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(578 words)

Author(s): Schleifer, J. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, a large Arab tribe of the Yemen group, the full genealogy being Hamdān (Awsala) b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Rabīʿa b. Awsala b. al-K̲h̲iyār b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān. Their territory lay to the north of Ṣanʿā [ q.v.], stretching eastwards to Maʾrib [ q.v.] and Nad̲j̲rān [ q.v.], northwards to Ṣaʿda [ q.v.], and westwards to the coast (Abū Arīs̲h̲). The eastern half belonged to the sub-tribe of Bakīl, the western to Ḥās̲h̲id [ q.v.], and these are still found there. In the D̲j̲āhiliyya Hamdān worshipped the idol Yaʿūḳ (but probably not Yag̲h̲ūt̲h̲ as sometimes stated; cf. Wellhausen, Reste

Ḳays ʿAylān

(1,917 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery | Baer, G. | Hoexter, M.
, one of the two subdivisions of Muḍar, which along with Rabīʿa was reckoned as constituting the sons of ʿAdnān, the so-called Northern Arabs [see d̲j̲azīrat al-ʿarab ]. The other subdivision of Muḍar was K̲h̲indif or al-Yās. ʿAylān is sometimes said to be the father of Ḳays, but it is more likely that the double name means “Ḳays (owner) of ʿAylān” (sc. a horse, dog or slave). The following is an abbreviated genealogical table: ¶ Ḳays ʿAylān does not appear to have functioned as a unit before Islam, and in the accounts of “the days of the Arabs” o…

Abū Ṭālib

(307 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, son of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hās̲h̲im and Fāṭima bint ʿAmr (of Mak̲h̲zūm), and full brother of Muḥammad’s father. His own name was ʿAbd Manāf. He is said to have inherited the offices of siḳāya and rifāda (providing water and food for pilgrims) from his father, but at the Ḥilf al-Fuḍūl and war of the Fid̲j̲ār his brother al-Zubayr seems to have been the leading man of Hās̲h̲im. He fell into debt, and to meet this surrendered the siḳāya and rifāda to al-ʿAbbās. Nevertheless he seems to have remained chief of the clan of Hās̲h̲im, and their quarter of the town was called the s̲h̲iʿb


(367 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, people observing rigorous religious taboos, especially Ḳurays̲h̲ and certain neighbouring tribes. The word is the plural of aḥmas , “hard, strong (in fighting or in religion)”, but one of the Ḥums is called aḥmasī (fern, aḥmasiyya ). Ibn His̲h̲ām (126) thinks that taḥammus , the observance of the taboos in question, was an innovation of Ḳurays̲h̲ about the time of Muḥammad’s birth, and some changes may have been made to emphasize the superiority of Ḳurays̲h̲ to other tribes; but the nature of the taboos makes it li…


(693 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early sect, frequently mentioned but somewhat mysterious. Identity. No names are known of any members of the sect, apart from the alleged founder D̲j̲ahm [ q.v.]. The basic fact is that “after the translation of the Greek books in the second century a doctrine ( maḳāla ) known as that of the D̲j̲ahmiyya was spread by Bis̲h̲r b. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Marīsī [ q.v.] and his generation (IbnTaymiyya, ʿAḳīda Ḥamawiyya , ap. M. Schreiner in ZDMG, liii, 72 f.; lii, 544). A pupil of Abū Yūsuf (d. 182/798), Bis̲h̲r (d. 218/833 or a little later) was questioned about his strange v…


(456 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a North Arabian tribe, reckoned part of D̲h̲ubyān, which was itself included in G̲h̲aṭafān [ q.v.]. Its main pasture-grounds were in Wādi ’l-Rumma in Nad̲j̲d, and the names of many localities associated with it have been preserved (cf. Yāḳūt, index, s.v. Fazāra). In the Ḏj̲āhiliyya the famous war of Dāḥis between Abs and D̲h̲ubyān arose out of a wager between Ḳays b. Zuhayr, chief of Abs, and Ḥud̲h̲ayfa b. Badr of Fazāra about their respective horses Dāḥis and G̲h̲abrā. The latter won because of underhand acts by some men of Fazāra, and this led to the killing of a brother of Ḥud̲h̲ayfa. ¶ In t…

Banū Ḥanẓala b. Mālik

(403 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, a branch of the tribe of Tamīm [ q.v.], of the group of Maʿādd, descended from Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm. The chief subdivisions were Dārim (from which came the poet al-Farazdaḳ), Yarbūʿ (to which D̲j̲arīr belonged) and the Barād̲j̲im (five families descended from Mālik b. Ḥanẓala). They inhabited the Yamāma between the hills D̲j̲urād and Marrūt, near ḥimā Ḍariyya [ q.v.]. Among their villages were al-Ṣammān (with wells, cisterns and irrigation) and al-Raḳmatān; but they were mainly nomadic. In history they appear at the first “day of Kulāb” (probably before 550 A.D.) as suppo…


(1,754 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
(a.) (pl. ḥunafāʾ ), means in Islamic writing one who follows the original and true (monotheistic) religion. 1. The Ḳurʾān. The word ḥanīf is used especially of Abraham as the type of this pure worship of God; II, 135/129; III, 67/60, 95/89; IV, 125/124; VI, 79, 161/162; XVI, 120/121, 123/124; XXII, 31/32. In most of these verses the ḥanīf is contrasted with the idolaters ( mus̲h̲rikūn ). Il is also asserted that Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian (III, 67/60; cf. II, 135/129), and that the people of the book were originally commanded to worship God as ḥunafāʾ (XCVIII, 5/4). In the rem…

Saʿd b. Muʿād̲h̲

(401 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, chief of the clan of ʿAbd al-As̲h̲hal in Medina in succession to his father. At the time of the Hid̲j̲ra he seems to have been the strongest man in the tribe of al-Aws, of which his clan was a part. He had taken part in the fighting prior to the battle of Buʿāt̲h̲ [ q.v.] and been wounded. The leader of al-Aws at Buʿāt̲h̲, Ḥuḍayr b. Simāk, is reckoned to another clan, but his son, Usayd b. Ḥuḍayr, seems to have been second-in-command to Saʿd in ʿAbd al-As̲h̲hal. Saʿd and Usayd were both for a time opposed to Islam and wanted to stop its spread, bu…


(906 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ‘the helpers’, the usual designation of those men of Medina who supported Muḥammad, in distinction from the Muhād̲j̲irūn or ‘emigrants’ i.e. his Meccan followers. After the general conversion of the Arabs to Islam the old name of al-Aws and al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ jointly, Banū Ḳayla, fell out of use and was replaced by Anṣār, the individual being known as an Anṣārī (cf. Ḳurʾān, ix, 100/101, 117/118). In this way the early services of the men of Medina to the cause of Islam were honourably commemorated. Anṣār is presumably the plural of naṣīr , but the latter is never used as a technical term. The verb n…

Ḏj̲urhum or D̲j̲urham

(370 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an ancient Arab tribe reckoned to the ʿArab al-ʿĀriba (see art. ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat al-, vi). According to later standard Arab tradition, D̲j̲urhum was descended from Yaḳtān (Ḳaḥtān). The tribe migrated from the Yaman to Mecca. After a protracted struggle with another tribe Ḳatūra (also referred to as ʿAmālīḳ), led by al-Sumaydiʿ, D̲j̲urhum under their chief (called Muḍād b. ʿAmr, al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Muḍāḍ, etc.) gained control of the Kaʿba. This they retained till driven out by Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt of K̲h̲uzāʿa. Th…


(351 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ditch, trench or moat. The word seems to have come into Arabic from Persian through Syriac (cf. A. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch , Göttingen 1919). It is also known as a place-name (cf. Yāḳūt, ii, 476; al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 85). Its best-known application is to the so-called “expedition of the K̲h̲andaḳ”, in which Muḥammad foiled a Meccan attempt to storm Medina by digging a moat or trench at those parts of the oasis which were open to attack by cavalry. This was in D̲h̲…


(380 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, ancient Arabian tribe, reckoned part of Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.]. Their common ancestor ʿId̲j̲l b. Lud̲j̲aym was proverbially noted for his stupidity (Goldziher, Muh . St., i, 48n; Eng. tr. i, 52n.). The tribe as a whole had a reputation for niggardliness (Masʿūdī, vi, 138f.; Yāḳūt, i, 183). They originally lived in al-Yamāma and in the region about the roads from Kūfa and Baṣra to Mecca. Among the settled localities belonging to them were Arāka, D̲j̲awk̲h̲āʾ and al-K̲h̲aḍārim; while their waters included Buḳayʿ, Tuḳayyid,…


(452 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an Arab tribe, reckoned along with Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿam as a subdivision of Anmār; the nisba is Bad̲j̲alī. Bad̲j̲īla is sometimes said to be a woman, but her place in the genealogy is vague (cf. F. Wüstenfeld, Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen , 101-3; also Die Chroniken der Stadt Mekka , Leipzig 1858, ii, 134). Some genealogists held that Bad̲j̲īla was a Yemenite tribe; others made Anmār the son of Nīzār b. Maʿadd b. ʿAdnān (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Usd al-G̲h̲āba , i, 279, art. ‘Ḏj̲arīr b. ʿAbd Allāh’; Ibn Durayd, ed. Wüstenfeld, 101 f.). The tribe was sometim…


(902 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, one of the two main Arab tribes in Medina. The other was al-Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲, and the two, which in pre-Islamic times were known as Banū Ḳayla from their reputed mother, constituted after the Hid̲j̲ra the ‘helpers’ of Muḥammad or Anṣār [ q.v.]. The genealogy as given by Ibn Saʿd (iii/2,1) is: al-Aws b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. ʿAmr (Muzayḳiyāʾ) b. ʿĀmir (Māʾ al-Samāʾ) b. Ḥārit̲h̲a b. Imriʾ al-Ḳays b. T̲h̲aʿlaba b. Māzin b. al-Azd b. al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲ b. Nabt b. Mālik b. Zayd b. Kahlān b. Sabaʾ b. Yas̲h̲d̲j̲ub b. Yaʿrub b. Ḳaḥṭān. The following table giv…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf

(199 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, originally called ʿAbd ʿAmr or ʿAbd al-Kaʿba, the most prominent early Muslim convert from B. Zuhra of Ḳurays̲h̲. He took part in the Hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia and in that to Medina, and fought at Badr and the other main battles. He commanded a force of 700 men sent by Muḥammad in S̲h̲aʿbān 6/December 627 to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal; the Christian chief, al-Aṣbag̲h̲ (or al-Aṣyaʿ) al-Kalbī, became a Muslim and made a ‘treaty, and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān married his daughter Tumāḍir (but cf. Caetani, Annali , i, 700). By his shrewdness and skill as a merchant he made an enor…


(308 words)

Author(s): Watt, W. Montgomery
, an early companion of Muḥammad’s, commonly known as al-Arḳam b. Abi ’l-Arḳam, and having the kunya Abū ʿAbd Allāh. His father’s name was ʿAbd Manāf, and he belonged to the influential clan of Mak̲h̲zūm at Mecca. His mother’s name is variously given, but she is usually said to be of the tribe of Ḵh̲uzāʿa. As al-Arḳam’s death is placed in 53/673 or 55/675 at the age of over eighty, he must have been born about 594; and he must have become a Muslim when very young, sin…


(803 words)

Author(s): Goldziher, I. | Watt, W. Montgomery
, the appointed term of a man’s life or the date of his death; a topic regularly discussed in the earlier kalām along with that of rizḳ or sustenance. The idea that the date of a man’s death is fixed presumably belongs to pre-Islamic thought. The word ad̲j̲al is used in the Ḳurʾān in a variety of ways, e.g. for the date when the embryo emerges from the womb (xxii, 5), for the period Moses had to serve for his wife (xxviii, 28 f.), for the date when a debt is due (ii, 282), etc. In creating the heavens and earth, the sun and moon, God fixed an ad̲j̲al for them (xlvi, 3; xxxix, 5 etc.); with this is con…
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