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Proportion

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Architecture 'Proportion' is a modern technical term in the archaeological research of monuments. In the description of a structure, a proportion represents the ratio of two lines or the ratio of the sides of a rectangular area, in the mathematical sense of a division (x:y). The proportions of a building are determined based on its detailed measurement. Increasingly precise and generally binding procedures for obtaining and evaluating the relevant data have been developed by W. Dörpfeld; K. Koldewey; O. Puchstein i.a. since the late 19th century. The extent to wh…

Music

(14,471 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Bernhard, Michael | Sachs, Klaus-Jürgen | Steinhauser, Ulrike | Et al.
Haas, Max (Basle) I. History of Ideas (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In an ancient tradition continuing to the 17th/18th cent., music was conceived as a twofold possibility of dealing with 'experience' and 'structure' [21]. In the first case, it was considered as the medium that enables abstraction from individual sensual perception. The opposite process was also possible: music provides insight into intelligible factors that do not necessarily lead to sense perception. In the following, therefor…

Psalmody

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Zimmermann, Heidy (Basle) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Definition Psalmody (Greek ψαλμῳδία/ psalmōidía; Latin psalmodia) is the singing of psalms; in medieval Latin, it is a technical term for a particular psalm tone (a recitation formula). In music, psalmody is used more generally as a collective term for all musical genres whose texts are largely taken from the Psalter (Psalms). Its significance is even greater if one considers that the psalms are seen as the most important model in the development of liturgical poetry. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] II. Jewish culture In the temple, psalms were…

Modes, Musical theory of

(595 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle)
[English version] Scales, i.e. melodies with defined spaces (intervals) between single tones, were handed down to the Middle Ages through the Institutio musica by Boethius. The material in this tradition is Greek in origin. It was, however, already incorrectly understood and interpreted by Boethius. On the basis of such text parts, a theory of keys was developed during the time that Gregorian chant was adapted. Today this theory is encompassed systematically under the heading of liturgical keys. (overviews: [1; 4]). …

Metrics

(892 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle)
Haas, Max (Basle) [German version] I. Literature (CT) see Versification Haas, Max (Basle) [German version] II. Music (CT) 1. Even if, ideally, in the recital of texts there could be a clear distinction between 'singing' and 'speaking', one could imagine an entire spectrum ranging from Sprechgesang to conventional 'singing'. From a musical perspective any type of text could fall into this range. Music can imitate metrical features of a text such as long vs. short, stress or number of syllables by using long and short sounds, accents or the…

Psalmody

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle) | Zimmermann, Heidy (Basle) | Wolfram, Gerda (Vienna)
Haas, Max (Basle) [German version] I. General Remarks (CT) Psalmody is not a genre; instead it is a term commonly used in musicology to refer to a style of unison singing found in the Western and Eastern Churches. It encompasses several aspects: (1) Psalmody is a counterpart to the concept of music. If music is considered to be the visual form by means of which sound phenomena are studied, then psalmody refers to a specific way in which such phenomena are played. (2) Psalmody is based for the most part o…