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Disciples and Discipleship

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N. | März, Claus-Peter | Marquardt, Manfred
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics I. History of Religion Gathering disciples around themselves was part of the work of those who founded, renewed and established religions (Buddha, Jesus, Confucius, Lao Tsu, Mahāvīra, Mani, Muḥammad, Nanak, Zarathustra) as well as of other – if not all – prophets, …


(2,621 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N. | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament and Early Christianity – III. Systematic Theology I. Religious Studies In religious studies, the concept of “charisma” refers especially to religious phenomena which exhibit characteristics such as originality, immediacy, spontaneity, and dynamics, and which stand in sharp contrast or even in outright opposition to the ordinary. From an ideal-typological perspective, these phenomena thus entail a potential disruption of tradit…

Sociology of Religion

(3,710 words)

Author(s): Knoblauch, Hubert | Mürmel, Heinz | Otto, Eckart | Ebertz, Michael N. | Stuckrad, Kocku v. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The sociology of religion studies religion’s social aspects and manifestations, clearly including religious institutions, organizations, and social groups. It also studies more situational forms, less clearly defined, such as gatherings, ceremonies, and collective rituals (e.g. processions [Rite and ritual]). In an extended sense, characteristic of the German-language tradition since M. Weber, religious sociology deals with all social or socialized behavior focused on…


(886 words)

Author(s): Grube, Dirk-Martin | Ebertz, Michael N.
[German Version] I. Systematic Theology – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Systematic Theology The term “indifference” is used particularly in classical Catholic theology, where it has a positive meaning, applied to a distancing from the world motivated by the coming of the kingdom of God (see also II). This indifference is sharply distinguished from the negative concept of “indifferentism,” denoting indifference regarding claims to transcendent knowledge, and as such was officially condemned (DH 291…


(968 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N.
Purgatory (Latin  purgatorium) is a “place of purification” in the afterlife. Heaven, hell, and purgatory constitute the core of the eschatological mindscape (Eschatology with fig. 1), which, specifically in the Roman (later Roman Catholic) tradition, shaped the Church’s social manifestation as an “institution of grace” (Max Weber) and was defined dogmatically in that sense. The groundwork was laid by the theologians of the early church without clear biblical support (despite 2 Macc 12:44 f. and 1…
Date: 2021-03-15


(3,847 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N. | Sauter, Gerhard
1. Definition and substanceEschatology (the doctrine of the “last things,” Greek  éschata, Latin  novissimaextrema) is the term coined in the 17th century for the theological doctrine of the end and consummate state of each individual as well as the cosmos as a whole (see 3.3. below); it also includes religious imaginings and their (pictorial) representation. But eschatology is not the same as futurology, which attempts to present a likely future through extrapolation, or utopia, which sketches a speculat…
Date: 2019-10-14


(857 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N.
Das F. ist ein »Reinigungsort« (lat. purgatorium) im Jenseits. Himmel, Hölle und F. zählen zum Kernbestand der eschatologischen Vorstellungswelt (Eschatologie mit Abb. 1), die für die röm.-kath. Tradition spezifisch, für ihre Sozialgestalt als »Gnadenanstalt« (Max Weber) funktional geworden und dementsprechend auch dogmatisch fixiert worden ist. Ohne eindeutigen biblischen Beleg (trotz 2. Makk. 12, 44 f. oder 1. Kor. 3, 15) durch Theologen der Alten Kirche vorbereitet, forciert durch Papst Gregor den Großen (590–604) und auch aus der kirchlichen Frömmigkeitsp…
Date: 2019-11-19


(3,479 words)

Author(s): Ebertz, Michael N. | Sauter, Gerhard
1. Begriff und GegenstandE. (Lehre von den »letzten Dingen«, griech. éschata; lat. novissima, extrema) ist die im 17. Jh. geprägte Bezeichnung für die theologische Lehre von dem Ende und der Vollendung des einzelnen Menschen wie des Kosmos insgesamt (s. u. 3.3.); sie schließt auch die religiösen Vorstellungen und ihre (bildliche) Darstellung mit ein. E. meint jedoch nicht Futurologie, die durch Extrapolation Zukünftiges wahrscheinlich macht, oder Utopie, die solches spekulativ entwirft, sondern versucht auf der Basis der christl. Offenbarung Aussagen über Endgültiges u…
Date: 2019-11-19