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Firmilian of Caesarea

(1,416 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
Firmilian (d. 268 CE), a well-known bishop of the Cappadocian metropolis Caesarea (from c. 230 CE), appears according to Eusebius of Caesarea ( Hist. eccl. 6.7) to have taken part in almost all of the significant debates in the formation of una sancta et catholica ecclesia (one holy and catholic church) and its standardized structures in the middle of the 3rd century CE as a representative of an episcopally organized church. The institution of synods and intensive epistolary communication between the churches appear to be for him a fundamental element in the structure of the ecclesia cath…
Date: 2020-09-21

Arianism

(7,347 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
In the literary tradition of late antiquity, there is only a single piece of evidence for the word Ἀρειανισμός, in Gregory of Nazianzus ( Or. 21.22). The derivative neo-Latin term “Arianism” was constructed during the early modern period and subsequently adopted in the modern European languages (Fr. Arianisme; Ital. Arianesimo; Ger. Arianismus).“Arianism,” in its proper sense, both in the history of theology and in the history of dogma, refers to the theological positions or teachings of the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (Ἄρειος), which brought hi…
Date: 2020-09-21

Aërius

(616 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
According to Epiphanius of Salamis ( Haer. 75; see Epiph. Anc. 6) Aërius was an ascetic in the circle around Eustathius of Sebaste. He was still alive when Epiphanius wrote the Panarion at the end of the 370s CE ( Haer. 75.1.3); Filastrius, on the other hand ( Haer. 72), appears to take his death for granted, so he must have died before 390 CE.Epiphanius places Aërius among the followers of Eustathius of Sebaste. It is not known if he could already be counted among these disciples before the Synod of Gangra (c. 340 CE), where Eustathius or rather his radical…
Date: 2020-09-21

Dedication, Council of the

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
In 338 CE a short time after the death of Emperor Constantine, the new emperor of the West, Constantine II permitted Athanasius of Alexandria to return from his exile in Trier to Alexandria (DGAS no. 41.1 introduction).Having returned from exile, Athanasius assembled a synod of 80 Egyptian bishops in Alexandria. This synod voted for Athanasius. This synod sent a circular to all bishops with many documents (Athan. Apol. sec. 3–19).The eastern bishops around Eusebius of Constantinople, who had deposed and excommunicated Athanasius at the Synod of Tyre in 335 CE, a…
Date: 2020-09-21

Continentes

(1,952 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
The heresiologists of the early church call “Continentes” (Gk ἐγκρατῖται; Lat. continentes/ encratitae; Eng. Encratites [continents]) some ascetics or groups living an ascetic life who are considered to be heretics because they demand from all Christians that they follow an ascetic way of life, particularly that they renounce marriage, the eating of certain foods (particularly meat), and the consuming of intoxicating drinks (whereby “continentes” in the Latin tradition can stand generally and in a positive …
Date: 2020-09-21

Aberglaube

(1,849 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
1. Begriff und antike-mittelalterliche Grundlegung 1.1. Die deutsche WortbildungDer Begriff A. (spätmhd.: abergloube) ist eine gelehrte und künstliche Wortschöpfung (eine Zusammensetzung aus ›aber‹ im Sinne von ›verkehrt‹ oder ›falsch‹ und ›Glaube‹), welche seit ihrem Auftreten an der Schwelle zur Nz. inhaltlichen Veränderungen unterworfen war (der bisher früheste Beleg ist eine in das 15. Jh. zu datierende Glosse der Wiener Handschrift des sog. St. Trudpert-Kommentars zum Hohelied des Alten Testaments); di…
Date: 2019-11-19

Church History/Church Historiography

(14,105 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Plümacher, Eckhard | Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Beutel, Albrecht | Koschorke, Klaus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept, Presuppositions – II. Development – III. Middle Eastern Church History and Historiography – IV. Religious Education I. Concept, Presuppositions 1. Concept The concept of church history has not yet been studied sufficiently, but it is already clear that since antiquity extraordinarily different conceptions of Christian historiography have been in simultaneous competition over the interpretation of past, present, and future. Often the different methodological option…

Dioscorus of Alexandria

(476 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] was a deacon of Cyril of Alexandria who became his successor as bishop of Alexandria following the latter's death in 444. In spite of the extant hagiographic vita (CPG 3, 5470) from the Monophysite milieu, hardly anything is known about his life. Unlike Cyril, whose theology was his absolute norm, Dioscorus cannot be regarded as an independent or prominent theolo…

Simeon Stylites the Elder

(208 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 390 in Cilician Sis – Jul 24 [Sep 1], 459). Without education, Simeon entered a monastery early in the 5th century; he was forced to leave on account of his extreme asceticism. He lived as a hermit in Telanissus (some 60 km east of Antioch). From the early 420s, he lived on a hill atop a pillar that gradually reached a height of over 20 m (Stylite); visited by countless pilgrims, he gave political counsel to several emperors and appeared as a savior to the persecuted Christian…

Ulfilas

(329 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (or Wulfila; early 4th cent. – 383), Gothic descendant of Cappadocian Christians kidnapped in the 3rd century. According to his biographer Auxentius of Durostorum, he was a trilingual lector in the Gothic Christian community, probably consecrated to the episcopate by Eusebius of Nicomedia when a Gothic delegation was sent to Constantine the Great, to serve as bishop of the Christians in the region controlled by the Goths. In the 340s, he and a group of Gothic Christians entered th…

Martin of Tours (Saint)

(374 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 316–397; feast day Nov 11). The writings of Sulpicius Severus about Martin are the only contemporary sources ( Epistulae et dialogae [CSEL 1]; Vita Martini [SC 133–135]). In the Vita, written c. 395/397, the various episodes are only loosely linked. They are continued after Martin's death in three letters and three (or two) Dialogues, in which Sulpicius depicts Martin according to his monastic ideals. Martin was born c. 316/317 (conflicting chronology) as the son of a tribune in Pannonian Sabaria. He grew up in Pavia, and at the …

Dionysius of Rome

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] was a Roman presbyter who became bishop of Rome after the execution of Sixtus II in 259. He was able to reorganize the church, which had suffered greatly from the persecution by Licinius Valerianus. He died in 267/268. Almost nothing of him is recorded in the Liber pontificalis ; an exchange of letters with Dionysius of Alexandria and the congregation in Cappadocian Caesarea is attested. The authenticity of the fragment against the Origenistic theology of Dionysius of Alexandria (preserved in Athanasius, De decretis Nicaenae symboli [decr.…

Simeon Stylites the Younger

(206 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (521 Antioch – May 24 [or Sep 3?], 592), son of St. Martha and a father from Edessa, became a stylite and miracle worker (Simeon Thaumaturgus) at the age of six. Located after c. 540/541 on the mons mirabilis near Antioch, he was ordained to the diaconate and later to the priesthood as a stylite; he was sought out by pilgrims as a thaumaturge. He wrote works on asceticism, hymns, prayers, and letters (to Justinian I and Justin II). The pilgrimage activity associated with his pillar, as well as his contact relics and p…

John I, Pope (Saint)

(141 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] 523–526. At the command of Theodoric the Great, John I, of whom almost nothing is known, had to travel in 525 to Constantinople with a delegation of Roman senators and bishops and intervene there for the religious freedom of the homoean Goths, who were affected by the heresy laws. The triumphal reception of the pope in Constantinople must be regarded as a political demonstration against Theoderic, who, for that reason, had John held in Ravenna after his return; shortly afterward John died there. In ¶ the hagiographic tradition, he is therefore regarded as a victim…

Eutychian Controversy

(509 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The so-called Eutychian Controversy was an episode in the christological controversy (Christology: II, 1), that forced the Roman and Latin West to take a dogmatic position and led directly to the christological formula of Chalcedon (Monophysites/Monophysitism). The unstable equilibrium of the Union of 433 between moderate Antiochenes and Alexandrians ( DH 272) was always in danger. Dioscorus of Alexandria, the successor of Cyril of Alexandria, was not prepared to accept a signif…

Eudoxius of Antioch

(205 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (died 370) first appears as bishop of Germanicia at the Council of Antioch in 341. He was one of the leading supporters of the ecclesiastical policies of Constantius II and participated in almost all the important councils of the Eastern church as an opponent of Athanasius; he nevertheless played a role in the unsuccessful attempts to frame a theological compromise with the West ( formula macrostichus, Hahn, BSGR, §159). After he became bishop of Antioch in 357, his support of Aetius and Eunomius led to a breach with the…

Peter Mongo

(191 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (“Stammerer,” or “hoarse”; died 490). In 477 Peter was elected bishop (patriarch) of Alexandria by opponents of the decrees of Chalcedon, as successor to Timotheus Aelurus, but he was able to take office only after the death of Timothy Salophaciolus and the recognition of the Henotikon in 482; because of the intervention of John Talaia (Acacius of Constantinople), he was not recognized by the West. He was also opposed in Egypt by Monophysites because he had signed the Henotikon and refused to condemn Chalcedon. Theologically, Peter must be considered less a…

Miles Christi (Soldiers of Christ)

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Early Christianity and Military Service – III. The Militia Christi in Primitive Christianity and the Early Church – IV. Middle Ages – V. Modern Period I. Definition Latin militia Christi (“military service for Christ”; cf. the more common miles Christi/ dei, “soldier/warrior of Christ/God”) is a metaphorical description of the life and service of Christians in the world (cf. “the church militant”). Borrowing the language of apocalypticism and imagery common to antique philosophy, it interprets the C…

Eutyches,

(122 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] priest and archimandrite of the Monastery of Job in Constantinople, exercised great influence at the court so that Cyril of Alexandria sought his assistance as mediator as early as 432. As a radical proponent of the theology of one nature (Monophysites/Monophysitism) and an opponent of the union of 433, he was accused of Apollinarianism (Apollinaris of Laodicea) in 447/48 at over 70 …

Council

(4,467 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Schneider, Hans | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Puza, Richard | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law – III. Dogmatics I. Church History 1. Early Church Council (Lat. concilium, Gk σύνοδος [Lat. synodum]; the two terms were first differentiated in modern usage; see also synod) are meetings of bishops from various communities for binding clarification of disciplinary, organizational, or doctrinal questions, whose decisions, as inspired by the Holy Spirit, are not in principle revisable and claim validity for the whole church r…

Theophylactus of Ochrid

(176 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 1050 – c. 1126), student of Michael (actually Constantine) Psellus, deacon of the Hagia Sophia and royal tutor at the court of Michael VII. Around 1090 he was made archbishop of Ochrid and Bulgaria, de facto the Byzantine metropolitan even though Bulgaria remained autocephalous de iure under Byzantine rule. The majority of his literary output consists of biblical commentaries in a traditional vein; in the conflict with the Latins, he took a moderate position. Other surviving works include homilies, encomia of martyrs, a m…

Leo of Ochrid

(199 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Leo of Ochrid, 11th-century Byzantine theologian, chartophylax of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, after 1025 in Achrida/Ochrid as autocephalous archbishop of Bulgaria under Byzantine rule. To support the anti-Western campaigns of the patriarch Michael Cerularius, in 1053 Leo composed an encyclical to “the Franks” ( RAPC 2, no. 862), addressed to the southern Italian bishop John of Trani, in which he attacked Western liturgical practices (Saturday fasting, unleavened bread in the Eucharist) as Judaizing heresy. Commissioned b…

Maximinus the Arian (Saint)

(216 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Maximinus the Arian (Saint), a Homoean. In 428/429, Maximinus belonged to the retinue of the Goth Sigisvult in Africa, where a disputation with Augustine of Hippo on the doctrine of the Trinity took place (Possidius, Vita Augustini, 17), the minutes of which are preserved in the Conlatio (CPL 699). Augustine subsequently authored Contra Maximinum ¶ Arrianum (CPL 700) against him. Invoking the Synod of Rimini (359), Maximinus argued in favor of a subordination theology with an explicit use of biblical language. A typical aspect of latt…

Homoiousians

(910 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Homoiousians, a term in use since the end of the 19th century to denote a theological group that arose from the Arian dispute while remaining particularly ¶ indebted to its Origenistic heritage. The name derives from the term ὁμοιούσιος/ homoiousios (= of similar substance, in contrast to ὁμοούσιος/ homoousios = of the same substance; Homoousios, Homoeans) as a description of the relation of God the Father to the Logos/Son in the Trinity. Today, the neutral “Homoiousian” has replaced such contemporary polemical terms as “Arians…

Julius I, Pope (Saint)

(229 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Julius I, Pope (Saint), bishop of Rome from 337 to 352. With Athanasius's and Marcellus of Ancyra's flight to Rome in 339/340, the West became involved in the (church-)political controversies that followed upon the death of Constantine the Great. After the Eastern bishops failed to comply with a summons to attend a synod in Rome, a Roman synod convened under Julius in 340/341 annulled the verdicts of the Eastern synods against Athanasius and Marcellus and rehabilitated both of the…

Erlangen School

(1,922 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Assel, Heinrich | Brandt, Hermann | Mittelstraß, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Erlangen School (Theology) – II. Erlangen School (Philosophy) I. Erlangen School (Theology) 1. History From the founding of the University of Erlangen (Erlangen, University of), the members of the theological faculty have been bound to the confessional statements of Lutheranism; a Lutheran Enlightenment theology largely dictated by Jena and Göttingen was predominant until …

Ignatius of Constantinople

(165 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (d. Oct 23, 877). The son of Emperor Michael I Rangabe, after whose deposition (813) he was forced to become a monk, was elevated uncanonically (without vote of a synod) to the patriarchate by Empress Theodora II in 847. After her fall in 858, he had to resign in favor of Photius. Pope Nicholas I did not recognize his resignation. In the context of the rapprochement with the West of Emperor Basileios I, which resulted in the deposition of Photius, Ignatius was reappointed as patriarch in 867; in a conflict with Rome over ecclesiastical jurisdic…

Severinus of Noricum (Saint)

(207 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] According to our only source, the Commemoratorium vitae s. Severini (511) of Eugippius, Severinus was a high-born Roman living as an anchorite in the East. After the death of Attila in 453, he went to Rhaeto-Romania as a monastic ascetic, charismatic, and miracle-worker. There he organized the Rhaeto-Romanic population politically and socially during the death throes of the western Roman Empire and prepared them for their journey to Italy. His positive relationship with the Rugian house me…

Morocco

(845 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The Arabic name of Morocco is al-Mamlaka al-maġribīya (“The Western Kingdom”). The name Morocco derives from Marrakesh (Arab. Marrākuš). The country is located at the intersection or Europe, the Middle East, and West Africa. A clear ethnic distinction between Berbers and Arabs is not always possible. Some 60% of the population speak Arabic, the rest Berber languages. Obscurity still surrounds many aspects of the cultural, political, economic, and religious life of the population before the arrival of the Arabs and Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries. The influence of Phoenician, Punic, Roman, and Vandal rule on the Berber population or its predecessors was limited. Besides local cults (zoolatry, litholatry, astrolatry), the polytheistic religions of various conquerors left traces. Christianization of the Roman province Mauretania Tingitana (capital: Tingis, modern Tangier), formed in 40 ce, began in the mid-3rd century. The only known indigenous martyr is Cassian of Tangier. Donatism and the Circumcellion movement were unable to gain a foothold in this province. The same is true of the Arianism of the Vandals (428–533). Mauretania Tingitana lay beyond the rule of Byzantium in North Africa (533–702). There is evidence of groups of indigenous Chri…

Stylite

(333 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Stylitism was a special form of early Christian asceticism, in which the stylite stood for long periods, usually for life, on a platform atop a pillar (Gk στῦλος/ stýlos, hence “stylite”), which often was raised in stages, sometimes to a height of more than 20 m, as a visible expression of the ascetic ideal of extreme homelessness and immobility. It was the duty of monks to provide the stylite with sustenance and communion. As motivation the sources speak of total separation from the wo…

Moschus, John

(158 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (Eukratas; c. 540/550, Aigai in Cilicia? – 634, Rome?), monk of the monastery of St. Theodosius in Jerusalem and of the laura of Pharan; after 578, he set off with his disciple Sophronius to visit monasteries and ascetic communities in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. A journey to Rome in 614 in the face of the impending threat of Persian invasion remains unclear. In the tradition of the Apophthegmata Patrum , Moschus collected his travel experiences in the ¶ form of edifying anecdotes, gathered from monks and a…

Papacy

(20,018 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages and Reformation – III. Modern Period and Today – IV. Chronological List of the Popes I. Early Church 1. Definition. If papacy is defined as the claim (based on Matt 16:16–19; 28:20; Luke 22:31f.; John 21:15–19) of the bishops of Rome as successors and heirs to Peter to leadership along with jurisdictional and magisterial primacy (I) within the universal church, papacy in the strict sense dates only from the Middle Ages in the Latin West. In the Early Church, the point at iss…

Silvester I, Pope

(194 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] ( Jan 31, 314 – Dec 31, 335). According to the Liber pontificalis and hagiographic tradition, Silvester was a Roman presbyter under Bishop Miltiades and a confessor in the Diocletian persecution (Persecutions of Christians: I). He did not come forward as bishop of Rome in succession to Miltiades during the reign of Constantine the Great. ¶ He was informed of the results of the Synod of Arles (Donatism), which he probably did not attend out of fear of endangering his episcopate; he played no role in the conflict with Arius and Arianis…

Erlangen, University of

(1,222 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] I. History – II. Theological Faculty I. History In the early modern period, as territorial states were being formed on the soil of the Holy Roman Empire, Brandenburg-Ansbach/Bayreuth took the side of the Reformation in 1526. In 1529, at Luther's suggestion, it set out to establish a territorial university, but this hope was never realized, not least because …

Gelasius I, Pope

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (pontificate Mar 1, 492 – Nov 21, 496). According to the Liber pontificalis , Gelasius was an African. Entrusted with the papal correspondence under Simplicius and especially Felix III, in the context of the Acacian Schism, Gelasius maintained the schism with the East even after the death of Acacius of Constantinople. In a dispute with the emperor Anastasius, Gelasius developed the “two powers” doctrine, building on the doctrine of papal primacy stated by Leo I, in a situati…

George of Laodicea

(193 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (died c. 360), a presbyter in Alexandria, was deposed and expelled because of his support for Arius. In the context of the reversal of church policy after the Council of Nicea (325), he was bishop of Syrian Laodicea after around 335. As one of the leading Eusebians, he was deposed and excommunicated in absentia in 342/43 at the (Western) Synod of Sardica, actions that remained without effect in the East. Through his protest in 358 against the usurpation of the Antiochene episcopacy by Eudoxius of Constantinople and his support by Ge…

Primacy, Papal

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition The expression papal primacy denotes the juridical supremacy in the universal church of the pope as bishop of Rome, i.e. his supreme and immediate administrative authority as head of the College of Bishops, pastor of the universal church, and vicar of Christ on earth ( CIC/1983, c. 331: “The Bishop of the Church of Rome . . . is the head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the Pastor of the universal Church here on earth; consequently, by virtue of his office, he has supreme, full, immediate, and…

Theban Legion

(177 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] according to the Passio Acaunensium martyrum of Eucherius of Lyon (before 450), a group of soldiers under the leadership of Mauritius, who were executed as Christians in the early 4th century under Emperor Maximian (Persecutions of Christians: I). The cult of the martyrs described by Eucherius goes back to the collection of their relics by Bishop Theodore of Octodunum (Sion, Switzerland) at the end of the 4th century. Especially in the early Middle Ages, the cult of the Theban Legion e…

Servatius, Saint

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Servatius, Saint, the first verifiable bishop of Tongeren ( civitas Tungrorum) in the Roman province of Germania II; by the 6th century, nothing more was known of him. According to Athanasius ( Apol. sec. 49.1, where he is called Sarbatios), he signed the decrees of the Synod of Serdica (342/343). His signature on the forged decrees of a purported Synod of Cologne in 346 must be ruled out as a source. In 350 he was on a diplomatic mission in the East on behalf of the usurper Magnentius, which included Athanasius ( Apol. Const. 9); at the Synod of Rimini in 359, he was amo…

Constantius II

(508 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (Aug 7, 317 – Nov 3, 361). The Roman emperor Constantius II was the second son of Constantine and Fausta. He was made Caesar in 324; upon Constantine's death in September of 337, he became Augustus over the eastern half of the empire. Because his primary military challenge was securing the eastern border, until 350 he spent most of his time in Antioch. After the death of Constantine II in 340, the rivalry between Constantius and his younger brot…

Pope

(242 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Pope is the designation of the bishop of Rome as successor to Peter (the disciple), head of the (Roman) Catholic Church, and holder of a universal primacy of teaching and jurisdiction within the church (Papacy). In the Greek church, πάπας/ pápas ¶ was originally a title or term of address for abbots and bishops; later it was reserved exclusively to patriarchs. There is inscriptional evidence from the second half of the 4th century for its use by the Roman bishops; in the Latin church, it has been reserved exclusively to t…

Homoousios

(383 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] The Greek term ὁμοούσιος means “having the same ousia/substance/essence.” This compound adjective, which denotes the essential identity of origin and emanation, is found in Gnostic texts and also in philosophical usage after the time of Plotinus and was probably adopted from Manichaeism. It was on account of its Gnostic/Manichaeist connotation that the term homoousios was probably not employed by the exponents of a trinitarian theology of identification (Monarchianism) to describe the relationship of God and the Son/Logos. It is unc…

John of Damascus (Saint)

(449 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 650, Damascus – before 754, Mar Saba). The legendary vitae of John hardly contain any factual information. John of Damascus was born into a Christian family of the Greek Damascene upper class, which initially collaborated with the caliphs. His family enjoyed close ties to the court of the caliph, in whose service he also stood. Before the year 700, probably because the Christians were increasingly ¶ being driven out of public offices from the late 7th century on, he retired to the Mar Saba Monastery near Jerusalem. There, he officiated as pri…

Victor of Vita

(181 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] cleric in Carthage and author of a Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae dating from 487/489, which describes the situation of the Catholic Church in Africa under the Vandals. In keeping with historiographic tradition, Victor included documents; the conclusion of the Historia (III 71) and the Passio VII monachorum (CPL 800) are secondary, but not the prologue. Hanns Christof Brennecke Bibliography Works: CPL 798 M. Zink, Bischof Victors von Vita Geschichte der Glaubensverfolgung im Lande Afrika, 1883 Storia della persecuzione vandalica in Africa, ed. S.…

Studios Monastery

(273 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] monastery in the Psamathia quarter of Constantinople, founded by Studios, who was patricius and consul in 454. Its church, a three-aisled basilica dedicated to John the Baptist, was begun in 450; it was converted into a mosque after 1453. Today it is the only pre-Justinian church ruin in Istanbul. It was among the largest and most important monasteries of the capital, with great wealth. During the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI) in the 8th and 9th centuries, under its abbot ( hegoumenos) Theodore of Studios it became the most important intel…

Historiography

(5,830 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl | Cancik, Hubert | Dietrich, Walter | Plümacher, Eckhard | Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Et al.
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East – II. Greece – III. Rome – IV. The Bible – V. Christianity – VI. Judaism I. Ancient Near East Historiography in the classic sense, with a reflective account of historical linkages, developed rudimentarily at best in the cuneiform cultures of the ancient Near East in Hittite and Neo-Assyrian annals and the introductions to treaties; even these documents were usually written to justify the political actions. Around the middle of the 3rd millennium bce, however, there appeared an immense number of all sorts of texts containing more …

Euzoios

(186 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] of Antioch (died 376) was a deacon and partisan of Arius in Alexandria. He was deposed and excommunicated by an Alexandrian synod. With Arius, he presented a creed to Constantine in 327 which subordinated the Logos but avoided extremely subordinationist statements (Christology: II, 1). Rehabilitated at the Synod of Jerusalem in 335, he was a presbyter in Alexandria under bishop Georgos. After the deposition of Meletius of Antioch, he became bishop of Antioch in 360/61 at the behest of Constantius II, whom Euzoios baptized shortly before his death, and one of ¶ the leadin…

Eustathius of Thessalonica

(173 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 1115, Constantinople[?] – c. 1195, Constantinople) was a prominent representative of Byzantine scholarship from Constantinople (?), where he obtained a classical education. He was a deacon and a teacher at the patriarchal school (grammar, rhetoric, philosophy). Initially called as metropolitan of Myra, he was transferred by the emperor to Thessalonica c. 1178…

Monogram of Christ

(505 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
The oldest MSS tradition offers contractions of the divine names, especially ĪC̄ for Jesus (= IHCOYC) and X̄C̄ or X̄P̄C̄ for Christ (= XPICTOC). These contractions, which might be understood as ciphers for the salvation achieved in Christ (Christology), are also found to some extent in monogrammatic form (e.g., as the chrismon, or Chi-Rho) in the Middle Ages in introductions to letters and documents. From around 200 we also find the common symbol ⳨, the staurogram (Cross 3), which is made up of the superimposed letters tau (T) and rho (P) as an abbreviation for stauros / stauroō (cross …

Arianism

(1,169 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
Arianism is the teaching of the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (ca. 280–336) and his supporters. It arose originally in reaction to the Christology of the apologists. To preserve both monotheism and the deity of Christ, the apologists had adopted the philosophical idea of the Logos, and Origen (ca. 185-ca. 254), making use of ontological Platonic categories, had attributed autonomy to the Logos/Christ as a hypostasis, or ousia, subordinate to God (Ontology). Rejecting the Monarchian views of the Trinity of which he accused his bishop Alexand…

Symeon Stylites

(188 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] d. Ä. (um 390 im kilikischen Sis – 24.7. [1.9.] 459), ging Anfang des 5.Jh. ohne Schulbildung in ein Kloster, das er wegen seiner extremen Askese verlassen mußte; Eremit in Telanissus (ca.60 km östlich von Antiochien), seit Anfang der 20er Jahre des 5.Jh. dort als erster auf einem Hügel auf einer sukzessiv auf über 20 m erhöhten Säule (Säulenheilige); Ziel zahlloser Pilger, beriet mehrere Kaiser polit. und erschien den verfolgten Christen im Perserreich als Retter. Um seine Gebei…

Symeon Stylites

(188 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] d.J. (521 Antiochien – 24.5.[3.9.?] 592), als Sohn der hl. Martha und eines aus Edessa stammenden Vaters geb., mit sechs Jahren Stylit (Säulenheilige) und Wundertäter (S. Thaumatúrgos). Seit ca.540/41 auf dem mons mirabilis nahe Antiochien, wurde S. als Stylit zum Diakon und später Presbyter ordiniert, bes. als Wunderheiliger von Pilgern aufgesucht. Er vf. asketische Werke, Hymnen, Gebete und Briefe (an Justinian I. und Justin II.). Der Pilgerbetrieb um seine Säule scheint ebenso…

Papst

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Papst, Bez. für den Bischof von Rom als Nachfolger des Petrus, Oberhaupt der (röm.) kath. Kirche und Inhaber eines universellen kirchl. Lehr- und Jurisdiktionsprimats (Primat, Papsttum). Πα´πας/pa´pas war in der griech. Kirche urspr. Bez. oder Anrede für Äbte und Bischöfe, später exklusiv für Patriarchen; seit der 2. Hälfte des 4.Jh. ist die Bez. inschriftlich auch für die röm. Bischöfe bezeugt; im lat. Bereich wurde sie seit dem 5.Jh. exklusiv für den röm. Bischof benutzt. Seit Leo I. ist die Übernahme d…

Säulenheilige

(300 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Styliten), Sonderform frühchristl. Asketentums (Askese), das im dauernden, meist lebenslangen Stehen auf einer Säulenplattform bestand, wobei die Säule (griech. στυ˜λος/stýlos, daher Styliten) oft sukzessiv erhöht wurde (z.T. über 20 m) als sichtbarer Ausdruck für das asketische Ideal der Unbehaustheit und Ortsstabilität. Die Versorgung mit Nahrung und Eucharistie oblag Mönchen. Als Motiv nennen die Quellen eine möglichst vollständige Trennung von der Welt und Nähe zum Himmlischen; vermutete außer…

Theophylakt

(162 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] von Achrida/Ochrid (ca.1050 – ca.1126), Schüler des Michael (eigentlich Konstantin) Psellos, Diakon an der Hagia Sophia und Prinzenerzieher am Hof Michaels VII. Um 1090 Erzbf. von Ochrid und Bulgarien, de facto byz. Metropolit, auch wenn die Autokephalie Bulgariens unter byz. Herrschaft de jure erhalten blieb. Der größte Teil seines lit. Werkes sind katenenartige Bibelkomm. in Abhängigkeit von der Tradition; in der Auseinandersetzung mit den Lateinern vertritt er einen gemäßigten …

Petrus Mongus

(179 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Stammler oder Heiserer; gest.490). Als Nachfolger des Timotheus Aelurus 477 von den Gegnern der Beschlüsse von Chalcedon zum Bischof (Patriarchen) von Alexandrien gewählt, konnte er erst nach dem Tod des Timotheus Salophaciolus und nach Anerkennung des Henotikon 482 sein Amt antreten, wurde aber vom Westen aufgrund der Intervention des Johannes Talaia nicht anerkannt (Acacius von Konstantinopel/Acacianisches Schisma). Wegen seiner Unterschrift unter das Henotikon und seiner Weig…

Thebäische Legion

(165 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Thebäische Legion, nach der »Passio Acaunensium martyrum« des Eucherius von Lyon (vor 450) eine Gruppe von Soldaten unter Führung des Mauritius, die unter Kaiser Maximian Anfang des 4.Jh. im Wallis als Christen hingerichtet wurden (Christenverfolgungen: I.). Der durch Eucherius bezeugte Märtyrerkult geht auf die Erhebung der Reliquien durch Bf. Theodor von Octodunum (Sitten) Ende des 4.Jh. zurück. V.a. im Früh-MA erlebte der Kult der Th. eine europaweite Ausweitung mit Schwerpunk…

Studioskloster

(244 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Studioskloster, Kloster in der Psamathiaregion von Konstantinopel, gegründet von Studios (Patricius und Konsul i.J. 454). Die Kirche, eine Johannes dem Täufer geweihte dreischiffige Basilika, wurde 450 begonnen (nach 1453 in eine Moschee umgewandelt, heute die einzige vorjustinianische Kirchenruine Istanbuls). Eines der größten und wichtigsten Klöster der Hauptstadt mit reichem Besitz, wurde das S. im ausgehenden 8. und frühen 9.Jh. unter seinem Abt (hegoumenos) Theodoros Studite…

Ulfila

(268 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Ulfilas/Wulfila; Anfang 4. Jh. – 383), gotischer Nachfahre von im 3.Jh. verschleppten kappadokischen Christen. Nach seinem Biographen Auxentius von Dorostorum dreisprachiger Lektor der gotischen christl. Gemeinde, wohl 336 anläßlich einer gotischen Gesandtschaft an Konstantin von Eusebius von Nikomedien zum Bf. der Christen im gotischen Herrschaftsbereich ordiniert. In den 40er Jahren kam er mit einer Gruppe gotischer Christen als Flüchtling in das Reich und wurde von Konstantiu…

Silvester I.

(164 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Silvester I., röm. Bf. 31.1.314–31.12.335. Nach dem LP und der hagiographischen Überlieferung Römer, Presbyter unter Bf. Miltiades und Confessor in der diokletianischen Verfolgung (Christenverfolgungen: I.). Als Nachfolger des Miltiades ist er während der Herrschaft Konstantins als röm. Bf. nicht hervorgetreten. Über die Ergebnisse der Synode von Arles (Donatismus), an der er wohl wegen Gefährdung seines Episkopats nicht teilgenommen hatte, wurde er informiert; im arianischen Strei…

Severin

(187 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] von Noricum. Nach der einzigen Quelle, dem »Commemoratorium vitae s. Severini« (511) des Eugippius, Angehöriger der röm. Oberschicht, der als Anachoret im Osten lebte, nach dem Tod Attilas (453) nach Ufernoricum gekommen war und dort als monastischer Asket, Charismatiker und Wundertäter die romanische Bevölkerung im Niedergang des weström. Reiches polit. und sozial organisierte und ihren Abzug nach Italien vorbereitete. Die von Eugippius betonten positiven Beziehungen zum rugische…

Papsttum

(16,351 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Alte Kirche 1.Grundsätzliches Im Sinn der Definition von P. als Anspruch der röm. Bischöfe unter Berufung auf Mt 16,16–19; 28,20; Lk 22,31f.; Joh 21,15–19 als Nachfolger und Erben des Petrus auf die Leitung und den Jurisdiktions- und Lehrprimat in der Gesamtkirche (Primat: I.) kann vom P. im eigentlichen Sinne erst seit dem MA und nur für das lat. Abendland gesprochen werden; für die Alte Kirche handelt es sich um die Gesch. des röm. Bischofsamtes und der christl. stadtröm. Geme…

Victor

(187 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] von Vita, Kleriker in Karthago, Vf. einer 487/489 zu datierenden »Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae«, die die Lage der kath. Kirche während der Herrschaft der Vandalen beschreibt. In Anlehnung an die historiographische Tradition überliefert V. Dokumente; der Schluß (III 71) und die »Passio VII monachorum« (CPL 800) sind sekundär, nicht aber der Prolog. Hanns Christof Brennecke Bibliography Werke: CPL 798 M. Zink, Bf. V.s v. V. Gesch. der Glaubensverfolgung im Lande Afrika, 1883 Storia della persecuzione vandalica in Africa, hg. von S. Con…

Primat/Papat

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als Primat (P.) bez. man die rechtliche Vorrangstellung des Papstes (Papat) als Bischof von Rom in der Gesamtkirche, d.h. seine höchste und unmittelbare Leitungsgewalt in der Gesamtkirche als Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Hirte der Gesamtkirche und Stellvertreter Christi auf Erden (c.331 CIC/1983: »Der Bischof der Kirche von Rom … ist Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Stellvertreter Christi und Hirte der Gesamtkirche hier auf Erden; deshalb verfügt er kraft seines Amtes …
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