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Personal names

(4,094 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | García-Ramón, José Luis (Cologne) | Streck, Michael P. (Munich) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin)
I. General [German version] A. Function The PN is an individual, generally valid sign for naming a person. The need to use a PN exists when a  social contact group is too large to name its members after their role (e.g. mother) and exists in all historically tangible languages. The PN is a universal. Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) [German version] B. Creation of names In antiquity as also today, the PN is usually given soon after birth and kept later; yet it could also be supplemented or replaced by a new name (pseudonyms!). In developed languages, the possibility …


(147 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC (Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos). Tragedian of the 4th cent. BC mentioned in Plut. Timoleon 31,1 (TrGF I 87). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Praenomen Praenomen exclusively used by the Patrician gens of the Aemilii (also used there as a cognomen, but never for freedmen); shortened to Mam.; Greek Μάμερκος/ Mámerkos. First attested for the father of Aemilius [I 25], traced back to M., son of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 8,18f.). The name also occurs in Oscan (Μαμερεκς/ Mamereks) and in Etruscan ( Mamarce, Mamerce, Mamurke, 7th-5t…


(545 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Sources and Script E. is known to us from roughly 9,000 texts from the period 700 BC to AD 10, as well as from c. 40 glosses. With the exception of a   liber linteus on the bindings on an Egyptian mummy, containing the fragment of a description of a ritual, all the texts are inscriptions: funerary, ownership, votive, gift and manufacturing inscriptions and annotations on paintings. Most come from Etruria itself, others from neighbouring regions, a small number from outside Italy. The script uses an alphabet taken from a pre-700 BC Western Greek prototype (X = ks, not k h ) and …


(496 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] In Roman and middle Italian personal names, the cognomen is the most recent part of the name and is usually placed last; it only came into general usage at the end of the Republic. In terms of its origin and character, the cognomen is an individual name which initially extends the  praenomen in its designation function and then, since the beginning of the imperial period, it increasingly replaces it. The word cognomen, in Plautus mostly still cognomentum (e.g. Persa 60), as a ‘means to recognize identity‘ is derived from cognoscere and only in a secondary development …


(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardn…


(228 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] Additional personal name. In the Roman Empire outside of Italy, the nomen gentile system (Personal names III.) was uncommon. Thus, from the 2nd century AD, names consisting of just one word reappear, first in the East, where people often had an indigenous name in addition to a Greek name, e.g. Διονύσιος ὁ καὶ Ἀμόις, AD 79 [1. 5,119]. The supernomen (only in Quirace/Κυριακή supernomen Micines/'little one', CIL V 6260) oder signum ('distinguishing mark') was added to the Roman name by means of qui/ quae et or qui vocatur or signo etc. ( P. Tadius Saturninus qui et Sterceius/'l…


(1,423 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A. History Latin is an Indo-European language: like Greek or the Germanic languages, it derived from Proto-Indo-European (PIE; 4th/3rd millennia BC), which can be accessed by means of linguistic reconstruction, via specific changes. In the 3rd millennium BC, the mostly reconstructable proto-Italic separated from the west-PIE dialect continuum (in the Danube region?). The specific traits of Latin formed at that time include the syncretism of ablative and instrumentals, the stem gro…


(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…


(225 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Roman praenomen , principally used by the patrician families Aemilii, Sergii and Valerii and by the plebeian Acilii, most often in Upper Italy (rarely nomen gentile: ILS 6230 and M. [I 2] below), acronym: a five-stroked M (, , in print M'.). Two alternatives for the name's origin have been proposed since antiquity: derivation from mane ‘in the morning’ (Varro, Ling. 6,60; Fest. 135 L.; Liber de Praenominibus 5: ‘one born in the morning’) or from manus ‘good’ i.e. from the di manes , euphemistically the ‘good gods’ (Zos. 2,3,2). Neither of the two has yet been convincingly argued. Rix, H…


(445 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] An ancient name for individuals, the praenomen takes the first position in a Roman or central Italian personal name (esp. in the masculine), before ( prae) the nomen, the gentile. It is usually written in abbreviation; the Latin sigla had been introduced by the 6th century BC (as can be seen in K = Kaeso,  = Manius, C = Gaius). After the introduction of the family name (Gentile), the number of praenomina to choose from decreased considerably, in Rome to eleven (seven more in some noble families), in Etruscan Perusia to five. In this way t…


(681 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
The praenomen Mettus is known for only two people in the early history of Rome (7th/6th cents. BC), for the Sabine Mettus Curtius [I 2], a contemporary of Romulus (Dion. Hal. Ant. 2,42,2; 46,3; Lib. de praenominibus 1), and for Mettus Fufetius, the dictator of Alba Longa at the time of Tullus Hostilius [4] (Varro in Non. 2,443 L., Verg. Aen. 8,642 etc.). The form Mettius is also transmitted for both, albeit less reliably (Enn. Ann. 126 V.; almost always in Liv., and so on). No etymology of the name suggests itself; the doubled tt indicates a shortened form of the name. Metellus , used only as a cognom…


(207 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] A non-Greek language is attested on Lemnos in the north-eastern Aegean from the period before Attic colonization (500 BC) (two texts - of 32 words - on a funerary stele, nine texts/fragments on vessels). Lemnian is similar to Etruscan in its sound system, morphology and syntax (e.g. in the dating formula: Lemnian holaie-s-i φ okias-ial-e serona-i θ ‘ during the S. office of H. Ph.’ like Etruscan lar θ -ial-e hul χ nie-s-i munsl-e ‘ during the M. office of L.H.’, with the locative to the genitive form; Lemnian and Etruscan -m ‘but’), however it is not identical to it (e.…


(168 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] The praenomen Opiter is recorded for the 6th/5th century BC patrician gens Verginia (Liv. 2,17,1; 54,3; Opet( r), Fasti Capitolini 479; 402) and reported for two Latini (Varro in Fest. p. 476; Sil. 10,33); Opi in inscriptions from Praeneste is more likely to stand for Oppius . The name was probably known to the later period only in written form from early Fasti; quantity (short o in Silius) and inflexion ( Opiteris or Opitris, Prisc. 2,229) are not certain. The ancient etymologies ( cuius pater avo vivo mortuus est aut ... quod avum ob patrem habeat, id est pro patre, Fest. p.…


(502 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[German version] The gentile ─ signifying membership to a family (  Gens ) ─ is bequeathed by the father to the children and kept by the wife after marriage. It is the defining element in the Roman and Middle Italian system of personal names ( Personal names: Rome and Italia), occupying second place after the praenomen in the formula for names. Aside from birth, other possibilities existed of attaining a gentile: a) through  adoption, wherein the adopted person receives the gentile of the adoptive father; his prior gentile added as a suffix at first ( P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, son of L. …


(508 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[English version] A. Quellen und Schrift Das E. ist aus etwa 9000 Texten aus der Zeit von 700 v.Chr. bis 10 n.Chr. sowie aus ca. 40 Glossen bekannt. Mit Ausnahme eines die Fr. einer Ritualbeschreibung enthaltenden liber linteus auf den Binden einer ägypt. Mumie sind alle Texte Inschr.: Grab-, Besitz-, Weih-, Geschenk- und Herstellerinschr. bzw. Bildbeischriften. Die meisten stammen aus Etrurien selbst, andere aus Nachbarregionen, wenige von außerhalb Italiens. Die Schrift ist ein vor 700 v.Chr. aus einem westgriech. Muster (X = ks, nicht kh ) übernommenes Alphabet, seinerseits d…


(3,748 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | García-Ramón, José Luis (Köln) | Streck, Michael P. (München) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin)
I. Allgemeines [English version] A. Funktion Der P. ist ein individuelles, allgemeingültiges Zeichen zur Benennung einer Person. Der Bedarf, einen P. zu verwenden, besteht, wenn die Gruppe eines sozialen Kontaktes zu groß ist, als daß ihre Mitglieder noch nach ihrer Rolle (z.B. “Mutter”) benannt werden können, und das ist in allen histor. faßbaren Sprachen der Fall. Der P. ist dort ein Universale. Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) [English version] B. Namenschöpfung Der P. wird, in der Ant. wie h., gewöhnlich bald nach der Geburt gegeben und später beibehalten. Er kann aber…


(150 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[English version] Das Praenomen Opiter ist für die patrizische gens Verginia des 6./5. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt (Liv. 2,17,1; 54,3; Opet( r), Fast. Capitolini 479; 402) und für zwei Latiner berichtet (Varro bei Fest. p. 476; Sil. 10,33); Opi auf Inschr. aus Praeneste ist eher Oppius . Der Name war der späteren Zeit wohl nur in schriftlicher Form aus frühen Fasti bekannt; Quantität (kurzes o bei Silius) und Flexion ( Opiteris oder Opitris, Prisc. 2,229) sind ohne Gewähr. Die ant. Etym. ( cuius pater avo vivo mortuus est aut ... quod avum ob patrem habeat, id est pro patre, Fest. p. 201) sind prob…


(423 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[English version] Das C. ist im röm.-mittelital. PN das jüngste und meist an letzter Stelle aufgeführte Namenglied; allgemein üblich ist es erst am Ende der Republik geworden. Nach Ursprung und Wesen ist das C. ein Individualname, der das Praenomen in seiner Bezeichnungsfunktion zunächst ergänzt und seit Beginn der Kaiserzeit immer mehr ersetzt. Das Wort cognomen, bei Plautus noch meist cognomentum (z.B. Persa 60), ist als “Mittel, die Identität zu erkennen” von cognoscere abgeleitet und erst sekundär als “Bei-Name” auf nomen bezogen worden. Beim Adel im republikanischen R…


(1,251 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[English version] A. Geschichte L. ist eine indogermanische Sprache, d.h. es ist wie Griech. oder die german. Sprachen durch spezifische Veränderungen aus dem durch Rekonstruktion zugänglichen Uridg. (4./3. Jt.v.Chr.) hervorgegangen. Im 3. Jt.v.Chr. hat sich aus einem westuridg. Dialektkontinuum (im Donauraum?) das weitgehend rekonstruierbare Urital. ausgegliedert. An spezifischen Zügen des L. entstanden damals etwa der Synkretismus von Abl. und Instr., die Stammklassen und Kategorien des Präs.-Stam…


(189 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg)
[English version] Auf Lemnos in der nordöstl. Ägäis ist aus der Zeit vor der att. Kolonisation (500 v.Chr.) eine nichtgriech. Sprache bezeugt (zwei Texte - aus 32 Wörtern - auf einer Grabstele, neun Texte/Frg. auf Gefäßen). Das L. ist dem Etruskischen in Lautsystem, Morphologie und Syntax ähnlich (z.B. in der Datierungsformel: lemn. holaie-s-i φ okias-ial-e serona-i θ “im S.-Amt des H. Ph.” wie etr. lar θ -ial-e hul χ nie-s-i munsl-e “im M.-Amt des L.H.”, mit Lok. zur Gen.-Form; lemn. und etr. -m “aber”), doch nicht mit ihm identisch (z.B. lemn. avis σ ial χ vis  etr. avils σ eal χ ls “annorum …
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