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Justin Martyr (Saint)

(771 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] (Iustinus Martyr; born in Flavia Neapolis [Nablus], Samaria, died 165 in Rome) was a Greek apologist and Christian philosopher. He was born into a pagan family (who called themselves “Samaritans”), received a grammatical and rhetorical education, and was familiar with a variety of philosophical schools. He understood his eventual conversion to Christianity as a turn to the true philosophy. Justin may have taught for a time in Ephesus and finally established a Christian school in R…

Apollinarius of Hierapolis, Claudius,

(669 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia (c. 175). Claudius Apollinarius or Apollinaris (Latin form; the preferred Greek form is “Apolinarios”; cf. Zahn) was a bishop in Phrygia during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (161–180, sole reign 169–176; cf. Eusebius Hist. eccl. IV 21 with IV 19; IV 26.1; idem, Chron. ad ann. Abr. 2187; idem, Chron. paschale ad Olymp. ann. 237, 1 = ann. Christ. 167; Photius Bibl., cod. 14). According to Theodoret, he was versed in scripture and also familiar with pagan learning ( Haer. fab. III, 2). Photius praises his literary style ( loc. cit.). No…


(210 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] The term νεόϕυτος/ neóphytos (“newly planted”) appears in the New Testament only in 1 Tim 3:6 (possibly influenced by Isa 5:7 LXX; cf. also 1 Cor 3:5–9), where it refers to a recent adult convert, who is excluded from the office of bishop (cf. also the Syriac Didascalia 4). Canon 2 of the Council of Nicea in 325 forbids ordination to the priesthood or episcopate immediately after baptism; similar decrees appear in canon 3 of the Council of Laodicea (between 343 and 381), Apostolic Canons 80, and canon 19 of the Fourth Council of Toledo (633). C…


(349 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] (or Quartadecimans). The term derives from Latin quarto- or quartadecimani, used by Tacitus in a military context; in the present context, however, it translates Greek τεσσαρεσκαιδεκατῖται/ tessareskaidekatítai (first used by Epiphanius of Salamis c. 375). It is an umbrella term for groups of Christians that celebrated Passover (Feasts and festivals: II; III) or Easter on Nisan 14, according the Jewish calculation of Passover. They are first mentioned by Apollinarius of Hierapolis (frgm. De Pascha) and Polycrates of Ephesus (cit. in Eus. Hist. eccl. V 24.2–8), …

Paschal/Easter Calendrical Controversies

(573 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] The first disputes regarding the date of Easter or the duration of the preceding fast (Fasting: III, 1; the sources are not clear which) go back to the mid-2nd century, when there were differences between Polycarp of Smyrna and Anicetus, the bishop of Rome, which were resolved amicably (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 14.1, 5; V 24.16f.). During the episcopate of Victor I of Rome, the so-called Paschal Controversy arose between the church in Rome and the churches in Asia Minor (Eus. Hist. eccl. V 23–25). In Asia Minor, the church followed the Jewish calculation of the date…


(5,925 words)

Author(s): Kraus, Georg | Kinzig, Wolfram | Schlemmer, Karl | Plank, Peter | Schwier, Helmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Church History – III. Liturgy – IV. Customs and Traditions – V. Homiletics and Education – VI. Art History I. Terminology Easter (cf. Ger. Ostern) is the English word for the feast of Jesus Christ's resurrection (II). The name in other Germanic and Romance languages derives instead from Gk πάσχα/ páscha (Aram. פַּסְחָא/ pascha' or פִּסְחָא/ pischa' for Heb. פֶּסַח/ pesah. [from פסח/ psh., “limp/go past”, etymology not entirely clear]; Lat. as pascha or passa), for example, Påske (Danish and Norwegian), Pasen (Dutch), Påsk (Swedish), Pasqua (…


(311 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] Greek apologist (2nd half of 2nd cent.), is mentioned briefly only by Methodius of Olympus ( De resurrectione mortuorum I, 37, 1–3, with a fragment from Athenagoras's Supplicatio) and Philip of Side (in a confused passage copied by Theodorus Lector, GCS 54, 1971, 160). He describes himself as a Christian philosopher from Athens ( Supplicatio, titulus, if authentic; he was clearly not the “head” of the Academy, as Philip claims). Whether this description indicates a philosophical education before his conversion is as uncertain as Philip's …

Theophilus of Alexandria (Saint)

(379 words)

Author(s): Kinzig, Wolfram
[German Version] (c. 345, Memphis – Oct 15, 412, Alexandria), patriarch of Alexandria. He was said to have been a catechumen and student of Athanasius, who baptized him. He entered the clergy prior to 370 and worked as an episcopal secretary; he may also have been the teacher of Tyrannius Rufinus. Between 384 and 387 he was enthroned as bishop of Alexandria. He systematically destroyed the pagan temples (including the Serapeum) and replaced them with churches (before 392). After 391 he appears to …