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Philosophy of Religion

(7,437 words)

Author(s): Deuser, Hermann
[German Version] I. Basics; History 1. Concept and history. Ever since the beginnings of philosophy – pioneered equally by both European antiquity and the civilizations of East Asia –, it was natural that there should be a philosophy of religion, even if not under that name. Styles of thought, conceptions of wisdom, prudential theories, and scientific attitudes could ¶ advocate or criticize rituals, myths, institutionalized religions, and theologies – both approaches presupposed ways of life dominated by religion. Traditionally these were so interwoven …

Kierkegaard, Søren Aaby

(2,355 words)

Author(s): Deuser, Hermann
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence (May 5, 1813, Copenhagen – Nov 11, 1855, Copenhagen) I. Life Danish theologian, philosopher, and writer. Kierkegaard was the youngest of seven siblings. His mother, Ane Sörensdatter Lund (1768–1834), had been employed as a maid in the house of his father Michael Pedersen Kierkegaard (1756–1838) after the death of his first wife (1796). As a businessman, the father – an orthodox Pietist and active member of the Herrnhuter Brethern (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren…


(1,114 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus | Deuser, Hermann
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion and Dogmatics I. Philosophy The philosophical expression, “existence” (Lat. “existential”), first coined in Late Antiquity by Marius Victorinus as a translation of the Greek, ὕπαρξις ( hýparxis, “pre-beginning”), has, since the Middle Ages, referred to ¶ one of the two fundamental aspects of (finite) being: while the essence (“essential”) of a being constitutes what this being is (substance), its existence …


(3,339 words)

Author(s): Grasmück, Oliver | Macho, Thomas | Alkier, Stefan | Kober, Michael | Vetter, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Semiotics, a discipline inaugurated primarily by C.S. Peirce and Ferdinand de Saussure (see II and IV below), is the systematic analysis of signs (Gk σημεῖον/ sēmeíon) and the way the human mind perceives and understands them. A sign in the sense of semiotics can be any present physical or mental entity that is in a position to stand for an entity not present. A sign is constituted by the conjunction of two elements, the signifier and the signified. In religious studies, semiotics examin…