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Transcendence and Immanence

(3,184 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Figl, Johann | Steinmann, Michael | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences The natural sciences themselves do not work with a concept of transcendence as the opposite of nature. They consider “nature” or the “cosmos” (Cosmology) the totality of reality. 1. Nevertheless the natural sciences are based on a finitized epistemology. Kurt Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem of 1931 demonstrated that it is impossible in principle to prove within a formal system both the system’s internal consistency and its completeness. There are also physical limits to what can be know…

Absolute Necessity

(881 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian | Sandkaulen, Birgit
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Philosophy I…


(1,541 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian | Imorde, Joseph | Lundin, Roger
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The term transcendentalism, preceded by earlier terminology (Transcendentals), goes back to the critical transcendental philosophy of I. Kant; following on his definition of the term transcendental, it denotes a method of thinking that “is not so much occupied with objects as with the mode of our cognition of these objects, so far as this mode of cognition is possible a priori” ( KrV, B 25). It implies a methodological program defined by a dual differentiation: in contrast to rationalism, it asserts that our concepts, to the extent th…


(399 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] (Lat. proiectio, “throwing forward”) is used in different ways in epistemology, psychology, and philosophy of religion. In the realm of Cartesian epistemology, the term has the following function: knowledge is understood as reaction to received stimuli, whereby the conscious mind projects what is received in the direction from which a stimulus comes. In psychology, projection encompasses a broad spectrum of meaning. It was used by S. Freud in psychoanalysis from 1894 to describe pa…


(965 words)

Author(s): Enskat, Rainer | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Philosophy Until the late Middle Ages, transcendentals ( transcendentalia, also known as transcendentia) belong to a type of attributes which go beyond the attributes of what has being (Being) that Aristotle fixed with his ten categories. What has being ( das Seiende) itself was taken as the first of the transcendentals because, together with the One, the True and the Good, it forms the most general attributes that any Something (can) have and which therefore include all categorical attributes. The extension of research into the categories is motivated by research still conducted in the 18th century into transcendentals (hence “transcategoricals”), especially by the ontotheological premises of the Christian religion, namely that the mode of being of the divine ¶ Creator of every being within the world, and of the world as a whole, necessarily requires revision in the categorical conceptions of being within the world, since the unique Seiende called God cannot be defined by any category of being within the world. But even the Aristotelian critique of Pla…

Transcendental Theology

(376 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] ¶ The term transcendental theology comes from the transcendental philosophy of I. Kant. A theology that addresses its object, primordial being, through “pure reason, using nothing but transcendental concepts ( ens originarium, realissimum, ens entium)” Kant calls “transcendental theology” ( Kritik der reinen Vernunft [ KrV ], 21787, B659; ET: Critique of Pure Reason, 1881); he associates it with natural theology, which can take the form of “cosmotheology” or “ontotheology.” Transcendental theology, identified by Kant with deism, is …


(1,872 words)

Author(s): Angehrn, Emil | Danz, Christian | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy A system (from Gk σύστημα/ sýstēma, “combination”) is a structured entity made up of parts; the term can refer to all reality as well as to science and philosophy themselves. In an objective sense, the idea of an ordered arrangement was used in various domains in antiquity – the cosmos (World: II), organisms, medicine, music,ethics, politics. In a methodological sense, the term is important in the history of modern philosophy, dominated in particular by two central themes: …

Speculative Theology

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] Speculative theology arose in the context of the speculative philosophy of F.W.J. Schelling and G.W.F. Hegel; it represented a distinct form of primarily modern Protestant theology, based on the deep-rooted conviction of a positive relationship between philosophy and theology, or faith and reason. The historically divergent conceptions of speculative theology were due not only to fundamentally different understandings of speculation, but also to different understandings of the relationship between faith and knowledge. I. The development of speculative …


(1,498 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Schnepf, Robert | Danz, Christian
[German Version] …