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Isnād

(95 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, chain of authorities, an essential part of the transmission of a tradition. Little need of this was realized in the earliest times, but as the first century of Islam advanced, the need for stating one’s authority developed. The collections of traditions which were compiled mainly in the 3rd/9th century onwards give complete isnād s. See al-d̲j̲arḥ wa ’l-taʿdīl and ḥadīt̲h̲ . Add to the Bibliographies Fazlur Rahman, Islam, London 1966, chap. 3 passim and Nabia Abbott, Studies in Arabic literary papyri II, Qurʾanic commentary and tradition, Chicago 1967, see Index. (J. Robson)

Isnād

(41 words)

(a.) i. e. the chain of traditionists. See ḥadīt̲h̲, ii. 190b and 190b sqq. (Sections ii. and iii.) and cf. on the connection with Jewish tradition, J. Horovitz, Alter und Ursprung des Isnād, in Der Islam, viii. (1917), 39—47.

ʾIsnād

(2,241 words)

Author(s): Kees Versteegh
The term ʾisnād and words derived from it indicate in Arabic grammar the connection between a noun and its predicate, or the act of assigning a predicate to a subject (Levin 1981:157). The central point in the analysis of the sentence in Arabic grammar is the distinction between nominal ( ʾismiyya) and verbal ( fiʿliyya) sentences, each with their own constituents. The nominal sentence is built on a topic/comment structure, with the topic ( mubtadaʾ; ibtidāʾ) and the comment ( xabar) as basic constituents, whereas the verbal sentence consists of a verb ( fiʿl; this term is synonymous wi…
Date: 2018-04-01

isnād

(183 words)

isnād (A) : in the science of Tradition, the chain of authorities (syn. sanad) going back to the source of the Tr…

Isnād

(106 words)

Author(s): Robson, J.
, chaîne d’autorités, partie essentielle de la transmission d’une tradition. Dans les premiers temps, la nécessité ne s’en fit pas sentir, mais au fur et à mesure que passait le premier siècle de l’Islam, on éprouva de plus en plus le besoin d’indiquer l’autorité sur laquelle on s’appuyait. Les recueils de traditions qui ont été élaborés surtout à partir du IIIe/IXe siècle donnent des isnāds complets. (J. Robson) Bibliography voir la bibl. des art. al-Ḏj̲arḥ ¶ wa-l-Taʿdīl et Ḥadīt̲h̲ et y ajouter: Fazlur Rahman, Islam, Londres 1966, chap. 3, passim et Nabia Abbott, Studies in Arabie lit…

Isnād

(2,101 words)

Author(s): Aerts, Stijn
The isnād (pl. asānīd; also sanad, pl. asnād) is the chain of authorities prefixed to reports or sayings, transmitted orally or in writing, in Islamic historiography and the Islamic sciences, including ḥadīth, Prophetic biography, exegesis, and jurisprudence. It is a device that grants varying levels of authority to these reports by demonstrating their provenance from earlier authorities or eyewitnesses. In the case of ḥadīth traditions, isnāds ideally go back to the prophet Muḥammad in Sunnī Islam; in Shīʿism, the sayings of ʿAlī and the imāms are equally authoritative. In Qur…
Date: 2019-11-11

Ḥadīth

(6,543 words)

Author(s): Pavlovitch, Pavel
Ḥadīth (Ar. lit., speech, narrative, pl. aḥādīth) is the technical term for Muslim Tradition about the exemplary practice of the prophet Muḥammad, enshrined in his words (aqwāl, sing. qawl) and deeds (afʿāl, sing. fiʿl) and his tacit approval (taqrīr) of his Companions’ words and deeds (for a more detailed nomenclature, see al-Ḥākim, Madkhal, 81). Ḥadīth is also each individual tradition about what the Prophet said, did, or tacitly approved. In contrast to the ontological status of the Qurʾān as God’s uncreated (qadīm) speech, ḥadīth—the substantive form of the adjective “new”…
Date: 2019-11-11

Sanad

(5 words)

[see isnad ].

Sanad

(5 words)

[Voir Isnād ].

Musnad

(4 words)

see ʾIsnād
Date: 2018-04-01

muʿallaḳ

(38 words)

muʿallaḳ (A) : suspended. In the science of Tradition, ~ is used when there is an omission of one or mor…

muttaṣil

(58 words)

muttaṣil (A) : contiguous; in the science of Tradition, an unbroken isnād traced back to the source. Ḥadīth; Rafʿ mutta…

munfaṣil

(28 words)

munfaṣil (A) : in the science of Tradition, ~ is applied to a Tradition with several breaks in the I…

mudallas

(21 words)

mudallas (A) : in the science of Tradition, a Tradition with a concealed defect, Tadlīs, in the Isnād. Ḥadīth

munḳaṭiʿ

(57 words)

munḳaṭiʿ (A) : in the science of Tradition, applied commonly when there is a break in the Isnād at a…

marfūʿ

(52 words)

marfūʿ (A, pl. marfūʿāt) : lit. lifted up. In the science of Tradition, a Tradition traced back to the Proph…

Aʿlā

(24 words)

(a.) = higher, highest, also used asa technical term [see isnād ]. Al-Aʿlā is one of the titles of the 87th. Sūra.
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