he became a monk and (besides several shorter works) wrote two major works: (1) a world chronicle ( Epitome historiarum, ed. L. Dindorf, 6 vols., 1868–1875) from Creation to the year 1118 (compiled from earlier sources for the period before 1081, after that independent), distinguished for its balance, which was translated into Slavic, Latin, and Romance languages, and (…
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