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Köhler, Ludwig

(244 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus

Aaronic Blessing

(431 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jacobs, Martin | Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. Liturgy I. Old Testament The priestly Blessing, transmitted within the framework of the so-called Priestly Source (Pentateuch) in Num 6:23-26, which is also attested in some inscriptions (e.g. in Ketef Hinnom near Jerusalem), consist of traditional blessing formulae, linked together in three stair-stepped lines. …

Joel/Book of Joel

(960 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
[German Version] I The book of Joel appears in the Hebrew canon as the second book of the Minor Prophets, following Hosea; in the Greek canon it c…

Poetry

(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old Testament literature. OT books such as Proverbs, Psalms, Job, Song of Songs, and Lame…

Doxology

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Vollenweider, Samuel | Wainwright, Geoffrey | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Form Criticism – II. Theology – III. Liturgy – IV. Music …

Election

(7,050 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Hartman, Lars | Link, Christian | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics – IV. Judaism I. Old Testament Election, especially in compounds such as doctrine of election, election idea, election tradition, is a term from biblical theology based on the theological use of the Heb. verb בחר/ bḥr, especially in Deuteronomy, which has become established since K. Galling's monograph (1928). It has become the comprehensive term for the foundation of Israel's existence and involves “the philosop…

Reconciliation/Atonement

(6,443 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparison with expiation (I), reconciliation is defined more specifically; as a rule, its goal is to restore a personal relationship undermined by guilt or sin. In reconciliation we are dealing with a category rooted in ¶ the Judeo-Christian tradition that cannot be translated readily into other contexts. In comparison with Western Christianity, the understanding of reconciliation in Juda…

Hymn

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jeremias, Gert
1. OT From the time of W. M. L. de Wette and H. Gunkel, the term “hymn” (Gk. hymnos, corresponding in part to Heb. tĕhillâ) …

Monarchy in Israel

(1,523 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
1. Israelite Monarchies There were various monarchies in ancient Israel (§1). Israel itself was originally made up of tribes, with monarchy not native to it. The monarchy was introduced and adopted only with further developments, dependent in part on the overall political situation in the Middle East. The main source for the history of monarchy in Israel is the OT (Judges; 1-2 Samuel; 1-2 Kings; 1-2 Chronicles; the Prophets). Light is also shed by contemporary annals and inscriptions (see TGI  [3d ed.], ANET , and TUAT  1). We might refer as well to 1 Maccabees and Josephus Ant.  Purel…

Psalms, Book of

(4,866 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Schnitker, Thaddeus A.
1. OT 1.1. Terms and Place in Canon The term “Psalms” or “Psalter” is used for the OT collection of 150 songs and prayers. It comes from the Greek OT (Bible Manuscripts and Editions; Bible Versions). The Codex Alexandrinus has psaltērion, which denotes a stringed instrument and is a rendering of Heb. nēbel, “lyre.” What is meant, then, is a book of songs to be sung with a stringed instrument. In …