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Anneius

(24 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman gentilicium M., legate of Cicero in Cilicia 51-50 BC (Cic. Fam. 13,55 and passim; MRR 2,244). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Epulo

(266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Scheid, John (Paris)
[German version] [1] King of the Istri, defeated cos. A. Manlius Vulso in 178 AD Name (probably Roman nickname ‘the feaster’) of the king of the Istri ( rex E. Enn. Ann. 408 SK.; rex Aepulo Liv. 41,11,1, Apulo Flor. 1,26 [1]). In 178 he defeated consul A.  Manlius Vulso (MRR 1,395), but was ejected again from the captured Roman camp, where the victors were enjoying their supplies ( rex accubans epulari coepit, Liv. 41,2,12; 41,4,7). In 177 he was besieged in Nesactium, and killed himself after the capture of the city (41,11,6; a different account in Flor. 1,26). E. …

Faberius

(107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman surname (Schulze, 161). F., private secretary ( scriba, γραμματεύς; grammateús) of Caesar; identical to the F. mentioned frequently by Cicero in spring 45 BC who had been given a loan by Cicero, the repayment of which involved irregularities that only Atticus could rectify (Cic. Att. 12-15). After the murder of Caesar, F. helped M. Antonius [I 9] to falsify the decrees of the dictator (App. B. Civ. 3,16; Cic. Att. 14,18,1). He probably died shortly afterwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. P. Benöhr, Fabianum negotium, in: ZRG 106, 1986, …

Cursor

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘runner, courier’) in the gens Papiria. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 361.

Carbo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the ulcer’) of the most important plebeian branches of the  Papirii in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 183f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 341 Schulze, 314.

Coponius

(273 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name (Schulze, 168, 276, A.7; ThlL, Onom. 2, 587), related to copo ‘innkeeper’ in popular etymology (Mart. 3,59), attested since the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] C., C. Praetor under Pompey 49 BC Cicero praised him and his brother T.C. as adulescentes in 56 BC (Balb. 53; Cael. 24). In 53 BC, he was praefectus in Syria, in 49 BC, praetor and mint master under Pompey (RRC 444), and in 48, as propraetor, he lost his fleet in a storm at sea. He is probably identical to the C. who was proscribed in 43 and who owed his life to his wife's …

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Quirinius

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of P. Sulpicius Q. ( cos. 12 AD). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Crus

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Nickname (‘lower leg’) referring to a peculiarity of the legs; cognomen in the family of the Cornelii ( Cornelius [I 50]) Lentuli. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3A, 1828 Kajanto, Cognomina 225.

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Cassius

(5,432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,15,1), the representatives of whom have been known historically since the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family, especially in the 1st cent. BC, are the Cassii Longini. A patrician C. (around 500 BC, C. I 19) is rare. I. Republican age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Governor of Asia 89-88 BC Praetor 90 BC (?), in 89-88 governor of the province of Asia whence he, with M'. Aquillius [I 4], induced Nicomedes of Bithynia to attack  Mithridates (MRR 2,34). He then had to retreat from the victorious Mithridat…

Venuleius

(355 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, variant of Venilius (Schulze, 378; 458). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Son of V. [4]. Cos. ord. in AD 123; procos. of Asia 138/9, SEG 36, 987. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Scheid, Collège, 338-342. [German version] [2] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Senator. Son of V. [1]. Although a Patrician, after a praetorship he took on command of the Legio I Italica in Moesia Inferior. Cos. suff. under Antoninus [1] Pius; also a consular legate in Hispania Tarraconensis. Cos. ord. II in AD 168. Eck, Werner (Cologne) B…

Orestilla

(12 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Fabia [6] O. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Vidacilius

(68 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Italic nomen gentile. C. V. from Asculum was one of the rebelling Italici in the Social Wars [3] 91-89 BC (App. Civ. 1,181). He was in action initially in Picenum, then in Bruttium; in the winter of 90/89 he breached the siege of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo around Asculum, but committed suicide there because of the hopeless situation (App. Civ. 1,207-209; Oros. 5,18,21). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Figulus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Potter’), attested to in the fasti of the Republican period for the family of the Marcii and the writer P.  Nigidius Figulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 322.

Asinius

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, documented in Rome since the 1st cent. BC (on the derivation of asinus [1], on Etruscan parallels [2]). The family, whose most famous name-bearer was Asinus Pollio, originally came from Teate Marrucinorum (modern Chieti), was a member of the patrician class since the Augustan period and was particularly prominent in the 1st cent. AD. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. Senator (mid-1st cent. BC) Senator, supporter of Antony at Mutina in 43 BC (Cic. Phil. 13, 28). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3 A, 1829 2 Schulze, 129. …

Quirinalis

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, from residence on the Mons Quirinalis, first appeared in the Imperial era. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 184.

Barba

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Beard’) of the  Cassii,  Lucretii,  Sulpicii and other families (ThlL 2,1727f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Nero

(1,990 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Hereditary cognomen in the younger line of the Claudii family (Claudius; from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC); according to ancient etymology of Sabine origin, meaning ‘brave’ (Suet. Tib. 1.2; Gell. NA 13.23.7f., etc.). With Livia's children [2] from her first marriage with Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero - the later princeps Tiberius and N. Claudius [II 24] Drusus (the Elder) - the name passed into the Julio-Claudian imperial house (stemma: Augustus). Whereas Tiberius retained N. as an epithet, his brother bore it as praenomen, as did their sons Drusus [II 1] (the Younger) and…

Herodes

(2,828 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἡρῴδης; Hērṓidēs). [German version] [1] H. I.; Herod the Great. Born in c. 73 BC, son of  Antipater [4] and the Arabian woman Cyprus. In 47 appointed strategos of Galilaea, he came into conflict with the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem because of the execution on his own authority of persons involved in a revolt. The Roman governor of Syria Sex.  Iulius [I 11] Caesar made him the strategos of Coilesyria and Samaria. In 43 he proved himself to be indispensable to one of the murderers of Caesar, C.  Cassius [I 10], in the exploitation of the land, likewise in 41 after …

Hostus

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen of unknown origin (in the sources commonly confused with Hostius),  Hostilius [3] and H. Lucretius Tricipitinus (consul in 429 BC) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Salomies, 30f.

Scaeva

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably originally a Roman personal name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed') e.g. in the Iunii Bruti (Iunius [I 17]) family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 17; 105; 243 2 Schulze, 419.

Popillius

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also frequently Popilius). Name of a Plebeian gens attested from the 4th cent. BC. The family maintained a joint funeral cult (Cic. Leg. 2,55). Its most famous branch was the Laenates (with regard to the cognomen Laenas); insignificant from the early Imperial period onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] P. Laenas Augur, in 44 BC adviser of the murderers of Caesar Augur (Cic. Att. 12,13,2), in 44 BC was the adviser of the murderers of Caesar and may perhaps have been tempted to betray them to the dictator (App. B Civ. 2,484; 487). Fündling, Jörg (B…

Creticus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (originally the epithet of a victor) in the family of the Caecilii Metelli ( Caecilius [I 23] and [II 16]) and of Mark Antony [I 8] C. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Hostilia, Quarta

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Wife in her second marriage of C. Calpurnius [I 9] Piso (consul 180 BC), condemned for allegedly poisoning her husband in office in order to help to the consulate a son of her first marriage, Q. Fulvius [I 11] Flaccus (Liv. 40,37,5-7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Albanius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] C., senator before 60 BC, father-in-law of P. Sestius (Cic. Sest. 6; MRR 2,487 [1]) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Two studies in Roman nomenclature, 21991, 5.

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…

Cornificius

(439 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kugelmeier, Christoph (Berlin) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
Plebeian family name (on coins also Cornuficius, RRC 509); in origin probably the name of a trade (Schulze, 417), historically attested from the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] C., L. People's tribune 43 BC, follower of Octavian Son of C. [2], follower of Octavian ( Augustus) in 43 BC, as people's tribune, he accused M. Iunius Brutus of the murder of Caesar (Plut. Brut. 272), in 38 and 36 fought as legate (?) against S.  Pompeius in the Adriatic and in Sicily (App. B Civ. 5,339f.; 360ff; 462ff.; Vell. Pat. 2,79,4). In 35 he was c…

Silanus

(57 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (possibly from silus, 'snub-nosed'; according to the ancient interpretation from silanus, a gargoyle in the form of a head of Silenus), in the Republican period hereditary in the family of the Iunii (Iunius [I 28-35; II 29-41]); in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 148  Kajanto, Cognomina, 237.

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Gavius

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Roman family name, frequently attested in inscriptions, also in the form Cavius [1. 76f.]; in the Republican period its bearers are still politically insignificant; also a Faliscan praenomen [2. 103]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G., P. Crucified as a spy of Spartacus 72 BC from Compsa (Lower Italy), was captured and crucified in Sicily in 72 BC by C.  Verres as an alleged spy of the slave leader  Spartacus (Cic. Verr. 2,5,158-170). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Bassus Roman grammarian and antiquarian of the late Republic Roman grammarian and…

Martha

(81 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Syrian prophetess who came to Rome in 105 BC. Although M. had been banned from practising her art by the Senate, she gained access to members of the high nobility by correctly predicting the outcome of gladiatorial fights. In 102, Iulia [1] sent her to her husband C. Marius [I 1] in Gallia where she helped to lift the morale of the Roman troops who were fighting the Teutons (Plut. Marius 17,2-5 after Posidonius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Fannia

(143 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae In 88 BC, F. hid the ostracized C. Marius in her house in Minturnae, after he had helped her to win back her dowry in a divorce case in 100 BC against C. Titinius (Val. Max. 8,2,3; Plut. Marius 38,3-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Daughter of Clodius [II 15] Full name perhaps Clodia F. Daughter of the senator and Stoic Clodius [II 15] Thrasea Paetus and of Arria [2]. Wife of Helvidius Priscus, whom she accompanied into exile under Nero and Vespasian. He…

Siculus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (describing origin: 'from Sicily', and epithet of victors; cf. Cloelius [4-7]; Herennius [I 10]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 52; 193.

Atilius

(2,546 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 5th cent. BC, alternative form Ateilius, Greek Ἀτείλος, Ἀτίλλιος ( Ateílos, Atíllios; Schulze 151; 440; ThlL 2,1172f.). A M.A. under Tarquinius Priscus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,4) is fictional. The most important families are in the 3rd cent. BC the Atilii Reguli, in the 2nd and 1st cents. the Sarani (in the newer form Serrani). In the imperial era the significance of the bearers of this name declines in public life.   Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Author of  palliata, 2nd cent. BC Author of  palli…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Strabo

(2,038 words)

Author(s): Radt, Stefan | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Greek geographer and historian, Augustan Period (Στράβων/ Strábōn). Greek geographer and historian, Augustan Period. [German version] I. Life Our only source is S.'s own work. The years of his birth and death are not established, but S. describes as 'my time' the period beginning with Pompeius' [I 3] re-organization of Asia Minor (62 BC) [1]; the latest event mentioned by S. is the death of Juba [2] II (probably AD 23/4; 17,3,7 = C 828,32 ff.; 17,3,9 = C 829,28 f.; 17,3,25 = C 840,15 f.; referen…

Military clientela

(335 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Modern term (e.g. [1. 28]) for the Roman professional armies of the late Imperial period ( Roma I. D.), which had an especially close relationship to their commander and thus let themselves be detailed as his clientela ( cliens ) for his goals interior politics. This ‘militarization of home politics’ began with C. Marius [I 1] and L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla, who used the professional army created by Marius to further their own power claims in the civil war of 88-81 BC. They had to promise the soldiers…

Crassus

(101 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen, first used as an epithet for abnormal tallness, occasionally with the implication of the figurative meanings ‘rough, uncouth, crude’, soon also used as a surname. In the republican period, the name was used by the Aquilii, Calpurnii, Canidii, Claudii, Licinii, Otacilii, Papirii, Veturii; in the imperial period by the Galerii, Iulii and Sulpicii. The most significant individuals of this name belonged to the Plebeian  Licinii Crassi (L. Licinius C., cos. 95 BC, the orator; M. Licinus C., cos. 70 and 55 BC, the triumvir). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliogra…

Flamininus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Roman cognomen, derived from flamen and designating the son of a flamen, in the Republican period it became hereditary in a branch of the patrician family of the Quinctii. The most important bearer of the name is T.  Quinctius Flamininus ( cos. in 198 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctius, RE 24, 1038 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 74.

Rex

(661 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] King Rex (pl. reges; Indo-Germanic * rḗg̑-s, Old Indo-Aryan rā́j-, Celtic -rīx) in Latin denotes a king; in the Greek world, the Indo-Germanic term probably gave way in the Mycenaean period to the ruler designations anax ( wanax ) and basileús . The Imperial and Byzantine word ῥῆξ ( rhêx) was originally a mere Greek transliteration of the Latin rex and generally refers to tribal kings of foreign peoples. According to the root of the word * h3reg̑- ('to straighten', 'to stretch out'), the job of the rex was to 'rule', i.e. to keep the world 'upright' and perpendic…

Ofellius

(378 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
Roman family name (also Offellius, Offillius etc.), probably from the Oscan praenomen Of(f)ellus, which also appears as a cognomen (a landowner in Venusia: Hor. Sat. 2,2,2f.; 53f.; 112ff.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O. Tribunus militum, 36 BC Tribunus militum in 36 BC, mocked rewards handed out by Octavian (Augustus) as paltry, whereupon according to Appian he vanished without trace (App. B Civ. 5,532f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] O., A. Roman jurist Jurist, see Ofilius Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] O. Ferus, C. Campanian …

Manius

(225 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Roman praenomen , principally used by the patrician families Aemilii, Sergii and Valerii and by the plebeian Acilii, most often in Upper Italy (rarely nomen gentile: ILS 6230 and M. [I 2] below), acronym: a five-stroked M (, , in print M'.). Two alternatives for the name's origin have been proposed since antiquity: derivation from mane ‘in the morning’ (Varro, Ling. 6,60; Fest. 135 L.; Liber de Praenominibus 5: ‘one born in the morning’) or from manus ‘good’ i.e. from the di manes , euphemistically the ‘good gods’ (Zos. 2,3,2). Neither of the two has yet been convincingly argued. Rix, H…

Caudex

(28 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (‘the ship's plank’) of Ap. Claudius C., cos. 264 BC; the original legend was passed down through Seneca (dial. 10,13,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ancharius

(125 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Q., praetor 56 BC Q., 73 BC legate in Greece (Syll.3 748), 65 (?) proquaestor in Macedonia (IvOl 328). As tribune of the people, 59 he opposed the politics of the consul  Caesar together with his colleague Bibulus (Cic. Sest. 113; Vatin. 16; Cass. Dio 38,6,1: schol. Bob. 135, 146St.). After the praetorship of 56 followed the proconsulate in Maedonia (Cic. Fam. 13,40) Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. Rufus (1st half of 1st cent. BC) C., Rufus from Fulginae, accuser (?) of L. Varenus c. 80 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Priscus (1st …

Lucius [II]

(235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Old Latin Loucios, Greek Λεύκιος/ Leúkios or Λούκιος/ Loúkios, abbreviation L., in the east of the empire also Lu.). Roman praenomen. Etymologically related to lux (‘light’) [4. 823], according to ancient derivation ‘the one born at first daylight’ (Varro, Ling. 5,60; Fest. 106; Liber de praenominibus 5). A late invention is the derivation of L. as ‘descendant of the Etruscan Lucumones’ (Liber de praen. op.cit.) to explain the first name of the Roman king L. Tarquinius Priscus, who was originally called Lucumo. L. i…

Tubero

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from tuber, 'swelling'), Aelius [I 12-18]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 246.

Luscus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’), in the Republican period in the families of the Annii, Atilii, Fabii, Furri and Postumii, disappeared by the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 238.

Clodius

(2,871 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Glock, Andreas (Bremen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
In the 1st cent. BC, vernacular form of the gentilicium  Claudius (C. [I 4] and  Clodia), since late Republican period also an independent family name. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praefect of M. Brutus in 43/42 BC In 43/42 BC follower and prefect of M. Brutus; he murdered C. Antonius [I 3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., Sex. Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex. Cloelius [2] Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex.  Cloelius [2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C. Aesopus Tragic actor, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Tragic …

Cethegus

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen of a branch of the patrician  Cornelii (ThlL, Onom. 356-59). Attested from the 3rd cent. BC onwards; also Cetegus (Cic. Or. 160); Greek Κέθηγος ( Kéthēgos), supposedly because the family refused to wear the tunica (Porph. Hor. Ars P. 50). Also attested in inscriptions as a family name [1. 293]. There is perhaps no connection between the imperial and republican bearers of the name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rufius Petronius Nicomachus C. Cos. 504 AD Cos. AD 504, patricius from c. 512, mag. officiorum, princeps senatus. During the siege of Rome …

Barbula

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Milksop’) of the Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). In addition, the name of the commander of M.  Antonius at Actium; B. was later pardoned by Octavian (App. B Civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Caesius

(558 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman family name, evident from the 3rd. cent. BC, in Rome from the 1st cent. (Schulze, 135 ThlL, Onom. 49-51). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., L. Mint master 112 or 111 BC Mint master 112 or 111 BC (RRC 298), perhaps identical with the praetor or propraetor of Hispania ulterior of 104 BC (AE 1984, 495). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography D. Nörr, Aspekte des röm. Völkerrechtes, 1989, 24-27. [German version] [I 2] C., M. Praetor in 75 BC Praetor in 75 BC. (Cic. Verr. 2,1,130; MRR 3,44f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial Age [German version] [II 1] C. Anthianus, …

Ampius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] C., praef. socium 201 BC C., praef. socium 201 BC (Liv. 31,2,5-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Balbus, T., Praetor 59 BC, historian Balbus, T., tribunus plebis 63 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,40,4), praetor 59, finally procos. in Asia (MRR 2, 197). After his return he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulate in 55 (schol. Bob. 156St.), in the Civil War he fought on the side of Pompey ( Pompeius), for whom he had already as tribunus plebis especially applied himself and who therefore had supported him when he ran for con…

Pulvillus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('small cushion') in the family of the Horatii (Horatius [5-6]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 348.

Numisius

(590 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman nomen gentile (epigraphically Numesius, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] One of the praetors of the Latin league in 340 BC One of the two chief magistrates ( praetores) of the Latin League, who, with his colleague L. Annius [I 3], attempted to enforce perfect equality between the Latins and the Romans in 340 BC, firstly through negotiations and then by means of war; he also continued the war after the defeat of the Latins on Mt. Vesuvius (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] N. (?) Nucula Membe…

Calavius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Campanian family name, whose bearers were highly respected in Capua, and who in the Republican age were one of Rome's foremost enemies (ThlL, Onom. 71). [German version] [1] Calavii Arsonists in Rome, executed 210 BC were executed for arson in Rome in 210 BC (Liv. 26,27). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Novius and Ovius Header of a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC They headed a conspiracy against the Romans in 314 BC, and after their exposure committed suicide (Liv. 9,26,7). Their father was perhaps Ofilius C., named in Livy (9,7,2-5) Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boc…

Silo

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period of the leader of the Marsi Q. Poppaedius S., in the Imperial period in the Larcii and Pompeii families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 268  Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 237.

Turpilius

(289 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Comic poet, 2nd cent. BC Roman comic poet in the palliata genre, younger contemporary of Terentius [III 1], died according to Hier. Chron. p. 148 Helm 104 BC. Fragments survive of 13 plays with uniformly Greek titles; his main source was Menander [4]. With Caecilius [III 6] and Terence, who was dramaturgically close to him, T. represents the increasingly Hellenizing and Classicizing development of palliata, whereas multiplicity of metre and colour of language separate him from the stylistic purity of Terence and rather link him to Plaut…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Nepos

(785 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen, epithet of Q. Caecilius Metellus N. and his son Roman cognomen (‘grandson’) to distinguish a boy from his father and grandfather of the same name. Epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. and his homonymous son [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [German version] [2] Cornelius N. Biographer and historian, 1st cent. BC ( c. 100-24 BC) represents the dynamic of intellectual culture in Rome during the 1st cent. BC. He hailed from the Transpadana region and was an equestrian. N. …

Ovius

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oscan praenomen, also a rare Roman family name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Salomies, 82 2 J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilicia, 1956, 35 3 Schulze, 37; 202; 431f. 4 Walde/Hofmann 2, 229.

Annaeus

(333 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a tribe probably of Sabine origin [1]. In public life of the Republican era, name-bearers appeared first in the 1st cent. BC. The name became known especially in the 1st cent. AD through the epic poet M. A.   Lucanus and through the rhetorician L. A.  Seneca and his son by the same name, the philosopher and politician; see also Cornutus I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Brocchus, C., senator 73 BC Brocchus, C., senator 73 BC (probably aedilicius), under Verres in Sicily ([2] Cic. Verr. 2,3,93 and passim; MRR 2, 115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP 2, 587-…

Laeca

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, in the family of the Porcii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 358.

Tarquitius

(422 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Haase, Mareile (Toronto) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin (in Antiquity probably seen as a variant of Tarquinius , cf. Fest. 496). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T. Priscus Technical author, 1st cent. BC? Latin writer perhaps of the 1st cent. BC (cf. Verg. Catal. 5,3); mentioned in Macrobius [1] (Sat. 3,20,3; 5. cent. BC) as the author of an ostentarium arborarium (Etrusci, Etruria III with ill. on Etrusca disciplina), probably an ordered and annotated list of trees and shrubs ( arbores) of significance in divination. T. may also be meant in Plin. HN 2; …

Maria

(1,540 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Petersen, Silke (Hamburg)
I. Roman women [German version] [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1]; one was the wife of M. Gratidius [2] and mother of C. Marius [I 7] Gratidianus, the other one was the mother of C. Lusius [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] Possibly wife of Honorius Mentioned by Claudianus (Laus Serenae 69), possibly wife of Honorius [2], the brother of Theodosius I, therefore the mother of Serena and Thermantia. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography J. R. Martindale, Notes on the Consuls of 381 and 382, in: Hi…

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Pupius

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, possibly connected to the Etruscan pupu. The family is otherwise politically insignificant; the adoptive father of the consul for 61 BC, P. [I 3], is unknown. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic [German version] [I 1] In Horace, the author of tragedies, 1st cent. BC The only source for the author P. is Horatius (Epist. 1,1,67). According to this, P. was probably an author of tragedies. He lived in the 1st cent. BC. The scope and precise content of his poetry is unknown. Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) Bibliography Bardon, vol. 2, 47  Courtney, 307. …

Memmius

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gens name, whose bearers may have originated from the territory of the Volscians and who rose to prominence (in several branches) during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. They rose to consular rank only with M. [I 4]. The descent of the gens from the Trojan Mnestheus (Verg. Aen. 5,117) is a late-Republican construction. An aedile called M. supposedly instituted the Cerealia (before 211 BC; RRC 427). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Popular politician at the end of the 2nd cent. BC Popular politician at the end of the 2nd centur…

Veiento

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, originally indicating origin (Veii); Fabricius [II 2] and Perperna [5]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 119; 189 f.

Pullius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman gens, frequently recorded in the Republican Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Cn. P. Pollio Senator from Forum Clodii, praetor ad aerarium under Augustus Senator from Forum Clodii in Etruria. Having been a people's tribune he became praetor ad aerarium, an office which was created in 23 BC. He later became proconsul in Gallia Narbonensis, legatus Augusti or comes Augusti in Gallia Comata and afterwards in Aquitania, probably between 16 and 13 BC, when Augustus set up the new provincial organisation there. He died during a trip as legatus to Athens…

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. In order to illustrate the just administration of the first collegium of decemviri , especially the justice of C. Iulius [I 13] Iullus, Livy (3,33,9 f.) and Cicero (Rep. 2,61) tell the anecdote that after a corpse was found buried in the house of S., Iulius - who,…

Arruntius

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Lat. gentile name (Etruscan arntni ?) also as Arentius in inscriptions, derived from the Etruscan name Arruns ([1]; ThLL 2,647). The gens appeared in Rome in the 1st cent. BC, attained the consulate under Augustus and was then probably accepted into the patriciate at that time (see Stat. Silv. 1.2.71 concerning the poet Arruntius [II 12] Stella). I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. Father and son, died 43 BC In 43 BC, father and son were proscribed outlaws by the Triumvirate and killed (App. B Civ. 4,86). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., L. (middle of 1st cent. BC) In…

Trebatius

(265 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, probably derived from a place name (Treba, Trebula), very common in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] Samnite leader in the Social Wars, c. 100 BC Leader ( praetor) of the Samnites in the Social Wars [3], he was defeated in 89 BC by C. Cosconius [I 1] on the Aufidus and escaped to Canusium (App. Civ. 1,228). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T. Testa, C. Roman lawyer, 1st cent. BC Roman jurist ( c. 84 BC until after AD 4), pupil of Q. Cornelius Maximus (Dig. 1,2,2,45) and teacher of  Antistius [II 3] Labeo (Dig. 1,2,2,47). He wa…

Iuventius

(1,470 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman cognomen [1. 281; 482; 2. 735]. The gens belonged to the municipal nobility of Tusculum, came into Roman politics around 200 BC and with I. [I 6] achieved the sole consulate in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC, to which they referred to also later (Cic. Planc. 12, 15; 18f. and others; cf. Catull. 24,1-3). The most important families were the Thalnae (also Talnae in inscriptions) and the Laterenses. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Alleged first curule aedile of the plebs, 4th cent. BC According to fictitious family tradition, the first curule aedile of the plebs at the end …

Merenda

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and among the Cornelii Cognomen of M. Antonius [I 13] and of the Cornelii family. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 340. [German version] [2] see Meals see Meals.

Opimius

(381 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name (in inscriptions also Opeimius), possibly derived from the (undocumented) cognomen Opimus (cf. Quint. Decl. 302). The family gained notoriety through O. [1] in the 2nd cent. BC, but in the 1st cent. BC no longer played a role in politics. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O., L. Consul in 121 BC, declared opponent of the Gracchi In 125 BC, he was praetor urbanus and destroyed the rebellious town of Fregellae, which had risen up against Rome after M. Fulvius [I 9] Flaccus's initiative to give Roman citizenship to the Italic all…

Laetorius

(319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin [1. 187; 200; 205]. The gens is attested firmly from the end of the 4th cent. BC; 5th century bearers of the name are annalistic inventions (the people's tribune 471 BC: Liv. 2,56, 6-15; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,46,1-48,5). Originally plebeian, the family was patrician from the time of Caesar or Augustus (Suet. Aug. 5,1; [2. 89f.]). [German version] [1] L., C. Curule aedile in 216 BC Curule aedile in 216 BC, propraetor in Gaul in 209, legate in Greece (?) in 205, in Upper Italy in 200, Triumvir at the foundation of the colony in Croton in 194 (Liv. 34,45,4). Elvers,…

Genucius

(698 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of an old family, perhaps immigrants from Etruria [1. 456f.]. One of the leading families of plebeian nobility in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC: G. [9] occupied the office of consul immediately after it was opened up to plebeians (in 367/6), G. [1] belonged to the first plebeian augurs. The historicity of the patrician name-bearers of G. [5]-[7] is contested [2. 111; 3. 12f.]. The family died out at the end of the 3rd cent. BC. [German version] [1] G., C. One of the plebeian augurs 300 BC One of the first plebeian augurs appointed following the lex Ogulnia of 300 BC (Liv. 10,9,2). The cognomen Aug…

Hirtuleius, L.

(123 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Probably quaestor in 86 or 85 BC (introduction of the dual accounting system for debts under the lex Valeria, Cic. Font. 2), 79-75 BC proquaestor of the renegade Q.  Sertorius in Spain and his most capable officer. In 79 he defeated the governor M. Domitius [I 11] Calvinus at the Anas, in 78 the proconsul of Gallia Transalpina, L. Manlius (MRR 2, 83; 87). In 76 he was defeated by Q. Caecilius [I 31] Metellus Pius near Ilerda and fell shortly afterwards together with his brother near Segontia at the…

Rabirius

(614 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Latin nomen gentile. [German version] [1] R., C. Took part in the murder of the tribune of the people Appuleius [I 11] in 100 BC, accused of this crime in 63 and defended by Cicero Wealthy Roman equestrian with estates in Apulia and Campania. In 100 BC, he took part in the murder of the tribune of the people L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, for which he was probably later rewarded with a seat in the Senate; in 89, he was on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILLRP 515). Attacked on numerous occasions by the populares as a supporter of the Senate, in 63 he was accused of the murder of A…

Braetius

(63 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman personal name (ThlL 2,2163). [German version] [1] B. Sura, Q. Legate in Macedonia, 87 BC Legate ( pro quaestore) of C.  Sentius Saturninus in Macedonia, successfully fought against Mithridates VI's troops in Boeotia in 87 BC (H. Gaebler, Die ant. Münzen v. Makedonia und Paionia 1, 1906, no. 225; name: IG IX 2,613; Plut. Sull. 11,6-8; App. Mith. 113-115). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Italicus

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn) | Kehne, Peter (Hannover)
Common Roman cognomen. Most famously the poet  Silius I. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] King of the Cherusci from 47 AD Son of the Cheruscan  Flavus (the brother of  Arminius) and of a daughter of the Chatti leader Actumerus, born and raised in Rome. Because the quarrelling nobility demand I. as king of the  Cherusci, emperor  Claudius [III 1] installs this last offshoot of the stirps regia as king in AD 47 (Tac. Ann. 11,16); this shows the new development of Romano-Germanic relations since the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Driven out afte…

Victor

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
('winner, victor(ious)'). [German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen, only attested from the mid-1st cent. BC (Cic. Att. 14,14,2), but from then one of the commonest bynames, and a name of choice. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 57; 72; 89; 96; 98; 278 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, 1996, 100 f. [German version] [2] Roman epithet for gods (Roman epithet for gods), see Hercules; Iuppiter; Mars; Tibur. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3] Imperial title Roman Imperial title from the early 4th c…

Manlius

(3,605 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
(in Greek usually Μάλλιος/ Mállios, often confused in MSS with Mallius and Manilius). Name of a Roman patrician family, probably of Etruscan origin [1. 227]. It attained an early political zenith in the 5th and 4th cents. BC with the Vulsones and Capitolini branches (continued by the Torquati). Sources connect the family's history primarily with the repelling of the Celts ( M. [I 8] and [I 12]. Stemmata, details of which are uncertain: [2. 1157f., 1166]). A period of decline ended in about 260 BC wi…

Gegania

(68 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Römerin, die (wohl in der 2. H. 1. Jh. v.Chr.) ein Verhältnis mit einem häßlichen Sklaven namens Clesippus einging und ihn schließlich als Erben einsetzte. Er nannte sich nach ihrem Tod Clesippus Geganius und ließ sich ein aufwendiges Grabmal errichten, dessen Inschrift noch erhalten ist (Plin. nat. 34,11f.; ILLRP 696). Die weitverbreitete Geschichte liegt vielleicht der Figur des Trimalchio bei Petronius zugrunde. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Barbula

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen (“der Milchbart”) bei den Aemilii (ThlL 2,1728). Außerdem Name des Kommandanten des M. Antonius bei Aktium; B. wurde von Octavian später begnadigt (App. civ. 4,210-214). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ancharia

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Frau des C. Octavius, des Vaters des Augustus, Mutter der älteren Octavia (Suet. Aug. 4,1; Plut. Ant. 31,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Metellus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen in der Familie der Caecilii Metelli (Caecilius [I 10-32]; [II 16]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Fuficius

(292 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[English version] [1] Q.F.Cornutus Senator, praetorischer Statthalter, Beginn seiner Laufbahn unter Trajan oder Hadrian Senator, der aus der Gegend von Histonium stammte. Beginn seiner Laufbahn unter Traian oder Hadrian. Nach der Praetur iuridicus von Asturia et Callaecia im Norden Spaniens, Legionslegat in Moesia, praetorischer Statthalter in Pannonia inferior mindestens von 145-147 n.Chr., cos. suff. 147; consularer Statthalter von Moesia inferior zwischen 148 und 155. In Histonium wurde ihm auf Beschluß des Dekurionenrates und mit öffentlichen …

Laelius

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name einer vielleicht aus Campanien stammenden Familie. Die mil. Erfolge von L. [I 1] im 2. Pun. Krieg (218-201 v.Chr.) und die Verbindung zum Älteren Scipio verschafften ihr wohl das röm. Bürgerrecht und den Aufstieg in die Noblität. Eine jüngere Linie (Praenomen D.) gelangte erst unter Augustus zum Konsulat (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., C. Cos. 190 v. Chr., Altersgenosse des Scipio Africanus Geb um 235 v.Chr., gest. um 160; den polit. Aufstieg verdankte L. der engen (und sprichwörtlich gewordenen…

Perperna

(546 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
Etr. Gentilname (inschr. Form auch Perpenna); die Familie muß schon früh röm. Bürgerrecht erh. haben: mit P. [2] beginnt ihr polit. Aufstieg, P. [3] ist der erste Träger eines nichtröm. Namens, der Consul wurde, auch wenn man ihm 126 v.Chr. das Bürgerrecht wieder aberkannte. [English version] [1] P., C. Praetor spätestens 91 v. Chr., 90 Legat des Consuls P. Rutilius Lupus Verm. Bruder von P. [4], Praetor spätestens 91 v.Chr., wurde 90 als Legat des Consuls P. Rutilius Lupus im Bundesgenossenkrieg [3] geschlagen (App. civ. 1,179; 183). MRR 2, 20; 29. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Regulus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cogn. (Diminutiv von rex, “König”), in republikanischer Zeit in den Familien der Atilii (Atilius [I 17-23]) und Livineii (Livineius [I 1-2]); in der Kaiserzeit auch in anderen Familien. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316 f.

Dives

(53 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen zur Bezeichnung des Reichtums, bei L. Baebius [I 7] D. und L. Canuleius [I 5] D.; erblich bei den Nachkommen des P. Licinius Crassus D. ( pontifex maximus 212 v.Chr.; vgl. Plin. nat. 33,133), aber dem Triumvirn M. Licinius Crassus (cos. 70, 55 v.Chr.) fälschlich zugeschrieben. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Considius

(489 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Italischer Eigenname (Schulze, 158, 456; ThlL, Onom. 2, 566f.), bezeugt seit dem 1. Jh.v.Chr. (C. [I 1] ist wohl unhistor.). I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] C., Q. Volkstribun 476 v.Chr. Volkstribun 476 v.Chr.; nach späterer Tradition soll er mit seinem Kollegen T. Genucius ein Ackergesetz beantragt und einen Prozeß gegen den Consul von 477, T. Menenius, angestrengt haben, weil er den Fabiern an der Cremera keine Hilfe gebracht habe (Liv. 2,52; Dion. Hal. ant. 9,27,2); von zweifelhafter Historizität. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] C., Q. Rei…

Labeo

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen, abgeleitet von labea, “Lippe”, urspr. “den mit einer dicken Lippe” bezeichend (Plin. nat. 11, 159); in republikan. Zeit Beiname in den Familien der Antistii ([I 13]: der in der Korrespondenz Ciceros häufiger genannte L.; [II 3]: der berühmte Jurist), Atinii ([I 6 - 7]), Fabii ([I 20]) und Segulii; in der Kaiserzeit weiter verbreitet, u.a. Beiname des Schriftstellers Cornelius [II 19] L. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 118; 238  J. Reichmuth, Die lat. Gentilizia, 1956, 70  Walde/Hofmann 1, 738.

Hostilia, Quarta

(48 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] In zweiter Ehe Gattin des C. Calpurnius [I 9] Piso (Consul 180 v.Chr.); vergiftete angeblich ihren Mann im Amt, um ihrem Sohn aus erster Ehe, Q. Fulvius [I 11] Flaccus, zum Konsulat zu verhelfen, und wurde deshalb verurteilt (Liv. 40,37,5-7). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Heius

(66 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Lat. Eigenname (Schulze 459). [English version] H., C. Um 75 v.Chr. angesehener und reicher Bürger der sizilischen Stadt Messana. Aus seinem Besitz raubte Verres vier berühmte griech. Statuen und wertvolle Teppiche (Cic. Verr. 2,4,3-19; 27). Trotzdem trat er 70 im Auftrag seiner Gemeinde als Entlastungszeuge für Verres in Rom auf, belastete ihn jedoch im Kreuzverhör Ciceros (Verr. 2,2,13; 4,15-19; 150; 5,47). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Malleolus

(36 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] [1] s. Pfeil s. Pfeil Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] röm. Cognomen Cognomen (von malleus, “Hammer”) in der Familie der Publicii in republikanischer Zeit. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 342.

Mucianus

(58 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen, zunächst die Adoption aus der Familie der Mucii bezeichend. Bes. verbreitet in der Familie der Licinii, dann auch bei weiteren gentes. Prominenteste Träger sind L. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives M. ( cos. 131 v.Chr.) und C. Licinius [II 14] M. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 259 2 Ders., FCap, 146 3 Kajanto, Cognomina, 18; 32; 158.

Aristius

(102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Röm. Familienname (ThLL 2,646 f.) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] , M., Militärtribun 52 v. Chr. A., M., Militärtribun in Caesars Heer während des gallischen Aufstandes von 52 v. Chr. (Caes. Gall. 7,42,5; 43,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [English version] [2] Fuscus, Dichter und Grammaticus, 1. Jh. v. Chr. A., Fuscus, Dichter und grammaticus, enger Freund und Kritiker des Horaz, der an ihn carm. 1,22 und epist. 1,10 gerichtet hat. Sat. 1,9,61-74 zeigt seinen Sinn für Humor. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. G. M. Nisbet, M. Hubbard, A Commentary on H…
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