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(1,574 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Iconographic and Symbolic Rece…


(1,446 words)

San Marco: Horses/Quadriga

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Horses of San Marco (CT) The four bronze horses of San Marco, originally gilded, constitute the only known example of a free-standing quadriga from Antiquity. Stolen from Constantinople by Venetian mercenary soldiers in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade under the Doge E. Dandolo, the group of horses was set up soon after the mid-13th cent. on a terrace fronting the square above the portal area of the San Marco Basilica, where it is documented by a mosaic in t…


(2,439 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. The Forum as an Idealized Square (CT) The actual structural shape of an ancient Roman forum was no longer known in the Middle Ages. The various editions of the Mirabilia Romae treat the forum merely as a topos, while the medieval Städtelob ('Praise of Towns') mentions the lost fora only to evoke the glorious past of certain cities (Milan and Verona among others).  It is not even possible to reconstruct the architecture of the Roman imperial fora and the Forum Romanum from the topical 15th cent. descriptions that w…

Supporting Figures

(2,892 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG)
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) Fundamental to the persisting tradition of ancient supporting figures (SFs) far into the Modern Period is Vitruvius’ differentiation of the various types of figures used for the support of entablatures in architecture.  Based on the differentiation of the columniations and their proportions according to gender (Vitr. De arch. 4,1,6-7 in: [10]), Vitruvius uses the terms atlas (pl. atlantes) and telamon synonymously (4,7,6) for male SFs; female figures are called caryatids (1,1,5). Quite apart fro…


(1,986 words)

Author(s): Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel) RWG
Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel) RWG [English version] A. Das Forum als idealisierte Platzanlage (RWG) Von der baulichen Gestalt ant. röm. F. hatte man im MA keine realistischen Vorstellungen mehr. Die unterschiedlichen Editionen der Mirabilia Romae behandeln F. allein als top. Terminus, und das ma. Städtelob beruft sich allenfalls auf untergegangene F., um die ruhmreiche Vergangenheit einer Stadt zu betonen (u.a. Mailand, Verona). Eine architektonische Rekonstruktion der röm. Kaiser-F. und des F. Romanum ist auch mit Hilfe von topischen, auf ant. Textquellen b…

Classical Archaeology

(20,015 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) | Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG)
Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) A peculiarity of the discipline is the absence of a generally accepted concept of Classical Archeology (CA), which in a good third of German-speaking universities is simply called Archaeology, either by way of obvious simplification or by way of conscious extension of the subject-matter, thereby sacrificing the aspect and claim of the ‘Classical’. One of its most prominent research bodies, the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut [20; 55; 89], was founded in Rome in 1829 as the Istituto di corrispond…