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(1,376 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred | Germann, Michael | Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] I. General Church History – II. Europe – III. Latin America I. General Church History Laicism (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”; Laity) originated in 19th-century France ( laïcisme) as an aggressively anticlerical concept; originally it proposed absolute separation of the state, secular culture, and the church (esp. the Catholic Church; Church and state), opposing all public influence on the part of the church. Its intellectual roots were in the Enlightenment and especially the French Revolution – although it r…

Lima, Provincial Councils

(233 words)

Author(s): Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] During the colonial period in Peru (1532–1821) six major provincial councils, which affected the church in all of Spanish America south of New Spain, were held in Lima. The first (1551–1552), convoked by Archbishop Gerónimo de Loayza, issued many decrees concerning the pastoral care of the Indians, but was poorly attended. A second council (1567–1568), also under Loayza's leadership, incorporated the decrees of the Council of Trent into South American church legislation. By far th…

Mogrovejo, Toribio Alfonso de

(169 words)

Author(s): Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] (Nov 16, 1538, Mayorga, León, Spain – Mar 23, 1606, Saña, Peru), second archbishop of Lima (1581–1606). He studied, specializing in canon law, in Valladolid, Salamanca, and Coimbra. From 1573 to 1580, he was inquisitor in Granada. In 1579, he was appointed archbishop by Pope Gregory VIII, was consecrated in 1580, and then traveled to Lima. Mogrovejo was famous for his exten-¶ sive visitations, during which he taught, baptized, confirmed, and married thousands of Indians. In 1582, he called the third Provincial Council of Lima (Lima, Provinci…

Huamán Capac, Catalina de Jesús

(165 words)

Author(s): Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] (d. 1774) is one of the few known Indian nuns in colonial Peru and prelate of the beatery of Copacabana in Lima for Indian women religious around the year 1733. She attempted to raise the beatery to the rank of monastery and petitioned the king and the Council of Indies for aid. The Council agreed to help only if the monastery had a certain fixed income. Unable to assure this condition, Huamán Capac began a pilgrimage to beg alms to support her project. She walked as far as La Paz…

Panchacuti Inca Yupanqui

(202 words)

Author(s): Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] (Titu Cusi; 1530–1572), third Inca ruler after the conquest of Peru in 1532; until his death, he retreated to a mountain fortress in the jungle near Cuzco. As a living symbol of the Inca empire, he conducted guerilla warfare against the Spanish, repeatedly refusing to capitulate. He nevertheless allowed a few Catholic missionaries to come to his refuge and was baptized in 1568. It is questionable, however, whether he really accepted Christianity. Between 1569 and 1570, the Inca leader wrote a chronicle of the conquest from the Inca perspective ( An Inca Account of the …


(1,787 words)

Author(s): Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] (1,285,220 km2) lies in the very center of the Andes mountain range in western South America. Until the Spanish conquest it was also the home of the Inca Empire, which stretched from northern Ecuador to the middle of Chile. Of a total population of 27,012,899, some 45% are classified as Indians (Native American Indians), 37% as mestizos, and 15% as “white.” There is also a small black and Asian population. The word “Indian” is now less used as it has acquired a pejorative connotation; it has for the most ¶ part been replaced by campesino (“peasant”). The majority of An…