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Quranic Schools

(299 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[German Version] A quranic school (Arab. kuttāb) is a neighborhood institution in a town or village, often connected with a mosque, in which Muslim boys and girls between the ages of four and 14 acquire familiarity with the Qurʾān (Education: IX). Traditionally they begin with the first sura, al-Fāti a, then go to the 114th, the last and shortest sura of the Qurʾān, followed by the remaining suras in reverse order. The suras are always learned by heart in Arabic, even when that is not the children’s mother tongue, through constant repetition…

Folk Piety/Folk Religion

(6,308 words)

Author(s): Siebald, Manfred | Krech, Volkhard | Lowenstein, Steven | Fuchs, Ottmar | Schieder, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Folk/Folk Religion – II. Religious Studies – III. Judaism – IV. Christianity – V. Islam I. Folk/Folk Religion In the English-speaking realm, the adjective “folk” marks common cultural pheonomena as expressions of a peas-¶ ant population. The superordinated term “folk-lore,” coined in 1846 by William John Thomas and popularized by the establishment of Folklore Societies (England 1878, USA 1888), in its customary, more restricted definition encompasses the pre-literary tradition, i.e. the narratives and songs…


(13,709 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Frankemölle, Hubert | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Collet, Giancarlo | George, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Buddhism – V. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. Overview. Mission is not a fundamentally universal phenomenon in the history of religions; neither is every form in which religion is passed on eo ipso mission. “Primary,” tribal religions are not missionary religions. Their domain is coterminous with their society and its way of life; they are handed down from one generation to the next in the course of natural life. The question of truth does not arise. An indivi…


(15,859 words)

Author(s): Nagel, Tilman | Ende, Werner | Radtke, Bernd | Rudolph, Ulrich | Krawietz, Birgit | Et al.
[German Version] I. Origin and Spread – II. Doctrine – III. Islamic Philosophy – IV. Islamic Art (Architecture and Book Art) – V. Islamic Studies – VI. Christianity and Islam – VII. Judaism and Islam – VIII. Islam in Europe – IX. Islam in North America – X. Political Islamism I. Origin and Spread 1. Muḥammad and his message In 569 ce, Muḥammad was born in Mecca, a city with the shrine of the Kaʿba at its center. Mecca enjoyed good relations with the Sasanian Empire and its Arab vassal princes in Ḥīra, but considered itself politically independen…


(994 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter | Kraus, Birgitta
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. History of Christianity I. History of Religions 1. Pre-Islam The geographical term Afghanistan occurs first in 10th-century Arabic and Persian sources. The political boundaries of Afghanistan were established in the 2nd half of the 19th century by the colonial powers of England and Russia. Although the realm …

Zār Cult

(104 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[German Version] In Sudan, Egypt, and (through migration) some countries of the Persian Gulf region, cults centered on possession and healing (Sickness and healing: II), which probably originated in sub-Saharan Africa, are called Zār cults, a term deriving from the Arabic verb zāra, “visit.” Today Zār is found primarily in the rural areas of these countries or in the traditional quarters of the large cities. It is practiced primarily by women of Muslim but also Christian background who are exposed to strong social pressures. Peter Heine Bibliography I.M. Lewis et al., eds., Women’s Med…


(11,861 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Cancik, Hubert | Liess, Kathrin | Necker, Gerold | Goldberg, Sylvie-Anne | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies and History of Religions – II. Death and the Realm of the Dead in the Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Practical Theology – X. Art – XI. Islam – XII. Buddhism – XIII. Hinduism I. Religious Studies and History of Religions 1. General Modern religious criticism regards religion as compensation for human anxiety in the face of death. …


(258 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[German Version] (“caution, fear”) means concealment or denial of one’s affiliation with a particular school of Islam (II, 1), often heterodox; it can also mean active participation in the rituals of a majority religion on the part of a sectarian to protect against danger to life and limb. This dissimulation can go so far that secret adherents of the heterodox beliefs adopt names typical of the majority religion. Taḳiyya is especially significant in religio-social contexts in which the danger of persecution and obliteration of the religious minority is reinforce…


(5,515 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Leiner, Martin | Rebiger, Bill | Heine, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. History of Doctrine and Dogmatics – IV. Judaism – V. Islam – VI. Buddhism – VII. History of Art and Literature I. Religious Studies The history of the term “paradise” is informative for determining its meaning. The word “paradise” is derived from the ancient Iranian * paridaēza, literally “surrounding wall.” It appears as a loanword in many other languages, for example as the Akkadian pardēsu, the Hebrew פַּרְדֵּס/ pardes or the Greek παράδεισος/ parádeisos. These terms denote an enclosed park or garden (cf. Xeno-¶ phon, Anabasis V…

Religious Education

(5,807 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Lachmann, Rainer | Link, Christoph | Schröder, Bernd | Heine, Peter
[German Version] I. History Religious education (RE) in schools, in modern usage of the term (for RE in a broader sense see Christian doctrine classes, Confirmation classes), is the result of the general differentiation process that led to the promotion of religious learning beyond the contexts of family and worship. The schools of the European cultural sphere arose largely in the area of the church (School and church, Church schools, Monastery schools); for a long time, schooling was essentially based on religious texts. Since each country established its own particular forms…


(424 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
Al-ʿAmāra is a city and administrative unit in southern Iraq, north of the province of Basra on the river Tigris, in an area that has been inhabited since pre-Islamic times. The area is now inhabited by the tribes of the Maʿdan, who have developed their own material culture on the basis of the reed that grows in the marshes of the region. During the 1990s the Baʿth regime drained the marshes and, as a consequence, the typical reed culture of the Maʿdan was destroyed. The majority of the tribes living in the area belong to the Shīʿa. The city of al-ʿAmāra developed from a small village durin…
Date: 2021-07-19


(4,795 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Lachmann, Rainer | Link, Christoph | Schröder, Bernd | Heine, Peter
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Der Religionsunterricht (RU) an Schulen, und nur dieser ist entsprechend heutigem Sprachgebrauch im Blick (s. zu RU im weiteren Sinne Christenlehre, Konfirmandenunterricht), ist Resultat des allg. Differenzierungsprozesses, der zu Bemühungen um rel. Lernen auch außerhalb von Familie und Gottesdienst führte. Entsprechend der Entstehung von Schule im eur. Kulturkreis im kirchl. Bereich (Schule und Kirche, Schule, kirchliche, Klosterschulen) bestand lange Zeit der sc…

Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland

(265 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[English Version] Zentralrat der Muslime in Deutschland, einer der musl. Dachverbände in Deutschland. Andere sind der Islamrat für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und die staatl. türkische Organisation DITIB (Türkisch-isl. Union der Anstalt für Rel.; Deutschland: III.,1., b). Sein Sitz befindet sich in Köln. Der Z. ging 1994 aus dem Isl. Arbeitskreis in Deutschland hervor. Zu seinen ca.20 Mitgliedsorganisationen gehören unterschiedliche nationale und soziale Verbände, in denen sich Muslime in Deuts…


(253 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[English Version] Taqīya, »Vorsicht, Furcht«, ist das Verschweigen oder die Verleugnung der Zugehörigkeit zu einer bestimmten, häufig heterodoxen isl. Glaubensvorstellung (Islam: II.,1.), auch die aktive Teilnahme an den Ritualen einer Mehrheitsrel., um Gefahren für Leib und Leben des Mitglieds der Sondergruppe zu schützen. Diese Dissimulation kann so weit gehen, daß heimliche Anhänger der heterodoxen Vorstellungen Namen annehmen, die typisch für die Mehrheitsrel. sind. T. ist v.a. in solchen rel.…


(4,801 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Leiner, Martin | Rebiger, Bill | Heine, Peter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichDie Gesch. des Begriffs P. ist für die Bestimmung seiner Bedeutung aufschlußreich. Die Bez. P., die von altir. *paridaēza, wörtl. »Umwallung«, abgeleitet ist, erscheint als Lehnwort in vielen anderen Sprachen: z.B. als akkad. pardēsu, hebr. פַּרְדֵּס/pardes oder griech. παρα´δεισος/para´deisos. Diese Begriffe bezeichnen einen eingefriedeten Park, eine Gartenanlage (vgl. Xenophon, Anabasis VI 29,4) und in der Achämenidenzeit speziell die königliche Domäne). Erst in der LXX, durch die Verwen…


(10,553 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Cancik, Hubert | Liess, Kathrin | Necker, Gerold | Goldberg, Sylvie-Anne | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich und religions- geschichtlich 1.AllgemeinNeuzeitliche Religionskritik betrachtet Rel. als Kompensation für die Angst des Menschen vor dem T. Obwohl die Auseinandersetzung mit dem T. einen wesentlichen Anteil an der Entstehung menschlicher Kultur hat, rücken die Zeugnisse der frühen Religionsgesch. großteils das irdische Leben in den Vordergrund. Die einzelnen rel. Traditionen gewichten T. und Weiterleben unterschiedlich. Allerdings erweist sich der T. fas…


(5,335 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard | Lowenstein, Steven | Fuchs, Ottmar | Schieder, Rolf | Ahrens, Theodor | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.Begriffsverwendung Die Begriffe Volksfrömmigkeit (V.) und Volksrel. bildeten sich in der eur. Geistesgesch. seit dem 18.Jh. aus und bergen eine doppelte Differenz. Zum einen stehen sie im Gegensatz zur Virtuosenreligiosität und Hochrel. Zum anderen basiert das interne Verhältnis der Begriffe auf der Unterscheidung zw. Religion und Religiosität, deren Äquivalent Frömmigkeit ist. Während Rel. Dogmen und Organisationsweisen umfaßt, meint Religiosität ei…


(99 words)

Author(s): Heine, Peter
[English Version] . Im Sudan, in Ägypten und durch Migration in einigen Staaten der Golfregion werden Besessenheits- (Besessenheit) und Heilungskulte (Krankheit und Heilung: II.), die urspr. vermutlich aus dem subsaharischen Afrika stammen, als Z. bez., abgeleitet von dem arab. Verb zāra »besuchen«. Der Z. findet sich heute v.a. im ruralen Bereich dieser Staaten oder in den traditionellen Vierteln der großen Städte. Er wird v.a. von Frauen musl., aber auch christl. Herkunft praktiziert, die starkem gesellschaftlichen Druck ausgesetzt sind. Peter Heine Bibliography I.M. Lewi…