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Deissmann, Gustav Adolf

(172 words)

Author(s): Klauck, Hans-Josef
[German Version] (Nov 7, 1866, Langenscheid, Lahn – Apr 5, 1937, Wünsdorf, Berlin). After studies in Tübingen, Berlin, and Marburg (with C.F.G. Heinrici) and working as pastor in Herborn, he became professor of New Testament in Heidelberg (1897) and in Berlin (…


(2,145 words)

Author(s): Klauck, Hans-Josef | Satran, David | Bovon, François | Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. New Testament Apocrypha from Nag Hammadi I. Terminology Etymologically, “apocryphal” means “hidde…

High Priest

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Schwartz, Daniel R. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Link-Wieczorek, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics I. Old Testament Before the Exile, the Jerusalem priesthood was headed by a primus inter pares – called either הַכֹּהֵן/ hakkohen (“the priest,” e.g. 1 Kgs 4:2; 2 Kgs 11:9; 12:8*) or כֹּהֵן הָרֹש/ kohen hāroš (“chief priest,” cf. 2 Kgs 25:18 par. Jer. 52:24) –, but not by a high priest. The term הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדֹל/ hakkohen haggādol (“high priest”) is securely ¶ attested only after the Exile; it emphasizes the importance of the office (Num 35:25, 28 [P; cf. Lev 21:10; Josh 20:6]; Hag 1:1, 12, 14; 2:2, 4; Zech 3:1, 8; 6:11; Neh 3:1, 20; 13:28). In postexilic Judah, the high priest was the “second man” after the provincial governor (Hag 1:1); that had probably been true since the reconstitution of Judah in 538 bce, when Sheshbazzar was appointed governor (Ezra 5:14) and Jehozadak may have been appointed high priest. Jehozadak was the son of Seraiah, the last chief priest (1 Chr 5:41 [Eng. 6:15]; cf. 2 Kgs 25:18) – in other words, a Zadokite (Zadok) – and the father of the later high priest Joshua (Hag 1:1, 12, 14; 2:2, 4; Zech 6:11; Ezra 3:2, 8; 5:2). The office of high priest was hereditary (cf. Lev 6:15 [Eng. 6:22]; Num 20:25f.; Neh 12:10f.; 1 Chr 5:27–41 [Eng. 6:1–15]). Joshua was the first high pries…


(3,786 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Leeb, Rudolf | Jacobs, Martin | Dan, Joseph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Islam I. Bible 1. Old Testament From the biblical perspective, David, whos…

Divine Attributes

(4,975 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Brümmer, Vincent | Schmidt, Werner H. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Amir, Yehoyada | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. Islam I. Religious Studies In the context of rational Christian metaphysics, the knowability of God is assumed and God-talk is substantiated in such a way that certain attributes, such as holiness (Sacred and pro…


(3,568 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Most, Glenn W. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Rieger, Reinhold | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Classical Antiquity – III. Bible– IV. Church History – V. Systematics – VI. Practical Exegesis– VII. Religious Art I. History of Religions Allegory (from Gk ἀλληγορέω/ allēgoreō, “say something other [than the literal meaning]”), is a hermeneutical technique (Hermeneutics). The moment a religious …


(15,718 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Zenkert, Georg | Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Fox, Michael V. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Philosophy – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology and Pedagogy – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Concept Traditionally, “education” has denoted the intentional interaction of adults with the younger generation in order-usually-to influence them positively; whether it makes sense to speak of education when negative goals are deliberately pursued is disputed. In societies with stable structures, which change very slowly in ways that are not perceptible to the members of the community or society, education takes place as a matter of course without a second thought and in conformity with the material, cultural, and religious reality of the particular group. In societies that have become critical of their traditions or are undergoing structural change, there is no unquestioning consensus regarding the forms and goals of this interaction; this situation leads to reflection on education in the form of pedagogics (Education, Theory of) as an academic discipline. Therefore the upheavals of the modern era have been accompanied by many proposals and debates related to education. Different understandings of existence and different value systems have their own ideas concerning education, which are elaborated in theories of education shaped primarily by their particular anthropologies, but also by the nature of the future they endeavor to bring about. In this context, there arises the problem of the appropriate relationship between educational theory and theology (see VII, 2 below) or philos…