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Porcius

(3,528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family from Tusculum. In the belief that the family had been pig-breeders, in antiquity their name was derived from porcus  (Varro Rust. 2,1,10 etc.). From the middle of the 3rd century BC, the Catones and Licinii branches belonged to Rome's leading class and at the beginning of the 2nd century, they attained the consulship with  Cato [1] (Censorius) and P. [I 13]. The exact blood relationship between the most prominent bearer of the name, Cato [1], and his great-grandson, P. [I 7] Cato (Uticensis), is not completely clarified. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic…

Naevius

(1,767 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, perhaps derived from the praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.); popular etymology derives it from naevus, ‘birthmark’ (Arnob. 3,14). The antiquity of this name in Rome, which is also widely attested in inscriptions, is suggested by the name of porta Naevia in the Servian city wall (Varro, Ling. 5,163; cf. Liv. 2,11,8). However, the family emerged politically only in the 2nd cent. BC. The most important bearer of the name is the poet N. [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N., Cn. Dramatist and epic poet, 3rd cent. BC Roman drama…

Gaius

(1,171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen)
[II] Widespread Roman praenomen (probably connected with the Latin family name Gavius, but not related to gaudere), abbreviated as C., more rarely G.; in late Greek inscriptions also Γα ( Ga). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Physician of the school of Herophilus Physician of the school of Herophilus, probably 1st cent. BC or AD, wrote about hydrophobia (Caelius Aurelianus morb. ac. 3,113-4). He explained that this disease affected the brain as well as the meninges, because the nerves surrounding the stomach and responsi…

Rupilius

(333 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Proper name of Italic origin. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R., P. Cos. 132 BC Praetor in 135 BC at the latest; as cos. of 132 BC together with P. Popillius [I 8] Laenas, oversaw the sentencing of Ti. Sempronius [I 15] Gracc(h)us' followers (Cic. Lael. 37). R. put an end to the major slave revolt in Sicily and imposed order to the province with the aid of a senatorial commission ( lex Rupilia, Cic. Verr. 2,2, passim; 2,3; 2,125; Val. Max. 6,9,8; Liv. Per. 59 et passim; MRR 1,497 f.). He died soon after, allegedly from grief, after his brother failed to be elected cons…

Dexter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen in the families Afranius, Calpurnius, Cassius, Cestius, Claudius, Cornelius, Domitius, Egnatius, Nummius, Pomponius, Subrius, Turpilius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cloelia

(143 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Young Roman woman, example of female bravery Young woman who was hostage of the Etruscan king  Porsenna (508 BC). She escaped, swam across the Tiber (or rode across it on horseback) and reached Rome safely with a group of young girls; she had to be returned to the king but, in recognition of her bravery, he released her and a number of the hostages. After the peace treaty the Romans honoured her with a statue on horseback at the Velia on the Sacra Via (Liv. 2,13,6-11; Flor. Epit. 1,4,7). She remained one of the most widespread examples of female bravery (Boccaccio, De claris m…

Decius

(1,555 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Plebeian nomen gentile, documented in the literary tradition since the 5th cent.; the most important family were the Decii Mures (D. [I 1-3]), possibly from Campania [1], whose self-sacrifice (partly unhistorical) in battle made them much quoted examples in the tradition. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] D. Mus, P. (Origin of the cognomen not known), in 352 BC, committee member dealing with a debt crisis in Rome (Liv. 7,21,6); as war tribune in 343, he is said to have saved the army of the consul A. Cornelius [I 22] Cossus Arvina from…

Rufillus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Fictitious Roman cognomen, affectionate form of Rufinus (as in Hor. Sat. 1,2,26 f.; cf. 1,4,92 for an overbred dandy). Rufilla was the name of an alleged lover of Octavianus (Augustus) (Suet. Aug. 69,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 27; 229.

Trebonius

(601 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, documented with certainty only from the 1st cent. BC on (T. [I 2] might be unhistorical). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Son of an ill-reputed (Cic. Phil. 13,23; the same as in Hor. Sat. 1,4,114?) Roman equestrian. In 58 BC [1], T. worked as quaestor urbanus against P. Clodius' [I 4] switch to the plebs . As tribune of the people in 55, he introduced laws that gave M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus and Cn. Pompeius [I 3] provincial terms of five years and exte…

Pansa

(78 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen; according to ancient tradition a reference to a ‘ flatfoot’ (Plaut. Merc. 640; Plin. HN 11,254; Quint. Inst. 1,4,25); very common in the Imperial period. Its most famous bearer was C. Vibius Pansa ( cos. in 43 BC); the addressee of Cato's [1] speech In Pansam is not known (ORF I4, fr. 205). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 261  Degrassi, FCap 147  Kajanto, Cognomina, 105; 241  H. Rix, Das etruskische Cognomen, 1963, 249f.  Schulze, 242; 365.

Quintilianus

(2,140 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
(or Quintillianus, rarely Quinctil[l]ianus). Roman cognomen, derived from the praenomen Quintus, widespread in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Professor of and author on rhetoric, late 1st cent. Latin teacher of oratory of the last third of the 1st cent. AD; first professor of rhetoric to receive a public salary at Rome. Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) [German version] I. Biography M. Fabius Q. was from Calagurris [2] (modern Calahorra) in northern Spain. His father was at least conversant with rhetoric (Quint. Inst. 9,3,73…

Octavianus

(409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen, indicating adoption by the gens Octavia (Octavius), in the Imperial period also a family name. [German version] [1] First Roman emperor (Augustus) In academic literature, the name O. is often used to denote the first Roman emperor, Augustus, in the period between his testamentary adoption by Caesar in 44 BC and his assuming the epithet Augustus in 27 BC. Born C. Octavius, in 44 he first took the name of his adoptive father C. Iulius Caesar, but never used his other epithet O., as it would only have draw…

Priscus

(884 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Common Roman cognomen ('venerable') . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Πρεῖσκος/ Preîskos). The 3rd cent. AD PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267), a book catalogue from a private library, presents at line 4 'a commentary on epic verses by P.' [2], who is identified as one of the two Prisci mentioned in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 ( Priscus uter); he may be identical to Clutorius Priscus, the Roman equestrian and poet mentioned in Tac. Ann. 3,49 and Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papi…

Chrysogonus

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Influential freedman of Sulla (therefore his full name L. Cornelius C.), who enriched himself significantly during the Proscriptions. He had Sex. Roscius retroactively placed on the Proscription list for the purpose of acquiring his property for little money. According to Cicero that is why he backed the patricide trial of the victim's son, Sex.  Roscius in 80 BC (Cic. Rosc. Am. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Apustius

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian gentile name probably of Etruscan origin [1], inscriptions recorded up to the Imperial period (ThLL 2,294). [German version] [1] L. Legate 215 BC Legate 215 BC (Liv. 23,18,9; 11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Envoy 161 BC In 161 BC delegate to Ptolemy VII Physcon together with Cn.  Cornelius Lentulus (Pol. 31,20,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Fullo, L. Cos. 226 BC cos. 226 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Fullo, L. Praetor urbanus 196 BC Probably son of no. 3, aedile in 201 BC, in 200 legate in Macedonia, 196 prae…

Equitius

(272 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Relatively rare Roman family name (for derivation: Varro, Rust. 2,1,10). [German version] [1] E., L. Represented himself as son of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Adventurer of uncertain origins, who in 102 BC represented himself as the son of the people's tribune Ti.  Sempronius Gracchus, killed in 133. He was acknowledged neither by the censor, Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus Numidicus, nor by the sister of Gracchus. As a follower of L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus, in 100 he stood for the post of people's tribune for 99, but was himself killed during the unrest that led to the death of Appuleius. E…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Rebilus

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen occurring in the Caninii family (Caninius [3-5]) until the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 265.

Geganius

(141 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman patrician family, which according to tradition was politically significant in Rome during the 5th cent. BC, but then entirely disappeared. The gens supposedly came to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7); a later construction traced the family back to  Gyas, a companion of Aeneas (Serv. Aen. 5,117). [German version] [1] G. Macerinus, M. Cos III, censor 435 BC Consul I in 447 BC, II in 443 (triumph over the Volsci, InscrIt 13,1,67; Liv. 4,9f.), III in 437, censor in 435 with C. Furius [I 25] Pacilus; legate in 431. Elvers, Ka…

Curius

(291 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebian gentes name, attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards (ThlL, Onom. 2, 760-762). [German version] [1] Procos. between 47 and 45 BC Otherwise unknown proconsul between 47 and 45 BC (contact of Cic. Fam. 13,49). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. People's tribune 198 BC People's tribune in 198 BC, objected to the election of T.  Quinctius Flamininus as consul (Liv. 32,7,8). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] C., Q. Catalinarian, betrayed the conspiracy in 63 BC In 70 BC, as a former quaestor (?), he was expelled from the…

Fonteius

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman Plebeian family from Tusculum (who, as mint masters, liked to place on their coins the Dioscuri, who were particularly revered there, RRC 290, 307, cf. 353), whose members often held the office of praetor; the family did not attain the consulate until the early Imperial period. 1. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Legate Legate of the proconsul Q. Servilius Caepio in Asculum; their murder by the local population triggered the  Social Wars [3] (Cic. Font. 41; 48; Vell. Pat. 2,15,1; App. B Civ. 1,173); perhaps identical with the mint master RRC 290 or 307. Elvers, Karl…

Atticus

(504 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Platonic philosopher, c. AD 176 (Ἀττικος; Áttikos) Platonic philosopher, mentioned in the chronicle of Eusebios in AD 176 [1. 16, 148], teacher of  Harpocration of Argus, author of commentary on Plato's Timaeus [1. 50, 215f.], Phaedon (?) [1. 30, 190f.] and Phaedrus (?) [1. 42, 197]; the fragments 40-42 Des Places, fr. 40-42 Des Places, which could refer to a commentary on the ‘ Categories of Aristotle [1. 248, 258f.], come from the tract ‘against those who pretend to be able to explain the teachings of Plato through those of Aristotle …

Musca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Fly’) in the family of the Sempronii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 24; 85; 333.

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Asellus

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Diminutive of asinus, nickname in the families of the Annians and Claudians, also common in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 87, 325. [German version] [2] see Donkey see  Donkey

Ahala

(45 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (= ala, the armpit), creation legend in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12,4,4-5 [1]. Famous as surname of the Servilii in the 5th cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Mommsen, Röm. Forsch. 2, 1879, 209 ff. F. Münzer, s. v. Servilius, RE 2A, 1768.

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Flavus

(213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman cognomen (‘golden yellow’, ‘blond’, probably named after the hair colour), in the Republican period for C. Alfius [I 6] F., the family of the Decimii, Sp.  Larcius F. and L.  Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy, father of Italicus, also after AD 9 on the side of Rome Brother of  Arminius, of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy. Son of  Segimerus, son-in-law of the Chatti princeps Actumerus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1), father of  Italicus [1. 201f.]. F. remained on the side of Rome…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Calvinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Calvinus [1] see  Domitius [German version] Calvinus [2] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period particularly common in the  Domitii family, but also in the Sextii and Veturii (ThlL, Onom. 108). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Privernas

(24 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('Victor over“Privernum”'), byname of L. Aemilius [I 24] Mamercinus P. (perhaps invented later). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 182.

Antius

(238 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebian gentile name. [German version] [1] (Ateius ?), C. Senator (middle of the 1st cent. BC) Senator 54 BC (Cic. Att. 4,17,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Sp. Roman envoy 438 BC Roman envoy, killed by Fidenates in 438 BC (statue on the rostra, Cic. Phil. 9,4 f.; Livy 4,17,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Briso, M. Tribunus plebis 137 BC Tribune in 137 BC, effective in opposing lex tabellaria of L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Brut. 67). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Restio (?), C. Tribunus plebis probably 68 BC Tribune …

Baebius

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (Schulze 133; ThlL 2,1674f.). The family played an eminent role since the 2nd Punic War but did not achieve a lasting position in the top ranks of Roman nobility during the Republic. The most important family is that of the Tamp(h)ili. The Baebii produced several officials in imperial times. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] B. (Tamphilus), M. Tribunus plebis 103 BC (?), as tribune of the people, he offered resistance against the lex agraria of L.  Appuleius Saturninus in 103 BC (Vir. ill. 73,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] B. Deleg…

Nucula

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probable origin as a nickname, ‘nut’ (Fest. 176 L.; cf. Cic. De or. 2,253), Numisius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 89; 337.

Aburius

(90 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] C., Roman envoy (171 BC) C., envoy to King Masinissa and the Carthaginians 171 BC; his offspring was possibly the mint master C. Aburius Geminus 134 (MRR 1, 418; RRC 276). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Tribunus plebis (187 BC) M., attempted as tribunus plebis in 187 BC to prevent the triumph of M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 39,4-6); Praetor inter peregrinos 176 (Liv. 41,14; 15). His offspring was possibly the mint master M. Aburius Geminus 132 (MRR 2,369; 400; RRC 280). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Heius

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin proper name (Schulze 459). [German version] H., C. Around 75 BC a respected and rich citizen of the Sicilian city of Messana. Of his possessions  Verres stole four famous Greek statues and valuable carpets (Cic. Verr. 2,4,3-19; 27). In spite of this, in 70, on behalf of his community, he appeared in Rome for Verres as a witness for the defence but incriminated him in the cross-examination by Cicero (Verr. 2,2,13; 4,15-19; 150; 5,47). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Florus

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘blond’, ‘radiant’, with ablaut, related to flavus [1]), in the Republican period epithet of C. Aquilius [I 11] F. and L. Mestius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Annius F. Lat. poet and writer, 1st/2nd cent. AD Under the cognomen Florus (in conjunction with the family name Annius or Ann(a)eus and the first name P. or L.) four works or groups of works are known: 1. the introduction to a dialogue Vergilius orator an poeta (P. Annius F.), 2. and 3. fragment of a correspondence (Charisius, Gramm. 66,10f.; 157,21f. B.) and an exchange o…

Gurges

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Throat’, pejorative ‘Spendthrift’, Macrob. Sat. 3,13,7; cf. gurgulio), in the Republican period in the family of the Fabii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 269 Walde/Hofmann 1, 627f.

Lafrenius, T.

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] One of the twelve praetors of the insurgent Italians during the Social War [3]. L. fell in 90 BC, in the battle against Ser. Sulpicius Galba (App. B Civ. 1,181; 204-206; ILLRP 1089). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cn.

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Abbreviation of the uncommon Lat. Praenomen Gnaeus (Old Lat. Gnaivos, Oscan Gnaivs, Etruscan cneve), from (g)naevus, ‘birthmark’, also abbreviated as Gn. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, 1, 613 Salomies, 29f.

Gallus

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[II] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘Gaul’). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] see Cornelius [II 18] Gallus see  Cornelius [II 18] Gallus Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P.G. Eques, exiled AD 65 Eques, who was friendly with the praef. praet.  Faenius Rufus and the consular  Antistius [II 12] Vetus and was therefore exiled in AD 65 (PIR2 G 66). In Tacitus the name is rendered as Publius Gallus, but that is out of the question. A nomen gentile is concealed behind Publius, perhaps Publilius? Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, in: Splendidissima civitas.…

Centho

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (perhaps of Etruscan origin) in the Claudian family [1. 149]; probably linked to cento ‘suit of rags’ [2. 200]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 2 Walde/Hofmann I3.

Aquillius

(1,358 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (less commonly Aquilius; see ThLL, 2,375), in the 5th cent. BC also patrician, but the bearers do not appear to be historical. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Aquillii fratres (end of the 6th cent. BC) Supposedly conspired against the newly established Republic and were executed (Liv. 2,4-5; Plut. Pobl. 4-7 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. (Tuscus ?), C. Cos. 487 BC Consul in 487 BC, fought according to tradition against the Hernici and received an ovatio (Liv. 2,40,14; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,67,1; MRR 1,19-20).    Elvers, Ka…

Caedicius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian lineage, attestable from the 5th cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 18f.). [German version] [1] C., L. People's tribune in 475 BC People's tribune in 475 BC (MRR 1, 28). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Roman, allegedly heard a divine voice near the Vesta temple in 391 BC allegedly heard a divine voice near the Vesta temple in 391 BC, warning him of the impending attack by the Gauls. In the same place, the sanctuary of  Aius Locutius was later erected. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] C., Q. Centurion against the Etruscans According to a later a…

Pius

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen. In the Republican Period, confined to the Caecilii Metelli (Caecilius [I 31-32]); found among numerous other gentes in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 251. [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 2nd or 3rd cent. AD? Grammarian, tentatively dated to the late 2nd or late 3rd cent. AD, active in Memphis and Sparta (Schol. Hom. Od. δ 356; θ 372), i.a.; author of a commentary (EM 821,55) on Homer, the essentials of which (explanations of voca…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Rufus

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
Common Roman cognomen ('red-haired', 'redhead', Quint. Inst. 1,4,25). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] [- - -]us R. Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia with an impressive monument in Rome Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia, probably in the final period of the Republic or the first years of Augustus. An impressive monument was erected for him in Rome by more than six cities of the province (CIL VI 1508 = 41054; cf. IGUR 71). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, CIL VI 1508 (Moretti IGUR 71) und die Gestaltung senatorischer Ehrenmonumente, in: Chiron 14, 1984, 201-217  PIR2 R …

Thalna

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, Iuventius [I 5-8]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 94.

Annius Fetialis

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman historian, probably of the 1st cent. AD, often cited as a source in Pliny's HN (HRR 12 317). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius 2, 649.

Calenus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably for descent from Cales) in the gens  Fufia in the 1st cent. BC; frequent epigraphical attestations in the imperial age (ThlL, Onom. 79). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Sicinius

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, often confused with Siccius; members of the family frequently appear as people's tribunes in the 5th cent. BC, but the family is otherwise insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., C. Tradition links S. with the origins and early development of the people's tribunate ( tribunus plebis ): S. was firstly the initiator of the secessio plebis of 494 BC and then one of the people's tribunes, subsequently elected for the first time (Liv. 2,32,2; 2,33,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,45,2; 6,8…

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Satureius

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Tr. pl. in 133 BC, in a fight was the first to hit Ti. Sempronius [I 16] Gracchus with a chair leg (Plut. Ti. Gracchus 19,10). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Carvilius

(362 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian (probably immigrant) family, attested in the 3rd-2nd cents. BC, but later disappeared (ThlL, Onom. 219f.; Schulze, 139, A.8; 403; 454). The quaestor and witness in the trial of Camillus in 391 BC, Sp. C. (MRR 1,93), may have been a later fabrication; there was also a chieftain of Britain by the name of C. (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1). [German version] [1] C., L. Tribunus plebis 212 BC People's tribune in 212 BC, alongside Sp. C., perhaps his brother. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Sp. Leader of a scribal school Freedman of Sp. C. Maximus Ruga, around 2…

Kaeso

(91 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also Caeso). Uncommon Latin praenomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, abbreviated K.; according to ancient etymology it indicates a child born by Caesarean section (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 50L; Plin. HN 7,47). Because K. appears among patrician families only in the Fabii and Quinctii, who were the first to hold the priesthood of the luperci, according to Mommsen it may denote the ritual ‘striking’ ( caedere) at the festival of the Lupercalia and originally have been the name of a lupercus ( Lupercal). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Salomies, 26f.

Coelius

(856 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, also Coilius, in surviving manuscripts often confused with Caelius (Schulze 155; ThlL, Onom. 2, 523-525). Bearers of this name are documented since the 2nd cent. BC, usually belonging to the Tribus Aemilia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Antipater, L. Historiographer, late 2nd cent. BC Possibly the brother of the senator C. Coelius C.f. [1; 2. 16], a highly educated scholar of law and rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 102; Dig. 1,2,2,40), considered the teacher and friend of L. Licinius Crassu…

Autronius

(235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Rare plebeian gentile name with usage recorded from the 2nd cent. BC (ThlL 2,1601f.). [German version] [1] A. Paetus, L. Cos. suff. 33 BC Cos. suff. 33 BC.; probably procos. of Africa 29/28, celebrated a triumph in 28 ex Africa (Inscr. It. 13,1,87). PIR I2 A 1680. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Paetus, P. A friend of Cicero's in his youth and quaestor together with him in 75 BC A friend of Cicero's in his youth and quaestor together with him in 75 BC (Cic. Sull. 18), in Greece between 73-71 as a legate, probably of M. Antonius (praetor 74) (Syll.3 748, l. 16). Became praetor in …

Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. …

Atidius

(147 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Attidius), seldom used proper name (cf. the municipium Attidium in Umbria, Schulze 558; ThlL 2,1174). [German version] [1] Senator, exile at the court of  Mithridates, killed 67 BC Senator, exile at the court of  Mithridates VI, killed by him in 67 BC (App. Mith. 410). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Geminus Governor in Greece under Augustus after 29 BC Governor in Greece ( praetor Achaiae, Tac. Ann. 4,43,3) under Augustus after 29 BC, whose decision the Messenians cited in AD 25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] (Attidius). A. Cornelianus, L.…

Laco

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Etruscan origin in the families of the Cornelii (Cornelius [20] and lulii and of P. Graecinius L. A follower of M. Antonius [I 9] mentioned by Cicero in 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 2,106; Cic. Att. 16,11,3) bearing the name probably came from a family of the urban nobility of Anagnia, the Abbutii Lacones (ILS 6258). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 81; 153; 316.

Gratidius

(176 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a Roman family originating from Arpinum (epigraphically also Grattidius) from a development of the name Grattius (Schulze 427). [German version] [1] Supporter of C. Marius, first victim of the Civil War In 88 BC, G. was supposed to take over the army of the consul Cornelius [I 90] Sulla on behalf of C. Marius and, therefore, was murdered by his soldiers (first victim of the civil wars; Val. Max. 9,7b,1; Oros. 5,19,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., M. Praefectus of M. Antonius [I 7] in the fight against pirates A relative of Cicero, died in 102 BC as the praefectus…

Habitus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Cluentii ( Cluentius [2]) and others. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tricipitinus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived from an unknown place name, occurring only in the Lucretii family in the Republican period (Lucretius [I 7; 9-12]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210.

Maenius

(930 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 185; 187]. The most important bearer of the name is M. [I 3]; the family is politically unimportant in the 1st cent. BC. Lex Maenia is the title of a Menippean satire of Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). The law concerned the power of the paternal head of the house; content and dating are contested [3. 1085 - 1121]. A further lex Maenia probably passed before 290 BC directed that the ‘agreement of the Senate’ ( auctoritas patrum) for elections be obtained before proclaiming the election results (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boch…

Antistius

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Greek Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet; although it is not possible to be certain, because the name is fairly common, A. is usually equated with the Macedonian C. Antistius Vetus, who in AD 11 was sent into exile because of treason (Tac. Ann. 3,38), or with the praetor A. Sosianus, who suffered the same destiny in AD 62 (Reason: factitatis in Neronem carminibus probrosiis... Tac. Ann. 14,48; 16,14; 21; cf. Hist. 4,44). His four epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus are balanced, elegant variations of traditional motives…

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Aesillas

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably a gentilicium, not a cognomen. As quaestor and proquaestor, A. minted tetradrachmas in his name in Macedonia beginning in 94 BC (?). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. A. Bauslaugh, Silver Coinage with the Types of A. the Quaestor, 2000.

Frugi

(56 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘capable’, ‘upright’, ‘honourable’, from frux [1]), within the Republican nobility among the Calpurnii ( Calpurnius [I 20-23];  [II 5;  24];  [III 1]) and M. Pupius Piso F. Calpurnianus, in the Imperial period also among the Licinii and other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1, 552. Degrassi, FCIR 252 Kajanto, Cognomina 68, 253.

Auruncus

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (designation of origin) used by Postumius  Cominius A. ( cos. 501 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tuscus

(43 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (meaning 'Etruscan') describing origin. Used in the Republican period by Aquillius [I 2], Siccius, in the Imperial period by Dasumius [4], Nummius [5], and Tullius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149  Id., FCIR, 271  Kajanto, Cognomina, 51; 188.

Sulla

(51 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (not of Etruscan origin [2. 250]), passed down in the family of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] S., according to Plutarch (Sulla 2,2) allegedly because of the pale colour of his face (Cornelius [I 87-90; II 57-61]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 106 2 H. Rix, Das etruskische Cognomen, 1963.

Marius

(5,642 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Et al.
Oscan praenomen ( Egnatius [I 3]). Attested as a Roman nomen gentile from the 2nd cent. BC. The most important holder is the seven-time consul M. [I 1]; the prominent Imperial-period Spanish bearer of the name, M. [II 3], is probably a descendant of family members of that Marius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Seven-time consul, victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni, opponent of Sulla The seven-time consul; victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] A. The rise to political prominence Born c. 157 BC…

Crixus

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Together with  Spartacus a leader of the great slave rebellion in 73 BC. After C. left the main army in early 72, his troops were defeated and he was killed in Apulia by the consul L. Gellius [4] and the propraetor Q. Arrius [I 4] (Sall. Hist. 3,96 M.; Liv. Per. 95f.; App. B Civ. 1,540-543 et al.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Fulcinius

(315 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (Schulze 169). I. Republican time [German version] [I 1] F., C. Roman envoy 438 BC in Fidenae Roman envoy, killed by the Fidenates in 438 BC (statue on the Rostra, Cic. Phil. 9,5; Liv. 4,17,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] C.F. Fabius Maximus Optatus Senator from Cartennae, end of 2nd/ beginning of 3rd cent. AD Senator, probably from Cartennae, who certainly attained the praetorship and had a legatio in Baetica, probably at the end of the 2nd/beginning of the 3rd cents. AD. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Le Gl…

Decimius

(225 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Roman family name, whose older and inscriptional form is Decumus (Schulze, 159), derived from  Decimus. Historic bearers of the name are documented since the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] D., C. Legate in Egypt 168 BC Legate in Crete in 171 BC, praetor peregrinus in 169, legate in Egypt in 168. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] D., Num. Leader of allies in the war against Hannibal 217 BC from Bovianum in Samnium; in 217, he brought timely help with a contingent of allies to the magister equitum Q. Minucius who was under heavy pressure from Hannibal …

Rusticus

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Theologian from Rome, from 547 in Constantinople and Egypt Deacon of the city of Rome, resided at Constantinople with his uncle Pope Vigilius from AD 547. Became a ferocious defender of the 'Three Chapters' (Synodos), for which reason Vigilius excommunicated him in 550. Banished after the 5th Ecumenical Synod (553), initially to Egyptian Thebes, he wrote Contra Acephalos against the Monophysites (Monophysitism). Subsequently in exile in the Akoimet…

Gutta

(89 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (gentes name?) of an otherwise unknown family. [German version] [1] G. Commander of the Marianians 82 BC from Capua, as commander in 82 BC supported the Marianians in the Civil War against Sulla (App. B Civ. 1,416). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G. Praetor 55 BC, contended in 52 BC for the consulate (possible nickname?), praetor around 55 BC and together with T. Annius [I 14] Milo contender for the consulate for 52 BC (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,6,6; MRR 3,100). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Maluginensis

(23 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the family of the Cornelii ( Cornelius [I 57/58], [II 30]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210.

Arruntia

(60 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Vestalin (1st half 1st cent. BC) Vestal in 69 BC at the latest. (Macrob. Sat. 3.13.11). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Arria Camilla (2nd half 1st cent. AD) Probably the daughter of L. Arruntius [II 8] Camillus Scribonianus; must have lived into the Trajanic era (Raepsaet-Charlier, no. 103; PIR2 A 1152). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Salvius

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common given name of Oscan or Umbrian origin not used by the Roman upper class (abbreviated in inscriptions as Sa. or Sal.), later appears as a nomen gentile; also a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Era [German version] [I 1] Slave leader (Slave leader) see Tryphon [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Centurion named only by Plutarch as one of Pompeius' murderers Centurion named only in Plut. Pompeius 78,1 and 79,4 as one of Pompey's murderers. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 3] Freedman and probable agent of Caesar Freedman probably active as …

Eburnus

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘ivory coloured’), derived from the skin or hair colour of Q. Fabius Maximus Eburnus, cos. 116 BC (Ps. Quint. Decl. mai. 3,17; with an obscene meaning in Arnob. 4,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 227.

Fufidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a plebeian family (further development of Fufius [1]), prominent in Arpinum, the home town of Cicero. [German version] [1] Rom. eques, 1st cent. BC Roman equestrian, in 57 BC creditor to Apollonia in Illyria (Cic. Pis. 86). Possibly identical with the F. from whom Cicero bought a country estate in Arpinum for his brother in 54 (Ad Q. fr. 3,1,3), who appointed Cicero joint heir in 47 (Att. 11,13,3) and whom Horace attacked as a profiteer (Sat. 1,2,12-22). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 882f. [German version] [2] F., L. Propraetor 80 BC Allegedly ex-centurio (O…

Pullus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, originally meaning 'young animal', later also transferred to humans (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,3,45; Fest. 284); Bearers of the name were L. Iunius [I 27] P. and Q. Numitorius [3] P. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 299.

Sacerdos

(465 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Name Rare Roman cognomen (‘priest’), in the Republican period attested for the Licinii (Licinius [I 41]), in the Imperial period for Marius Plotius [II 5] Claudius S. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 319. [German version] [2] Priest (plur. sacerdotes). The second part of the Latin word is derived from the Indo-European *dhe- (cf. Greek tithénai, Lat. facere, English do): a sacerdos was thus 'someone who performed sacra '. Sacerdotes became the umbrella term for all religious functionaries, but its meaning as a tech…

Camillus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of presumably Etruscan origin (Schulze, 290, 322; ThlL, Onom. 120-122), in its meaning probably linked with camillus ‘noble-born, not yet mature youth’, then‘ assistant at sacrifices’ (Fest. 38; 82L; Varro, Ling. 7,34 et al.) In the Republican Age, C. is the family cognomen of the Furii; its most famous bearer was M.  Furius C., conqueror of Veii in 396 BC and saviour of Rome after the Gallic invasion. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann 1, 147.

Afranius

(936 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Plebeian tribe, from which senatorial representatives already emerged in the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] L., homo novus, consul 60 BC L., homo novus, supporter of Pompey, distinguished himself as his legate 77-73 (?) BC in the war against Sertorius (Plut. Sert. 19,3 ff.); 72 (?) praetor, 71-67 (?) as proconsul in Spain (conquest of Calagurris, triumph). 66-62 legate in the war against Mithridates. With the support of Pompey, he became consul together with Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer in 60 BC. In 55, sent by Pomp…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Vergilius

(9,319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Roman nomen gentile, attested from the 1st cent. BC evident mainly in Gallia Cisalpina (frequently confused with Verginius in MSS). The spelling Virgilius for the name of the poet Vergilius [4] is only documented from the 5th cent. AD onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V. (less frequently: Verginius), C. Legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia, 57-55 BC 57-55 BC; legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia; depicted by Cicero (Prov. cons. 7) as an example of integrity in contrast with Piso. Perhaps (as in MRR 2,205) identical with V. [2]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) …

Mulvius

(62 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Uncommon Latin gens name. Bearers were the (otherwise unknown) builder of the pons Mulvius ( pons Milvius ; late 2nd cent. BC) and a M.M. who as triumvir nocturnus was condemned in 241 BC for appearing too late with his colleagues to fight a fire on the via sacra (Val. Max. 8, 1 damn. 5). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Catulus

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘the Young Dog’) in the family of the Lutatii ( Lutatius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Epigrammatist see  Lutatius Catulus, Q. Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 326.

Paetus

(94 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen meaning 'slightly cross-eyed', for instance describing a squint (Cic. Nat. D. 1,80; Hor. Sat. 1,3, 44f. among others). A genetic trait in the families of the Aelii from the 4th cent. BC (Aelius [I 7-11]) and the Autronii in the 1st cent. (Autronius [I 8]); also an epithet for Cicero's friend L. Papirius [I 22] P. More widespread in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 261 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 239. [German version] [2] P. Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus see P. Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus

Granius

(730 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Name of a Latin family which belonged to the upper class in Puteoli (Schulze 480). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Duumvir of Puteoli 78 BC As duumvir of Puteoli, he entered into a dispute with Cornelius [I 90]  Sulla in 78 BC, who was so upset that he died (Val.Max. 9,3,8; Plut. Sulla 37,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G., Q. Public crier and auctioneer Public crier and auctioneer ( praeco) in the late Republican period (Cicero claims to have known him, Brut. 172). Many anecdotes about his wit and repartee (Cic. De or. 2,244; 28…

Domitius

(5,665 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian family name, attested from the 4th cent. BC onwards (ThlL, Onom. 3,217-227). The most important families into the 1st cent. AD are the Ahenobarbi [I 1-8] and the Calvini [I 9-12]. Identification of some members of the family in the 2nd cent. BC is uncertain. I. Republican period [German version] Domitii Ahenobarbi Family history in Suet. Ner. 1-5. Legend of the origin of the cognomen (ThlL, 1,135; in manuscript also Aenobarbus) ‘Red-beard’, ‘Bronze-beard’ in Suet. Ner. 1,1; Plut. Aem. 25. The family was probably accorded patrician st…

Atinius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian gentilicium (also Attinius). The most important gens, verifiable since the end of the 3rd cent., came from Aricia (Cic. Phil. 3,16; Schulze 69; ThlL 2,1174f.). [German version] [1] Volkstribun im 2.Jh. v.Chr., Urheber einer lex Atinia A., tribune of the people in the 2nd cent. BC and author of a lex Atinia about the acceptance of tribunes of the people in the Senate (Gell. NA 14,8,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., C. Praetor 188 v. Chr. in Hispania ulterior tribunus militum in the 4th legion in 194 BC, praetor in 188 in Hispania ulterior (MRR 1,344; 36…

Lollius

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family. Bearers of the name, recorded from the 3rd cent. BC, not of urban Roman origin, emerged as business people from the 2nd cent. (ILLRP 723b; 747; 1025) and received Roman citizenship perhaps only after the Social War [3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Proscribed in 82 BC Read his name on one of Sulla's lists of proscribed persons in 82 BC and was thereupon immediately killed on leaving the Forum (Oros. 5,21,4f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Pompey's legate against the pirates in 67 BC Pompey'…

Curtius

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Porod, Robert (Graz) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
Roman surname (Schulze 78; ThlL, Onom. 2,765-770). The fictive early republican relatives of Curtius[I 1-3] are said to be the explanation for the name Lacus Curtius [1. 75ff.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., M. Hero of Roman legend Hero of Roman legend. When a crevice opened on the forum in 362 BC and an oracle announced that it would not close up until Rome's greatest possessions were sacrificed to guarantee the eternity of Rome, Curtius interpreted this as a sign of military bravery and jumped in full armour with h…

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …

Gaetulicus

(44 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [II] ‘Victor over the Gaetuli’, cognomen of Cossus  Cornelius [II 26] Lentulus G. and his son Cn.  Cornelius [II 29] Lentulus G., as well as C.  Iulius Tiro G. and D. ( Iunius) Silanus G. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 206.
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