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Samson, Hermann

(121 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 4, 1579, Riga – Dec 16, 1643, Riga). After studying at Wittenberg (with L. Hütter) and Rostock, he was appointed preacher at St. Petri in Riga as well as superintendent of schools; later he was appointed cathedral preacher. He published attacks on the Jesuit Counter-Reformation (Baltic countries: III, 1.b). After the Swedish conquest in 1622, King Gustav II Adolf appointed him superintendent over Livonia. He strove to restore the Lutheran church and school system, turned the …

Syncretistic Controversy

(429 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] is the name given to the drawn-out controversies in the second half of the 17th century between high Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a.β) and the union efforts of G. Calixtus and the University of Helmstedt, suspected of religious “syncretism.” Repelled by the horrors of the Thirty Years War, Calixtus shifted from polemics to irenics, calling for toleration and ecclesiastical peace between the confessions on the basis of a shared doctrinal foundation from the Early Church ( consensus antiquitatis). When the Jesuits rejected his plans for a reunion of the univer…

Pfeiffer, August

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1640, Lauenburg – Nov 1, 1698, Lübeck). Initially a supporter of the millenarianism of C. Hoburg from his school days in Lauenberg, Pfeiffer studied in Wittenberg (1659, M.A.) under A. Sennert, J. Deutschmann, and A. Calov; the latter cured him of his chiliastic leanings. Pfeiffer was a learned orientalist who could understand 70 oriental languages. In 1668 he became assistant professor of oriental languages in Wittenberg (1677, Dr.theol.). He held church offices in Siles…

Schade, Johann Caspar

(163 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1666, Kühndorf, near Meiningen – Jul 25, 1698, Berlin). While studying in Leipzig, Schade became a follower of A.H. Francke; he joined the Leipzig Collegium Philobiblicum and soon became a spokesman for the Pietist movement in Leipzig. Forced to leave Leipzig, in 1691 he became a deacon at Sankt Nikolai in Berlin, alongside P.J. Spener. There he preached revivalist sermons and led collegia pietatis. His polemic against perfunctory absolution as part of traditional penitential practice (“Beichtstuhl, Satansstuhl, Feuerpfuhl,” linking th…

Spener, Philipp Jakob

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] ( Jan 13, 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Elsass [Ribeauvillé, Alsace] – Feb 5, 1705, Berlin), father of Lutheran Pietism (I, 1). Son of a devout middle-class family with connections at court, he was brought up on edifying Puritan literature and J. Arndt’s Wahres Christentum. At the age of 16, he entered the University of Strasbourg (II); after foundation courses in philosophy (1653 master’s disserta-¶ tion against T. Hobbes), he studied the system of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) under J.K. Dannhauer, a theology he remained faithful to throughout his…

Rudrauff, Kilian

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1627, Schotten, Upper Hesse – Sep 15, 1690, Gießen), studied in Marburg and then (after the university was relocated) in Gießen, where he taught in the boarding school after 1650. In 1659 he was appointed professor of ethics at Gießen; logic and metaphysics were added in 1661. In 1675 he became professor of theology. In 1677 he was also appointed superintendent of the Alsfeld diocese and in 1683 the Marburg diocese as well in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt. Rudrauff made outstanding contributions to catechetics. He criticized P.J. Spener’s Pia desideria an…

Lütkemann, Joachim

(207 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1608, Demmin, Hither Pomerania – Oct 18, 1655, Wolfenbüttel). During his time as a student in Straßburg (Strasbourg), Lütkemann was influenced decisively by Johann Schmidt. After travels in Italy and France, he received his master's degree from the philosophical faculty at Rostock, where he was appointed professor of metaphysics and physics in 1643. Appointed deacon in the church of Sankt Jacobi in 1648, he gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher. Forced to leave M…

Hartmann, Johann Ludwig

(180 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1640, Rothenburg ob der Tauber – Aug 18, 1680, Rothenburg ob der Tauber). After studying at Wittenberg under A. Calovius, in 1660 Hartmann became pastor in Spielbach, in 1661 rector of the gymnasium in Rothenburg, and in 1666 pastor of Sankt Jakobi and superintendent. After receiving his doctorate from Tübingen in 1670, he published several volumes of sermons (including Das wahre Christenthum… in einer Hertz Postill, 1671), a Biblischer Catechismus (1678), and numerous works of popular edification ( Fluchspiegel, 1673; Spielteufel, 1678; Lästerteufel, 167…

Strauch, Aegidius

(194 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1632, Wittenberg – Feb 13, 1682, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying in Leipzig and Wittenberg (with A. Calovius), he was appointed professor of philosophy in Wittenberg, receiving his Dr.theol. in 1664. In the Syncretistic Controversy, he vigorously opposed the Helmstedt theologians. In 1669 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium in Danzig and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. In 1673 he was removed from office on account of his anti-Catholic sermons; his removal produced an up…

Privacy

(745 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Kumlehn, Martin
[German Version] I. Ethics The dichotomy of social and cultural reality in public and private spheres is characteristic of the modern life-world, and is the result of modern processes of change in social structure (Modernization). It is true that in the course of functional differentiation (Society: IV; V) essential ingredients of life, for instance work and vocation, are withdrawn from the private sector and transferred to the public one, but at the same time privacy centered on the family is assi…

Sandhagen, Caspar Hermann

(160 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1639, Borgholzhausen, near Bielefeld – Jul 14, 1697, Kiel). After studying at Rostock and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he was appointed assistant pastor in Bielefeld in 1665 and in 1667 headmaster of a school there; for a while he was closely associated with the Labadists (J. de Labadie) in nearby Herford. In 1672 he was appointed superintendent in Lüneburg, and in 1689 was made general superintendent for Schleswig-Holstein and senior court chaplain in Gottorf. As a painstakin…

Schelwig, Samuel

(131 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1643, Leszno, Poland – Jan 15, 1715, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying at Wittenberg with A. Calovius, in 1668 he was appointed deputy rector of the Gymnasium in Toruń; in 1673 he was appointed professor at the Danzig Gymnasium, and in 1681 deacon with the Katharinenkirche. In 1685 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. His conflict with his Pietist colleague Konstantin Schütz turned into a literary debate with P.J. Spener that lasted for some years (e.g. Die Sektiererische Pietisterey, 1696/1697). Johannes Wallmann Bibliograph…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…

Gerhard, Johann

(428 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 17, 1582, Quedlinburg – Aug 17, 1637, Jena) was the most important theologian of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Comforted spiritually in a youthful illness by his “spiritual father” Johann Arndt, the very talented Gerhard initially studied medicine at Wittenberg, then theology at Jena, Marburg (with B. [I.] Mentzer) and again in Jena. After earning his doctorate in theology (1606), he was retained for church offices (1606 superintendent in Heldburg, 1615 general superintendent…

Geier, Martin

(216 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Apr 24, 1614, Leipzig – Sep 12, 1680, Dresden), prominent exegete and preacher of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). After studying at Leipzig (M.A. in 1633), Strassburg, and Wittenberg, he returned to Leipzig in 1636, where he was appointed professor of Hebrew in 1639. He became deacon in 1645, archdeacon in 1657, and pastor of the Thomaskirche in 1659, gaining his doctorate in theology in the same year. In 1661 he received appointments as professor of theology and superintendent. On…

Yvon, Pierre

(212 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1646, Montauban, Languedoc – 1707, Wiuwert, Friesland), student and closest companion of J. de Labadie. His parents took him to church as a child when Labadie was preaching and while he was still young sent him to Geneva, where he lived in Labadie’s house and studied philosophy and theology under his direction. Along with Pierre Bulignon and Jean Menuret, he became Labadie’s inseparable companion. Alongside Labadie at his later residences in the Netherlands, Germany (Herford), an…

Protestantism

(7,917 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Guder, Darrell | Holmes, Stephen R
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe. Protestantism is a synoptic term for all the Christian churches and groups with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. The term embraces the Lutheran and Reformed confessional churches (Lutheranism, Reformed churches) that emerged directly from the Reformation as well as the Anabaptist movements, the Anglican Church (with some qualifications), and the churches and Free churches associated indirectly with the Reformation that came into being later …

Schurman, Anna Maria van

(177 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 5, 1607, Cologne – May 14, 1678, Wieuvert, Friesland), daughter of Dutch Reformed parents, she lived in Utrecht after 1623 and was allowed to study at the university there (e.g. with G. Voetius). Her outstanding erudition and linguistic facility, coupled with artistic talent, gained her renown as the “prodigy of her time.” She corresponded with many scholars, including R. Descartes and Christian Huyghens, and defended the right of women to engage in scientific studies ( Dissertatio de ingenii muliebris ad doctrinam et meliores litteras aptitudine, 1643). Late…

Concord, The Book of

(375 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Book of Concord is the most widely circulated collection of Lutheran articles of faith (I). It was published (in German) under the title Concordia. Christian, Reiterated, Unanimous Confession of the Undersigned Electors, Princes, and Estates who Embrace the Augsburg Confession and of the Theologians of the Same Doctrine and Faith on Jun 25, 1580, the 50th anniversary of the proclamation of the Augsburg Confession. It contains the three major creeds (Apostles' Creed, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, …

Rechenberg, Adam

(162 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1642, Leipsdorf, Saxony – Oct 22, 1721, Leipzig). After studying philosophy, history, and theology, Rechenberg began teaching in 1665 at the University of Leipzig; in 1677 he was appointed professor of philology and history. Through his fourth marriage (1686), to P.J. Spener’s eldest daughter Susann Catharina, he had close ties with Pietism. His appointment to succeed J.B. Carpzov (2) as professor of theology in 1699 effected a reversal in the attitude of the Leipzig theological faculty, which had been hostile to Pietism. His 1700 disputation De gratiae revo…
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