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Finney, Charles Grandison

(334 words)

Author(s): Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1792, Warren, CT – Aug 16, 1875, Oberlin, OH) was a leading evangelist in the northern states of the USA in the time prior to the Civil War. He was also professor of theology and the president of Oberlin College. Finney was a lawyer who turned to Christ in 1821. Building on the traditions of the Great Awakening (1730s-1740s; Revival/Revival movements: II) and the Second Great Awakening Finney pioneered large-scale urban revivals. He brought the emotion of the Methodists (…

United Church of Christ

(386 words)

Author(s): Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.
[German Version] (UCC), Protestant denomination in the United States resulting from the merger of the Congregational Christian Churches and the Evangelical and Reformed Church (see also Congregationalism). Since both churches were themselves the products of mergers in the 1930s (Unions, Church), the UCC was a model for the ecumenical movement in the 20th century. The new church brought together leading theologians such as R. and H.R. Niebuhr, Douglas Horton, John Bennett, and Roger Shinn. The merg…

German Reformed Church

(198 words)

Author(s): Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.
[German Version] The German Reformed Church was founded during the Pennyslvania immigration movement in the 1720s. In 1747 two pastors, John ¶ Philip Boehm and Michael Schlatter, brought the various local churches and congregations of German immigrants together in a union, with the Heidelberg Catechism as its doctrinal standard. In 1793 the synod of the German Reformed Churches in the USA began to ordain clergy and establish schools; a seminary was founded in 1825, which moved to Mercersburg in 1837 and to Lancaster …

Evangelical and Reformed Church

(166 words)

Author(s): Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.
[German Version] (pre-UCC merger). The Evangelical and Reformed Church was created in 1934 by the union of the Reformed Church in the United States and the Evangelical Synod of North America. Rooted in the 18th- and 19th-century German migration to America, the new church combined Reformed and Lutheran-Reformed pietist and unionist traditions. Reverence for the Heidelberg Catechism and the high ecclesio…

Bradford, William

(88 words)

Author(s): Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.
[German Version] (1590, Austerfield, Yorkshire; baptized Mar 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657, Plymouth, MA), governor and historian of Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. Bradford belonged to the Separatist congregation at Scrooby, England, which in 1620 migrated to New England because of persecution. From 1621 until his death he was elected governor almost annually and guided the colony to economic stability. He reinforced the Puritan orthodoxy shared with Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut. Charles E. Hambrick-Stowe Bibliography Works include: Of Plymouth Plantation, ed. S. Eliot Mo…

Revival/Revival Movements

(4,724 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhem | Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E. | Grundmann, Christoffer H.
[German Version] The expression revival movement, like the German Erweckungsbewegung (coined by Halle Pietists), has become the standard term for a group of religious movements that have put their stamp on European and North American Protestantisms as well as a few Catholic milieus (see also Confessional milieus) with varying intensity since the early 18th century. The Pietists interpreted revival as an ongoing attempt to arouse Christians from religious lethargy to engage them in a strict, biblically-ba…