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Misthos

(883 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(μισθός; misthós). [German version] I. Definition The word misthós was used in Greece in the meaning of ‘price’ or ‘payment’ for a service performed (wage, salary). Misthós also meant the remuneration for granting the use of movable and unmovable goods (cf. μίσθωσις, místhōsis ). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] II. Archaic and Classical Period Members of the sub-peasant class (thetes, pelátai ), who hired themselves out as agricultural servants to nobles or farmers, lived on the estate, received provisions and after th…

Kapelos

(298 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (κάπηλος; kápēlos). The kapelos was a Greek merchant at the local market, selling various goods including foods; he also served wine, vinegar, or other beverages. The specifications added to the word kapelos (e.g. ἐλαιο-, οἰνο-, σιτο-κάπηλος; oil, wine, grain kapelos) show how diverse retail in Athens was in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Specialized kápēloi were concentrated in specific areas of the market or in specific streets. Female vendors (καπηλίς, kapēlís) are attested as well (cf. Dem. Or. 57,30ff.). The καπηλεῖον ( kapēleîon) was a permanent booth or store…

Androclidas

(156 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνδροκλείδας; Androkleídas). Prominent politician in Thebes. Belonged to the group around  Ismenias, who in 395 BC with Persian money was supposed to involve Sparta in a war, in order to force  Agesilaus [2] to pull out of Asia Minor and to weaken the friends of Sparta around  Leontiades in Thebes. On the advice of A., Thebes helped the Locrians in the war against the Phocians, which caused Sparta to become involved (Hell. Oxy. 20,1-2; 21 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-5; Plut. Lys. 27). When Sparta occupied the Cadmea in 382 and Leontiades had Ismenias taken prisoner, c. 300 …

Hekatoste

(358 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἑκατοστή; hekatostḗ). In antiquity  taxes of 1% were called hekatoste: 1. There were numerous forms of hekatoste in Athens (Aristoph. Vesp. 658), like the ἑκατοστὴ ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ ( hekatostḗ hē en Peiraieí) mentioned in Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 1,17, and the port customs duty documented in IG I3 182 l.15. According to Theophrast (F 650 Fortenbaugh; Stob. 44,20 Wachsmuth-Hense) the buyer of a piece of land had to pay a 1% sales tax. Ancient and Byzantine lexica mention ‘certain hekatoste’ among the sales taxes (ἐπώνια; epṓnia) (Anecd. Bekk. I 255,1). Three fragmentary in…

Mnasippus

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνάσιππος/ Mnásippos). Spartan, was sent in 373 BC as naúarchos with a fleet against Cercyra, besieged the city and devastated its territories. The Athenians sent a fleet to the aid of Cercyra in 372, but by the time they arrived M. had already lost control of his mercenaries, owing to arrears in pay, and had been defeated. He fell in battle; Sparta discontinued the operation (Xen. Hell. 6,2,3-26; 31; Diod. 15,47,1-7) [1. 414]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, vol. 5, 1991.

Phayllus

(158 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάϋλλος/ Pháÿllos). [German version] [1] Phocian strategos (4th cent. BC) A Phocian (Phocis) stratēgós, who was dispatched with 7000 soldiers to support Lycophron [3] of Pherae against  Philip [4] II of Macedonia during the third of the Sacred Wars in 353 BC, but suffered a defeat. After the death of his brother Onomarchus he assumed supreme command over the Phocians as stratēgòs autokrátōr and kept Philip from Thermopylae with Spartan, Athenian and Achaean help and mercenaries, whom he rewarded with treasures from Delphic temples. P. took the war to Boeo…

Strombichides

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Στρομβιχίδης/ Strombichídēs). Son of Diotimus [1], Attic strategos in 412/1 BC. His operations against Teosin 412 BC were unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,15,1; 8,16,1-2) and he, Onomaclesand Euctemon besieged Chiosin vain (Thuc. 8,30; 8,33,2-34; 8,38; 8,40 f.; 8,55,2-56,1; 8,61-63). From there he went to the Hellespontus in the spring of 411 in order to salvage Athens's lost authority there (conquest of Lampsacus and Sestus, Thuc. 8,62). In 411 he remained true to democracy and was active in the …

Eisphora

(546 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰσφορά; eisphorá). In Athens, the eisphora was an extra-budgetary, direct wealth-tax imposed on wealthy Athenians during financial crises, primarily during wars, by order of the public assembly. According to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 8,3, an eisphora supposedly existed already in the Solonic period. However, the wording of the law cited there mentions only a general collection of taxes through the   naukraroi . According to Thuc. 3,19,1, an eisphora was imposed in 428/7 BC for the first time (πρῶτον) in the amount of 200 talents due to the high costs of war. Since an eisphora

Laches

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λάχης; Láchēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships Athenian stratēgós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships to protect the cities allied to Leontini (Thuc. 3,86) against Syracuse, he successfully led a number of campaigns out of Rhegium against the Aeolian Islands, Mylae, Inessa and the Locrians (Thuc. 3,88; 90; 99; 103; Diod. Sic. 12,54,4f.). After his return in the winter of 426/5 (Thuc. 3,115), he was prosecuted with…

Erasinides

(160 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐρασινίδης; Erasinídēs). Athenian strategos. In 409 BC he petitioned that Thrasybulus of Calydon be honoured with a golden wreath for the killing of the oligarch Phrynichus (IG I3 102). Elected strategos in the spring of 407, in 406 E. was encircled with Conon at Mytilene, but was able to fight his way through by ship to Athens (Xen. Hell. 1,6,16-22). E. commanded a squadron at the sea-battle at the Arginusae, and subsequently urged a rapid attack on the Spartan fleet lying off Mytilene (Xen. Hell. 1,6,29-38;…

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Melon

(118 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μέλων; Mélōn). A Theban. Together with Pelopidas and other conspirators, he prepared from Athens for the overthrow of the oligarchy at Thebes in 379 BC. Having secretly returned, they killed the polémarchoi and Leontiades [2], one of the leading figures among the oligarchs (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9; Plut. Pelopidas 8-12; Plut. de genio Socratis 576a; 587d; 596d; 597a). They freed the political prisoners and proclaimed freedom, were honoured in the people's assembly and elected as boeotarchs (Plut.…

Charixenus

(231 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίξενος; Charíxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Aetolian League in 281/0 and 270/69 BC C. from Trichonium (Aetolia). In 288/7 BC, 281/0 and 270/69 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 5, 14, 54) [1. 267 note 4]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Strategos of the Aetolian League, 3rd cent. BC Aetolian; son of Cydrion. In 260 BC hipparch (IG IX2 18,18); 255/4, 246/5, 241/0 and 234/3 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 3 B). In the latter role, in 246/5 he invited Greek cities to celebrate the newly organized festival of the  Sote…

Euryptolemus

(129 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Εὐρυπτόλεμος; Euryptólemos). Cousin and close friend of Alcibiades [3] and related to the younger Pericles. In 408 BC, E. and  Diotimus [1] were sworn witnesses to the contract in Chrysopolis between Pharnabazus and Alcibiades and were members of an Athenian delegation to Susa. As a result of a shift in the Persian court in favour of the Spartans, the delegation was detained for quite some time (Xen. Hell. 1,3,12f.; 1,4,1-7). In the Arginusae trial E. argued, first by   paranómōn graphḗ , which he was obliged to withdraw, and then in a publ…

Estimation

(294 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] In many ancient political communities, the right of full citizenship, the active or passive right to vote, the assignment to certain arms of service, and the act of splitting the cost of financial services by the state between the citizens, were all contingent upon economical ability and thereby indirectly dependent upon social status. These rights and duties were assigned on the basis of an estimation. Ancient political theory regarded the requirement of meeting certain qualifica…

Ergocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐργοκλῆς; Ergoklês). Athenian strategos. In 404/3 BC, he joined the democrats in Phyle. In 390/89, he operated as a strategos together with Thrasybulus in the Hellespont and on the coast of Asia Minor. After his return, he was indicted for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of authority and sentenced to death; his assets were confiscated (Lys. 28). Since the embezzled money was never found, there were suspicions that Philocrates, trierarch and treasurer under E., had taken possession of this money (Lys. 29). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Eikoste

(690 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰκοστή; eikostḗ). Duty or tax at the rate of a twentieth (5%). 1. In Athens, the Peisistratidae presumably were the first to impose tax on agricultural yields in order to finance wars, magnificent buildings, and ceremonial sacrifices, according to Thuc. 6,54,5, at the rate of 5%. In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 16,4; 16,6, tax is called ‘tithe’ (δεκάτη), (cf. Hdt. 1,64,1). 2. In 413/2 BC, the Athenians imposed import and export tax at the rate of 5% on their symmachoi (allies) in the Delian-Athenian League instead of the   phoroi in order to cover the ris…

Callimedon

(176 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλιμέδων; Kallimédōn). Athenian, son of Callicrates, pro-oligarchic politician. He was forced to leave Athens before 324 BC because of his pro-Macedonian position. In Megara he participated in the anti-constitutional activities of the Athenian émigrés, which is why Demosthenes [2] had an   eisangelia issued against him (Din. 1,94). During the  Lamian War C. stayed with  Antipater [1], upon whose orders he attempted to prevent the Peloponnesian states from joining the Hellenic League (Plut. Demosthen…

Chabrias

(366 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χαβρίας; Chabrías). Important Athenian general and mercenary leader. Taking part in  Thrasybulus' campaigns in Thrace during the Corinthian War, at the beginning of 389 BC he succeeded  Iphicrates as general in the Peloponnese. In 388 he set off for Cyprus with Athenian forces to support King Evagoras against Persia. On the way there, victory against the Spartans on Aegina (Xen. Hell. 5,1,10-13). When the King's Peace (386) made it impossible for him to remain in Cyprus, C. entere…

Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW ( Peloponnēsiakòs pólemos) occurs first in Diodorus Siculus [18] (12,37,2; 13,107,5 etc.); it was already familiar to Cicero (Cic. Rep. 3,44: magnum illud Peloponnesiacum bellum), but probably dates back to Ephorus or a Hellenistic chronicler [3. 60 n. 65; 5. 294f.]. Thucydides speaks of the 'War of t…
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