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Zöckler, Theodor

(203 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] (Mar 5, 1867, Greifswald – Sep 18, 1949, Stade), Protestant clergyman, son of Otto Zöckler; missionary to the Jews from 1891 and vicar in Stanislau (Galicia; now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine), where he established a children’s home in 1896 and a German school in 1898; in 1900 he was appointed pastor in Stanislau and Ugartshal. In 1908 he founded the Paulinum, a theological and diaconal seminary. The “Stanislau institutions,” combined with the deaconesses’ mother house Sarepta in 1913,…

Midnight Mission

(197 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] The Midnight Mission is a Christian organization doing diaconal and pastoral ¶ work with prostitutes (Prostitution) to address problems of human trafficking, violations of human rights, victim protection, support for offenders, and drug dependence. It goes back to the English social reformer J.E. Butler, who coined the phrase “midnight mission” and founded English and international relief organizations to aid prostitutes (1875/1877). The 19th-century Sittlichkeitsvereine (“morality leagues”) in Germany were among its precursors. The first Ger…

Diakonia Center

(895 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] Since the middle of the 19th century, deaconess institutes/(mother)houses and deacon institutes/brotherhouses have influenced the professional work and image of the Protestant diakonia or inland mission. Deaconess houses and brotherhouses are centers of diakonia even today. T. and F. Fliedner chose the term deaconess institute (synonym: deaconess house) for the institution they ¶ founded in Kaiserswerth in 1836, which prevailed over others (Düsselthal Deaconess Foundation founded by A. v. der …


(444 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] Kaiserswerth, now part of the city of Düsseldorf, is well known in church and diaconal circles for the oldest deaconess institute there, which was founded in 1836 by T. and F. Fliedner (Diakonia center). This cradle of the “female diakonia” became the world center for motherhouses and associations on the Fliedner model. Today's “Kaiserswerther Diakonie” in Düs-¶ seldorf with a total of 2,136 workers (as of October 1999) includes the motherhouse and its retirement homes with 175 deaconesses (166 of them retired), 112 diaconal sisters and…

Community Work

(611 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] The designation community work is employed in widely divergent meanings. Generally speaking, community work (Ger. Gemeinwesenarbeit) is “a concept of action requiring closer definition, designed to counteract the dangers that appear in the individual systems of scientific/technological civilization” (Strohm 196). Community work (also called community action, community development etc.) refers to the “third method” of social work alongside social case work and s…


(262 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] The term provision or provide is used with a broad spectrum of meanings in social policy and social legislation, in both the secular world and in church law. But we also speak of infrastructure that provides water, electricity, and gas, as well as providing social services, such a health care or psychotherapy. The use of providing in social legislation distinguishes it as one of three fundamental principles in the realm of social security, along with insurance and welfare. The notion of a “provision” indicates a legal entitlement to u…

Unpropertied Classes, Relief Work for the

(424 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] Help for the unpropertied classes is one of the specialized areas of German social work that developed from classical assistance for people at risk. It is scarcely possible to draw a line between it and homeless assistance; the distinction is due to historical and legal factors. In the context of industrialization in 19th-century Germany and its social consequences (Social question), labor migration and homelessness, the labor colony of F. v. Bodelschwingh (the Elder) in Wilhelmsd…


(459 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] 1. Friedrich Christoph. (Apr 21, 1772, Rudolstadt, Thuringia – May 18, 1843, Gotha), bookseller and publisher. After an apprenticeship in Leipzig, in 1796 Perthes opened in Hamburg the first retail bookstore in Germany not connected with a publisher (Printing and publishing: I, 3). In 1821 he moved to Gotha, where he specialized in publishing academic works in history and theology. In 1825 he played a leading role in establishing the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler (German Pub…

Love Gifts, Church

(302 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] Love gifts have been given since earliest Christian times as donations, collections, bequests, and contributions for Christian welfare within and beyond the congregation and for the leaders or the employees of the congregation. In contrast to fixed levies such as the tithe (Tithing), contributions, or taxes, love gifts are understood to be voluntary and supplementary. Essentially, two types of love gift can be differentiated. 1. Well into the 20th century, not only pastors, but also sextons, clerks, deacons, and others, received gifts of money…

Orphans, Care of

(808 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] The care of orphans as an important area of Jewish and Christian social responsibility goes back to Moses and the social legislation of the Bible (Exod 22:21–23; Deut 24:17). Historically, it was the germ that grew into services for children and young people (Youth service) and social education. Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire already had to deal with the danger of numbers of pauperized orphans (Heb. יָתוֹם/ yātôm, Gk ὀρϕανός/ orphanós, Lat. orbus). To meet this challenge, they established a system of legal guardianship, supplemented by food relief…

Zimmer, Friedrich

(199 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] (Sep 22, 1855, Gardelegen – Dec 5, 1919, Gießen), Protestant theologian, journalist, and hymnodist. After receiving his doctorate from Halle, he served as a private tutor in Cologne. In 1880 he received his Lic.theol. from Bonn and was appointed as lecturer in New Testament. In 1883 he became a pastor in Mahnsfeld, East Prussia (now Polewoje, Kaliningrad Oblast). In 1884 he was appointed associate professor in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) and junior pastor of ¶ the motherhouse for deaconesses there. In 1890 he became director of the seminary in Herborn. In…

Welfare Center

(411 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] Welfare Center, also called a diakonia center in German Protestant usage, is a central institution providing outpatient care for the elderly, the sick, and families (Sick, Care of the). The idea and the term (Ger. Sozialstation) emerged in 1968 from the ministry of social affairs in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the midst of restructuring outpatient care. In the 1970s, such centers spread throughout the Federal Republic of Germany. They were preceded by communal care and social work carried out by community nurses, Prot…


(152 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] Zimmer, Friedrich (22.9.1855 Gardelegen – 5.12.1919 Gießen), ev. Theologe, Publizist, Liederdichter. 1877 Dr. phil. in Halle, Hauslehrer in Köln, 1880 Lic. theol. und PD für NT in Bonn, 1883 Pfarrer in Mahnsfeld, Ostpreußen, 1884 a.o. Prof. in Königsberg und zweiter Pfarrer am dortigen Diakonissenmutterhaus, 1890 Direktor des Predigerseminars in Herborn, 1894 gründete Z. den Ev. Diakonieverein und das erste Diakonieseminar in Elberfeld sowie das erste ev. Töchterheim in Kassel. Ab…


(156 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] Zöckler, Theodor (5.3.1867 Greifswald – 18.9.1949 Stade), ev. Theologe, Sohn von Otto Z., seit 1891 Judenmissionar und Vikar in Stanislau (Galizien), wo er 1896 ein Kinderheim und 1898 eine dt. Schule gründete, seit 1900 Pfarrer in Stanislau und Ugartsthal, 1908 Gründung des theol.-diakonischen Konviktes »Paulinum«. Die »Stanislauer Anstalten« wurden, 1913 mit dem Diakonissenmutterhaus »Sarepta« verbunden, zum größten Werk der Inneren Mission in Österreich. Im 1. Weltkrieg war Z. …


(210 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] wird als Begriff in einem weiten Feld sozialpolit. und -rechtlicher sowie im kirchl. Raum speziell kirchen- und beamtenrechtlicher Bedeutungen verwendet. Aber auch die infrastrukturelle Grundversorgung beispielsweise mit Wasser, Strom, Gas oder etwa sozialen Dienstleistungen (z.B. ärztliche V. oder psychotherapeutische V.) wird als V. bez. Das syst. sozialrechtliche Verständnis von V. unterscheidet sie als eins von drei Grundprinzipien im Bereich sozialer Sicherung (Sicherheit) v…


(398 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] 1.Friedrich Christoph (21.4.1772 Rudolstadt, Thüringen – 18.5.1843 Gotha), Buchhändler und Verleger. Nach Lehrzeit in Leipzig eröffnete P. 1796 in Hamburg die erste reine, von einem Verlag getrennte Sortimentsbuchhandlung in Deutschland (Buchhandel: I.,3.). 1821 wechselte er nach Gotha und verlegte vornehmlich wiss. Werke aus den Bereichen der Historik und Theol. 1825 beteiligte sich P. führend an der Gründung des Börsenvereins der Dt. Buchhändler. Er unterstützte entscheidend den…


(315 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] Sozialstation, ev. auch Diakoniestation, bez. eine zentrale Institution der ambulanten Alten-, Kranken- und Familienpflege (Krankenpflege). Idee und Begriff der S. entstanden um 1968 im rheinland-pfälzischen Sozialministerium im Zuge der Neuordnung der ambulanten Pflege. Seit den 70er Jahren erfolgte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland ihr flächendeckender Aufbau. Ihnen voraus ging die gemeindebezogene Pflege und Sozialarbeit von Gemeindekrankenschwestern, ev. Diakonissen (Diakon/D…


(346 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] gehört zu den hist. gewachsenen ausdifferenzierten Arbeitsgebieten der klassischen Gefährdetenhilfe. Eine Abgrenzung zw. N. und Obdachlosenhilfe kann kaum getroffen werden, sie entstammt vielmehr hist. und rechtlichen Vorgaben. Im Kontext der Industrialisierung des 19.Jh. mit den sozialen Folgen (soziale Frage) der Arbeitsmigration und Wohnungslosigkeit in Deutschland war F.v. Bodelschwinghs (d. Ä.) erste »Arbeiterkolonie« in Wilhelmsdorf bei Bielefeld, gegründet 1882, Modell für…


(697 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[English Version] ist seit Mose und dem bibl. Sozialrecht (Ex 22,21–23; Dtn 24,17) im AT ein wichtiges Feld jüd.-christl. Sozialverantwortung. Die W. bildet hist. eine Keimzelle der Kinder- und Jugendfürsorge/-hilfe (Kinderfürsorge, Jugendhilfe) bzw. Sozialpädagogik. Schon das antike Griechenland und das röm. Imperium mußten mit den Verarmungsrisiken zahlreicher Waisen (hebr. וֹם[uni_1465_right]יָת/jātôm, griech. ο᾿ρϕαn̆ο´ς/orphanós, lat. orbus) umgehen. Dazu wurde ein Vormundschaftswesen aufgebaut, bald durch Alimentationsstiftungen ergänzt. De…