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Prophetic Books

(3,721 words)

Author(s): Jeremias, Jörg
[German Version] I. Written Form The great riddle of Old Testament prophecy (Prophets and prophecy: II) is its written form. While the phenomenon of prophecy in all its diversity has a wealth of parallels in the ancient Near East (M. Weippert, NBL III, 2001, 196–200; cf. in the OT 1 Kgs 18:19 and Jer 27:9), there are very few written records of prophetic utterances. Before these were discovered early in the 20th century, many scholars considered OT prophecy unique. It is not OT prophecy as such that is unique, but rather its transmission in written form. Apart from a few isolated examples…

Amos/Book of Amos

(1,419 words)

Author(s): Jeremias, Jörg
[German Version] I. Life and Times – II. Message – III. Book Amos stands at the most important turning point in the history of Old Testament prophecy (Jewish tradition: “former”/“latter prophets”; Prophets and prophecy). The words of a prophet were for the first time systematically collected and transmitted in book form. For the first time, God's people as a whole had their “end” announced to them (8:2). It is not by chance that Amos strongly influenced his followers with respect to establishing a tradition. I. Life and Times Amos appeared only briefly as a prophet (cf. “two years …

Wolff, Hans Walter

(188 words)

Author(s): Jeremias, Jörg
[German Version] His research, honored with three Festschriften and three honorary doctorates, focused primarily on OT prophets and prophecy (II). Along with W. Zimmerli’s commentary on Ezekiel, his seminal commentaries on the prophets Hosea to Micah (and Haggai) represent the most important 20th-century interpretations of the prophets. His preliminary studies were published in two volumes of collected essays. He always wrote parallel expositions of the prophetic books for parish use. He also wrote on …

Hosea / Book of Hosea

(2,295 words)

Author(s): Jeremias, Jörg
[German Version] I. Times – II. Book – III. Message I. Times Hosea preached during the last two or three decades of the Northern Kingdom (c. 750–724 bce), in an eventful period. The beginnings, which cannot be precisely determined (according to 1:1 and 1:4 still under Jeroboam II, 787–747), fell in the cultural heyday between the Aramean wars and the beginning of Assyrian dominion, and the texts that presumably belong to this period (2:4–15; 4:4–5:7*) reflect an undisturbed wealth with a flourishing cult. The majority …


(1,673 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Jeremias, Jörg | Scriba, Albrecht
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term theophany (“appearance/manifestation of God”) stands between the poles of revelation and epiphany (“transfiguration, illumination”) or hierophany (“manifestation of the holy”), a term often used in 20th-century phenomenology of religion. In various monotheistic and polytheistic contexts and periods, we find narratives that recount the sudden overpowering advent of God and the resulting catastrophes or terror befalling the world. As a literary genre, theoph…

Prophets and Prophecy

(8,753 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The term. In the significance ascribed to religious phenomena, prophecy surpasses individual experiences of mysticism, ecstasy, and inspiration, as well as the situational activities of established functionaries such as priests (Priesthood), shamans (Shamanism), or diviners (Divination). Revelations ascribed by prophets to the deity they serve give ethical guidance to a community. The term προφήτης/ prophḗ tēs derives from ancient Greek religion, where it referred initially to local specialists, who are hard to …

Vision/Vision Account

(4,201 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Jeremias, Jörg | Reed, Annette Yoshiko | Heininger, Bernhard | Dinzelbacher, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term vision (from Lat. visio) denotes a clear perception of images of individual scenes or long sequences (some coupled with auditory [Auditory hallucination] or olfactory elements) in a waking state. Visions can arise spontaneously or be induced by rhythms, asceticism, meditation, psychedelic drugs, or rituals (Rite and ritual). They are experienced without exception as coming from without, although related external stimuli cannot be verified. Religiously dispose…