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(747 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
Mit dem Begriff K. (zur Etymologie vgl. Katechismus) wird diejenige wiss. Disziplin innerhalb der evang. wie der kath. Theologie bezeichnet, die sich der Reflexion von Erziehung und Unterricht in christl. Religion widmet, sofern diese als Aufgabe der Kirche bzw. ihrer Mitglieder (Pfarrer, Lehrer, Eltern) begriffen werden. Sowohl der Begriff K. als auch die so bezeichnete Disziplin werden in Deutschland respektive Österreich erst im letzten Drittel des 18. Jh.s greifbar; in anderen (west-)europ. Ländern hat sich in der Nz.…
Date: 2019-11-19

Marezoll, Johann Gottlieb

(176 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1761, Plauen – Jan 15, 1828, Jena). After studying philosophy and theology in Leipzig (1775–1783) and spending some time as a private tutor, in 1789 Marezoll was appointed university chaplain and in 1790 associate professor in Göt-¶ tingen. After receiving his doctorate from Helmstedt in 1794, in the same year he was appointed chief pastor of the German church in Copenhagen. Through the support of J.G. Herder, he was active after 1803 in Jena as a member of the consistory, superintendent, and pastor of the cit…


(479 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[English Version] . Mit diesen Begriffen (im kath. Raum außerdem: Schulmesse) werden außerunterrichtliche Schulveranstaltungen liturgisch-rel. Charakters in schulischen oder gemeindlichen Räumen bez., die sich an die Gesamtheit der Schulangehörigen (also über Schüler hinaus an Lehrer, anderes Schulpersonal sowie Eltern/Angehörige) oder aber an bestimmte Gruppen von Schülerinnen und Schülern (etwa eine Jahrgangsstufe) richten. Für den rel. Inhalt zeichnet nicht die Schule verantwortlich, sondern di…


(503 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[English Version] . Der Begriff S. bez. die neben Essenern und Pharisäern bedeutendste innerjüd. Gruppe im Palästina der Zeit vor 70 n.Chr. Sie besteht aus Nachkommen und Anhängern der (Hohe-)Priesterdynastie, die auf den Priester Zadok der davidisch-salomonischen Zeit (2Sam 8,17 u. ö.) zurückgeführt und nach ihm benannt wird. – Der griech. Begriff findet sich, stets im Pl. (Σαδδουκαι˜οι/Saddukaíoi), erstmals in Mk 12,28 und bei Flavius Josephus (Bell. II 119.164–166), also nach der mutmaßlichen Auflösung der so bez. Gruppe. Als soziale, rel. und polit. Strömung…


(763 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
The term “catechetics  (for etymology see Catechism) denotes the academic discipline within Protestant and Catholic theology that is devoted to reflection on education and instruction in the Christian religion, to the extent that they are understood as the task of the church or its members (pastors, teachers, parents). Both the term and the discipline it represents are not documented in Germany and Austria until the last third of the 18th century. In the early modern period, no comparable form of…
Date: 2019-10-14

School Worship/Devotions

(615 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] The terms school worship and school devotions (in Catholic contexts also school mass) denote extracurricular school activities of a liturgical or religious nature in school or municipal spaces, directed toward everyone connected with the school (not just students but teachers, other staff, and parents or relatives) or specific groups of students (e.g. a particular grade). A cooperating religious organization or a religion teacher at the school rather than the school itself is responsible for …

Liebner, Karl Theodor Albert

(170 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1806, Schkölen near Naumburg – Jun 24, 1871, Meran). After studying classical philology and theology (from 1823), gaining his doctorate (1827), studying at the Wittenberg theological seminary (1828–1832), and after a pastorate in Kreisfeld near Eisleben (1832–1835), he became assistant professor and university ¶ chaplain in Göttingen in 1835. In 1844, he moved to Kiel and in 1851 to Leipzig. In 1855, he succeeded G.C.A. v. Harleß as chief court chaplain and vice-president of the consistory in Dresden. He shaped the li…

Preaching in Dialect

(369 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] is an expression of liturgical “multiligualism” (Cornehl, 83). It represents a form of preaching marked by its focus on the congregation and its contextuality. Different dialects may be involved, such as Low German or Swabian; preaching to a congregation must also be distinguished from proclamation of the gospel through the media (Preaching). Where a dialect is in active (or at least passive) use in the everyday life (Life-world) of the congregation (and the preacher), preaching i…

Kleinert, Paul

(106 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1837, Vielgut, Upper Silesia – Jul 29, 1920, Berlin). In the service of the church from 1861 on, Kleinert became associate professor (1868) and professor (1877–1907) of practical theology and Old Testament in Berlin. Among other offices, he belonged to the Evangelical Superior Church Council from 1895 to 1904. His practical theology was open to empiricism and ethics. Bernd Schröder Bibliography Works include: “Zur Praktischen Theologie,” ThStKr 53, 1880, 273–333 and 355; 1882, 7–104 Homiletik, 1907 On Kleinert: P.C. Bloth, “Paul Kleinert und Friedr…

Hyperius, Andreas

(409 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Gerhard; Jun 16, 1511, Ypres, Flanders – Feb 1, 1564, Marburg), actually Andreas Gheeraerdts. Hyperius is an important figure in the history of the church in Hessen (so-called Hessian Melanchthon) and as an ancestor of practical theology. In the history of theology, he attests to the “serious ¶ consequences of the transition from the Reformation to orthodoxy” and is considered “a mediator between Humanism and the institutional church of the Reformation” (Krause, 1969, 265). He spent 1522–1541 journeying and studying humanism i…

Lambourne, Robert Alfred

(171 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (often called Bob; Jun 5, 1917, Edgbaston, Birmingham – Apr 2, 1972, Edgbaston). From 1945 to 1961, Lambourne worked as a general medical practitioner; after additional studies in theology and psychology, including work with Michael Balint (1896–1970), he served from 1964 until his death as lecturer in pastoral studies (Pastoral theology) in the department of theology of the University of Birmingham. He was interested in the salutary impact of the gospel in the broadest sense. Fro…

Teaching, Use of Media in

(563 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] The teaching media or tools discussed here include all non-personal, material means of instructional communication, from traditional tools like school Bibles, hymnals (V), and catechisms (V) through pictures (on paper, photos, slides, posters, or computer files), sound recordings, objects, film, and textbooks to the Internet and other media. Their didactic function consists primarily in bringing outside reality into the classroom vividly and sensuously. Traditionally such tools have been catego-¶ rized according to the senses involved (visual, audi…

Kliefoth, Theodor

(253 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1810, Körchow, Mecklenburg – Jan 26, 1895, Schwerin), Lutheran theologian and church politician. After studies in Berlin (with F.D.E. Schleiermacher, E. Hengstenberg and A. Neander) and Rostock, he was a teacher at the court of the dukes of Mecklenburg in Ludwigslust (1833–1841), then pastor there (1840), superintendent and cathedral preacher in Schwerin (1844), and member of the High Consistory (1849–1894). His significance lies, firstly, in his studies of ecclesiology a…

Korczak, Janusz

(304 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Henryk Goldszmit; Jul 22, 1878 or 1879, Warsaw – Aug 1942, Treblinka). Reared in an assimilated Jewish family, Korczak studied medicine in Warsaw. As a physician in a children's hospital from ¶ 1905, he developed his educational theory beginning with the child (V; Progressive education) from the perspective of his work in an orphanage: from 1911 onward, he directed the “Orphans' Home” for Jewish children, and in 1919, together with Maryna Falska, he founded “Our House” for Polish children. The former was moved …


(573 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] After the Essenes and the Pharisees, the Sadducees were the most important Jewish party in Palestine in the period before 70 ce. They comprised the descendants and supporters of the (high-)priestly dynasty that traced its lineage to the eponymous priest Zadok of the Davidic and Solomonic period (2 Sam 8:17, etc.). The Greek word Σαδδουκαῖοι/ Saddukaíoi, always plural, first appears in Mark 12:28 and the works of Flavius Josephus ( Bell. II 119.164–166) – after the presumed dispersal of the party bearing that name. The Sadducees were already a recognizab…

Lake, Frank

(170 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[German Version] (Jun 6, 1914, Aughton, Lancashire – May 10, 1982, Nottingham). After studying medicine at Edinburgh, from 1937 to 1951 Lake worked for the Church Missionary Society as a doctor in India. ¶ Upon returning to England, he trained as a psychiatrist. In the late 1950s, he wove together psychoanalytic (Psychoanalysis) and (revivalistic) theological insights to form what he called “clinical theology.” Its central elements included the idea of a dynamic cycle (Life, Cycle of), drawn from the life of Jesus and his relati…


(459 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd
[English Version] . Unter den Begriff U. (auch: Lehr- und Lernmittel) fallen alle apersonalen, materialen Mittel unterrichtlicher Kommunikation, angefangen bei den traditionsreichen Medien Schulbibel, Gesangbuch (: V.) und Katechismus (: V.) über Bilder (auf Papier, Folie, Dia, Plakat oder in Dateien), reproduzierbare Musik, Gegenstände, Film, Schulbuch bis hin zu Internet und andere Multimedia. Ihre didaktische Funktion besteht v.a. im anschaulich-sinnenhaften Einholen außerunterrichtlicher …


(554 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Link, Christoph
[English Version] I. Praktisch-theologisch Unter den Begriff Sch. fallen primär außerunterrichtliche Gebete zu Beginn und/oder Ende bzw. in Pausen der täglichen Schulzeit, daneben Gebete innerhalb des Religionsunterrichts. Sch. beider Typen sind gegenwärtig in den staatl. Schulen Deutschlands – anders als in der Zeit der konfessionellen Volksschulen (bis in die 60er Jahre) und anders als z.B. in England – ein marginales Phänomen. Vereinzelte Vorstöße, Sch. wieder einzuführen, wie z.B. 1987 in Bayer…


(517 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Weiß, Otto
[German Version] 1. Luigi (baptismal name: Emanuele Nicoló; May 16, 1776, Sestri Levante – May 12, 1854, Rome), Barnabite. Lambruschini was appointed to the Curia in 1814; at the Congress of Vienna, he served as an adviser to E. Consalvi (concordats with France, Bavaria, and Naples). In 1819 be became archbishop of Genoa; from 1826 to 1830 he served as papal nuncio in Paris (opposing H. de Lamennais). In 1831 he was made Cardinal and from 1836 to 1846 served as papal secretary of state. In the 1846 …

School Prayers

(630 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Link, Christoph
[German Version] I. Practical Theology The term school prayers refers primarily to prayers at the beginning or end of the school day or during breaks, along with prayers during religious education classes. In German public schools today – unlike the period of the denominational primary schools (into the 1960s) and also unlike in England, for example – such prayers are a marginal phenomenon. Scattered attempts to reintroduced school prayers like that of the Bavarian government in 1987 (Kaufmann, 32–38) e…
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