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Schuler, Alfred

(183 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Nov 22, 1865, Mainz – Apr 8, 1923, Munich), studied law, history, and archaeology in Munich, without completing a degree or any later professional activity. From 1897 to 1904, he and Karl Wolfkehl, L. Klages, and S. George (whose “cult of Maximin” he influenced) formed the core of the Kosmiker (“Cosmics”) in Schwabing. At the heart of his anti-Semitic elitist ideology, which combined the most diverse elements – from apocalypticism and light mysticism to J.J. Bachofen and F. Nietzsche – was a Neo-Pagan attempt at repristination …

Schweizer, Alexander

(191 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Mar 14, 1808, Murten – Jul 3, 1888, Zürich). Following his examinations and ordination, Schweizer did an additional year of study in Berlin. Deeply impressed by F.D.E. Schleiermacher, Schweizer became one of his few students to carry on his work productively. He was appointed associate professor of practical theology in Zürich in 1835 and was promoted to full professor in 1840; after 1844 he also served as pastor of the Großmünster. From a consistent Reformed perspective, he advo…

Schubert, Gotthilf Heinrich von

(281 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Apr 26, 1780, Hohenstein – Jun 20, 1860, Munich). After gymnasial studies in Weimar, where he was strongly influenced by J.G. Herder, and study of theology at Leipzig, Schubert changed his field and went to Jena, where he received his in 1803; he then began to practice in Altenburg. In 1805 he began studies at the mining academy in Freiberg. In 1809 he was appointed director of the technical college in Nuremberg, having delivered public lectures to great acclaim (along wi…

Olshausen, Hermann

(190 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 21, 1796, Oldesloe – Sep 4, 1839, Erlangen), Protestant theologian. From 1814 Olshausen studied in Kiel, then in 1816 in Berlin, where he became a tutor in 1818 and lecturer in 1820. He was influenced by F.D.E. Schleiermacher, and then especially by A. Neander. He became an associate professor in Königsberg in 1821, and in 1827 a full professor of New Testament studies. His Pietist devotion (Pietism) led him to become a member of the circle of Johann Wilhelm Ebel and Heinrich…

Nitzsch, Karl Immanuel

(340 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1787, Borna – Aug 21, 1868, Berlin). After studying at Wittenberg, he served as a pastor beginning in 1811; in addition to his pastoral duties, in 1817 he was appointed professor at the seminary in Wittenberg. From 1820 to 1822, he served as provost and superintendent in Kemberg. He received his Dr.theol. h.c. from Berlin in 1817. From 1822 to 1847, he taught at Bonn as professor of systematic and practical theology; he was also university preacher, and quickly became an influential figure within the faculty and in the church. His major work on systematics was his Syst…

Oettingen, Alexander Konstantin von

(155 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1827, Wissust, Livonia – Aug 20, 1906, Dorpat), Protestant theologian; 1856–1890 full professor of sys-¶ tematic theology in Dorpat. In addition to numerous shorter occasional writings ( Ueber akuten und chronischen Selbstmord, 1881) and a traditionally oriented outline of dogmatics ( Lutherische Dogmatik, 3 vols., 1897–1902), it is Oettingen’s lasting merit to have coined the term social ethics in his work Die Moralstatistik und die christliche Sittenlehre. Versuch einer Socialethik auf empirischer Grundlage (2 vols., 1868, 1873; 3rd ed. 1882 …

Schafft, Hermann

(204 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1883, Langenstein, near Halberstadt – Jun 2, 1959, Kassel). Beginning in 1903, Schafft studied theology in Halle, Berlin, and Tübingen; after 1907 he took on various church functions and pastoral ministries, with an emphasis on social service. He was P. Tillich’s closest friend and supported Tillich’s concept of a religious socialism (Religious socialists) based on the elements of autonomy, heteronomy, and theonomy. He was a leading advocate of the Neuwerk movement; the focus of his journalistic work was the periodical Neuwerk, which he edited after 193…


(498 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] 1. Johann Christian Friedrich (Oct 25 1779, Esslingen – Oct 24, 1837, Tübingen). In 1797 he began study of theology, philosophy, and Near Eastern languages in Tübingen. He also studied at Paris in 1808. In 1810 he was appointed deacon in Cannstatt and in 1812 in Tübingen, where he was appointed professor of biblical theology in 1815. In 1816 he was made senior of the faculty and superintendent of the Tübingen Stift, fighting for its continued existence. He lectured on the Old Testamen…

Keim, Karl Theodor

(187 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1825, Stuttgart – Nov 17, 1878, Gießen), was a tutor in Tübingen from ¶ 1851 to1855, and after working as pastor, he became associate professor of New Testament in Zürich in 1860 and professor in Gießen in 1873. He made a name for himself especially through his works on the history of the Reformation in Württemberg. Under the influence of his teachers F. Baur and G. Ewald, he then devoted himself to the NT, giving particular consideration to the Early Church. His influential main opus Geschichte Jesu von Nazara (3 vols., 1867–1872) placed him in the tradition …


(1,064 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht | Wiggermann, Uta | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Friedrich Wilhelm (Feb 4, 1703, Harzgerode – Apr 23, 1786, Berlin), Reformed theologian. In 1722 he began to study theology in Frankfurt an der Oder; in 1724 he served as a domestic tutor in Stettin (Szczecin) and Holland, where he was influenced by Jean Barbeyrac (1674–1744), a critic of confessional tests, and Arminianism (Arminians: I). In 1728 he was appointed tutor to the heir to the throne of Hesse-Homburg. In 1731 he was appointed third preacher of German Reformed chu…

Mediation Theology

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Dogmatics I. Church History The 1828 programmatic announcement of the journal Theologische Studien und Kritiken ( ThStKr) in 1828 by G. Lücke in cooperation with K. Ullmann, F.W.K. Umbreit, J.K.L. Gieseler, and K.I. Nitzsch used the term Vermittlung, “mediation.” The theologico-political controversies of the Vormärz period coined mediation theology as a polemical term to attack this school of theology, which followed in the footsteps of F.D.E. Schleiermacher but clearly went back to Melanchthon. The linkage…

Petri, Ludwig Adolf

(340 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Nov 16, 1803, Lüthorst, Solling – Jan 8, 1873, Hannover). After studying at Göttingen from 1824 to 1827, Petri became a pastoral assistant at the Church of the Cross in Hannover, where (giving up his academic career) he was appointed junior pastor in 1837 and senior pastor in 1851. In 1843 he received an honorary doctorate from Erlangen. A theological high churchman, he was one of the most significant figures associated with Neo-Lutheranism. He had affinities with the revival mov…

Zeller, Eduard Gottlob

(303 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Jan 22, 1814, Kleinbottward [now part of Steinheim an der Murr] – Mar 19, 1908, Stuttgart) began studying philosophy in 1831 at Tübingen, then changed to theology and found in F.C. Baur a teacher who left a deep impression on him. He received his doctorate in 1836, was appointed lecturer in 1840, and in 1847 became an associate professor of theology at Bern. In 1849 he received a call to a full professorship at Marburg. The administration, however, forced him to move to the philosophical faculty. He taught in Heidelberg from 1862 to 1872 and in Berlin from 1872 to 1894. His Philo…

Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu

(578 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Mar 30, 1799, Breslau (Wrocław) – Jun 19, 1877, Halle), began studying Arabic and Indology in Breslau in 1816/1817, but transferred to Berlin as early as January, where he also took up the study of theology. J.W.A. Neander became his most important teacher. A closer contact with F.D.E. Schleiermacher did not develop and the latter even hindered his habilitation, which he was nevertheless able to complete in 1821 ( Sufismus sive Theosophia Persarum pantheistica, 1821). In 1823, Tholuck published his most famous work, Die Lehre von der Sünde und vom Versöhner od…

Schenkel, Daniel

(200 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1813, Dörperlin, Canton Zürich – May 18, 1885, Heidelberg). After studying in Basel and Göttingen, with W.M.L. de Wette, J.K.L. Gieseler, and G.C.F. Lücke as his most influential teachers, the Reformed student received his habilitation from Basel in 1838. In 1841 he was appointed senior pastor in Schaffhausen; he held a variety of other offices. In 1846 he sharply attacked German Catholicism ( Die protestantische Geistlichkeit und die Deutsch-Katholiken, 21846). In 1850 he succeeded de Wette as professor at Basel; in 1851 he moved to Heidelb…

Neander, Johann Wilhelm August

(599 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (orig. David Mendel; Jan 17, 1789, Göttingen – Jul 14, 1850, Berlin). In 1806, Neander converted from Judaism to Christianity in Hamburg, and in 1809 he graduated there, after studying theology and philosophy in Halle, Göttingen, Wittenberg, and Heidelberg. In 1811, he gained his Habilitation in Heidelberg, where in 1812 he became associate professor of church history and history of doctrine. In 1813, he received an appointment in Berlin, the chief location of his academic activit…


(648 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Hermann (Sep 1, 1754, Halle – Jul 7, 1828, Halle), great-grandson of A.H. Francke. Following school at the Pädagogium Regium of the Frankische Stiftungen (Francke institutions), he began to study philosophy, classical philology, and theology in Halle. In 1776 he began teaching in the Halle schools. After receiving his doctorate, he began lecturing in 1777; in 1779 he was appointed associate professor and in 1784 full professor of theology and superintendent of the Pädagogiu…

Weisse, Christian Hermann

(203 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1801, Leipzig – Sep 19, 1866, Leipzig) studied philosophy in several places, including Leipzig, where he began lecturing in 1823. From 1828 to 1837 he taught there as associate professor of philosophy; after interruptions, he was ¶ appointed full professor in 1845. Dissociating himself from G.W.F. Hegel, he espoused a nuanced theism (II); especially in I.H. Fichte’s Zeitschrift für Philosophie und speculative Theologie, he wrote as a late advocate of Idealistic theorizing. In addition, after critical acceptance of D.F. Strauß’s Leben Jesu, he defended t…

Wegscheider, Julius August Ludwig

(266 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 17, 1771, Küblingen, near Schöppenstedt – Jan 27, 1849, Halle). In 1787 Wegscheider began his studies at Helmstedt, where he was influenced by the rationalist H.P.K. Henke. After working as a private tutor in Hamburg (1705–1805) and a brief period as a lecturer in Göttingen, he was appointed professor of theology and philosophy at Rinteln; in 1810 he went to Halle as professor of theology. On the basis of an extensive adoption of the ideas of I. Kant and a critical analysis of earlier theological traditional and dogmatic structures, in 1815 he published his Institution…


(437 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Pautler, Stefan
[German Version] 1. Karl Heinrich von (Dec 11, 1822, Öhringen – Aug 13, 1899, Tübingen) began his theological studies in Tübingen in 1840, becoming a lecturer at the university and the Stift in 1847; after serving as a pastor, in 1851 he was appointed second court chaplain in Stuttgart and in 1859 chief consistorial councilor. In 1861 he succeeded F.C. Baur as professor of church history and history of dogma at Tübingen; he was also ennobled. In 1889 he became chancellor of the university and a member…

Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich

(310 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1791, Egeln near Magdeburg – Feb 14, 1855, Göttingen). After periods of undergraduate and graduate study in Halle an der Saale and Göttingen, Lücke became assistant professor in Berlin (1818), professor of New Testament and church history in Bonn (1819), and of New Testament and systematic theology in Göttingen (1827). In 1839, he joined the Consistorial Council and in 1843 became abbot of Bursfelde Abbey. Lücke may be considered the most important student of F.D.E. Schleiermacher; he published his teacher's Hermeneutik posthumously in 1838. In his Grundriß …

Steffens, Henrik

(352 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (May 2, 1773, Stavanger, Denmark [now Norway] – Feb 13, 1845, Berlin). Beginning in 1790, Steffens studied natural history in Copenhagen and Kiel, where he taught as a lecturer in 1796. In 1798 he traveled to Jena. J.G. Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre (ET: The Science of Knowing, 2005) and especially F.W.J. Schelling’s Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (1797; ET: Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, 1988) and Von der Weltseele (1798) influenced him deeply. In Freiberg he studied at the Mining Academy and published Beyträge zur innern Naturgeschichte der Erde (1801), dedi…

Paulsen, Anna

(205 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1893, Hoirup, North Schleswig – Jan 30, 1981, Schleswig), Protestant theologian. She studied at Kiel, Tübingen, and Münster, and was particularly influenced by A. Schlatter and K. Heim. After passing her faculty examination at Kiel in 1921, she was one of the first women in Germany to receive a licentiate in theology (1924). From 1926 to 1945, she headed the Seminar für kirchlichen Frauendienst (also called the Bibel- und Jugendführerschule) at the Burckhardthaus in Berli…

Röhr, Johann Friedrich

(204 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1777, Roßbach near Naumburg an der Saale – Jun 15, 1848, Weimar). From 1796 Röhr studied theology in Leipzig, and in 1801 became assistant preacher at the university church, in 1802 assistant teacher in Schulpforta, in 1804 minister in Ostrau near Zeitz, in 1820 senior minister and general superintendent in Weimar, where on Mar 26, 1832 ¶ he delivered the funeral oration at Goethe’s burial. Röhr’s Briefe über den Rationalismus [Letters on Rationalism] (1813) provided a programmatic foundation for Rationalism in its theological and ecclesiast…


(459 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] 1. Friedrich Christoph. (Apr 21, 1772, Rudolstadt, Thuringia – May 18, 1843, Gotha), bookseller and publisher. After an apprenticeship in Leipzig, in 1796 Perthes opened in Hamburg the first retail bookstore in Germany not connected with a publisher (Printing and publishing: I, 3). In 1821 he moved to Gotha, where he specialized in publishing academic works in history and theology. In 1825 he played a leading role in establishing the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler (German Pub…

Jannasch, Wilhelm

(176 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1888, Gnadenfrei, Silesia – Jun 6, 1966, Frankfurt am Main), became a pastor in 1914, and was senior pastor at St. Ägidien in Lübeck from 1921. He was forced into retirement in 1934, worked actively in the Confessing Church, and became pastor of the confessing congregation in Berlin-Friedenau in 1939. He was later professor of practical theology in Mainz (1946–1956) and the founding dean of the faculty, and also served in the administration of the church. His ambitious biography of Erdmuthe Dorothea Gräfin von Zinzendorf appeared in 1915. His Reformationsgeschic…

Müller, Georg Ferdinand

(183 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1805, Kroppenstedt near Magdeburg – Mar 10, 1898, Bristol) studied in Halle and joined the Awakening movement (Revival/Revival movements). At the suggestion of his teacher F.A.G. Tholuck, he went in 1829 to London, to devote himself to the so-called Jewish Mission. He became a member of the Plymouth Brethren, from whom he had separated by 1849; yet he remained ¶ active as a preacher of the Spirit-led “Open Brethren,” and in May 1830 he was rebaptized. Consciously following A.H. Francke, Müller founded the Scriptural Knowledge Instit…

Munk, Kaj

(263 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Kaj Harald Leininger Petersen; Jan 13, 1898, Maribo, Lolland – Jan 4, 1944, near Silkeborg), Danish writer and theologian. After study in Copenha-¶ gen, from 1924 he was a minister in Vedersø, West-Jutland. S.Kierkegaard exercised a lasting influence on him. He was also influenced by H. Ibsen's naturalism and by the social perspective of Martin Andersen Nexø. Prominent in his work, in addition to biblical figures ( Pilatus, 1917), was much material, some borrowed from antiquity, the Nordic medieval milieu, and also from the 19th century, in whic…

Ruckteschell, Nikolai von

(161 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1853, Sinferopol, Crimea – Oct 19, 1910, Hamburg), Lutheran pastor and theologian. After studying in Dorpat, he was appointed pastor to the deaconesses’ house in St. Petersburg in 1879; in 1890 he was appointed to the Friedenskirche in Hamburg-Eilbeck. His outstanding social commitment was focused on the notion of community. In response to the social crisis, Ruckteschell called for a restructuring of economic and social life. In Christian socialism he saw a “dangerous blend of natural and religious sensibility” ( Personalgemeinde, 156). The social ques…

Strauß, Gerhard Friedrich Abraham

(190 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1786, Iserlohn – Jul 19, 1863, Berlin). After studies in Halle and Heidelberg from 1805 to 1808, with C. Daub as his most important teacher, Strauß was appointed pastor in Ronsdorf in 1809 and in Elberfeld in 1814; from 1822 to 1859 he was professor of practical theology in Berlin as well as fourth court chaplain and cathedral preacher (1856 senior court chaplain). He was appointed senior consistorial councilor in 1836 and made a member of the High Consistory in 1850. He was a close ¶ friend of J.W.A. Neander and an outstanding preacher and pastor. With a re…

Umbreit, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl

(186 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Apr 11, 1795, Sonneborn, near Gotha – Apr 26, 1860, Heidelberg). After studying philosophy and theology from 1814 to 1817, with J.G. Eichhorn as an outstanding teacher, Umbreit was appointed lecturer in Near Eastern languages at Göttingen in 1818; in 1820 he became associate professor of Old Testament and Near Eastern philology at the faculty of philosophy at Heidelberg and was promoted to full professor in 1823; in 1829 he became professor of OT at the faculty of theology, which…


(525 words)

Author(s): Bultmann, Christoph | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. Rudolf (Mar 28, 1853, Eningen unter Achalm, Württemberg – Oct 20, 1929, Leipzig), professor of Old Testament in Breslau (1888–1898) and Leipzig (1898–1923), and the father of 2. In 1905/1906, Kittel published a critical edition of the OT on the basis of the edition by Jacob ben Chayim (1524/1525). The third edition (1929–1937) was based on the Codex Leningradensis (Biblical manuscripts: I, 2.a). Building on his own source studies on Gen to 2 Kgs and 1/2 Chron, Kittel wrote a Geschichte der Hebräer (2 vols., 1888–1892, ET: History of the Hebrews, 1895/1896), which he …

Ullmann, Karl

(266 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Mar 15, 1796, Epfenbach, Palatinate – Jan 12, 1865, Karlsruhe). A member of the Reformed Church, Ullmann studied at Heidelberg and Tübingen (1812–1816); after some other positions, in 1821 he was appointed associate professor at Heidelberg and full professor in 1826. From 1829 to 1836 he taught at Halle and then returned to Heidelberg, where he became an authoritative proponent of mediation theology. He combined a proclivity for philology with works on church history, history of dogma, and systematic theology; among his writings, Historisch oder mythisch? (1838, 21…


(292 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] In his major work Der christliche Staatsmann (1932, 21932), W. Stapel devised the notion of a Volksnomos (“national or ethnic law”), arguing that the New Testament (and hence Christian) concept of law is not simply the fulfillment of the Old Testament concept but also the fulfillment of all laws of other nations. He described the wealth of national gods metaphorically as the “crypt” of the “Christian cathedral” of redemption. The nomos Germanikos, defined on the basis of racist ideology, gives the German nation its character; it is the embodiment of …

Stapel, Wilhelm

(195 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1882, Calbe – Jun 1, 1954, Hamburg), political commentator and writer. After receiving his Dr.phil. in 1911, Stapel devoted his efforts to anti-modernist, nationalist ideas, becoming a dominant figure in the “conservative revolution.” From 1918 to 1938, he and Albrecht Erich Günther published the journal Deutsches Volkstum; with a Protestant bias and close friendship with E. Hirsch, they championed a program of ethnic nationalism with an anti-Semitic flavor. Especially between 1926 and 1938, Stapel was the dominant voi…

Mynster, Jakob Peter

(298 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Nov 8, 1775, Copenhagen – Jan 30, 1854, Copenhagen). After theological studies at Copenhagen, which he began in 1790, Mynster worked as a private tutor; in 1802 he became pastor of Spjellerup in South Zealand. In 1811 he was appointed assistant pastor of the Church of Our Lady, the cathedral of Copenhagen. In 1812 he was also appointed lecturer and joint director of the pastoral seminary. In 1817 he became a member of the ministry of higher education. Finally, following a chaplai…

Mallet, Friedrich Ludwig

(184 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 4, 1792, Braunfels – May 6, 1865, Bremen), Reformed preacher. From 1811 to 1815, he studied in Herborn and Tübingen, and took part in the wars of liberation against Napoleon. In Bremen, he was pastor at St. Michael's from 1817 and at St. Stephen's from 1827. As an anti-rationalist and anti-Hegelian he may be regarded as a figure of the Awakening (Revival/Revival movements). Mallet supported a cooperation between Reformed and Lutherans. His rousing sermons with a focus on soci…

Twesten, August Detlev Christian

(261 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Apr 11, 1789, Glückstadt – Jan 8, 1876, Berlin). Professor of theology and philosophy at Kiel since 1814, in 1835 Twesten succeeded F.D.E. Schleiermacher in Berlin, having been a follower theologically. He published very little. His lectures on dogmatics in the spirit of mediation theology remained incomplete but attained classical status. In them he dissociated himself from rationalism and maintained a position independent of Hegelian speculative theology, nascent confessionalis…
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