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(5,886 words)

Author(s): Knuth, Hans Christian | Dahm, Karl-Wilhelm | Marhold, Wolfgang | Pirson, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Concept – II. History – III. Theology – IV. Sociology – V. Law – VI. Statistics I. Concept The term “clergy” refers to persons who are ordained and who are ordinarily called to full-time (recently also part-time or non-stipendiary) service to carry out the preaching office. Etymologically, “clergy” is derived from the Gk kleros, meaning “lot” or “inheritance,” possibly a reference to the tribe of Levi having the Lord as their lot (Deut 18:2). The etymological derivation of the German term Pfarrer is not completely clear. If it is derived from Lat. parricus, “fold…

Church Governance

(762 words)

Author(s): Barth, Thomas | Knuth, Hans Christian
[German Version] I. Law – II. Practical Theology I. Law Church governance, or leadership, in the broader sense is the collective term for all the organs of church governance in a Protestant regional church. In the more limited sense, the church leadership is the organ responsible for the continuous leadership of the church. The term used may be church leadership, but sometimes also church government, church senate, church council, moderamen, or synodal council. Its specific configuration is appropriate to the type of leadership realized. In the broader sense, the church leade…


(6,151 words)

Author(s): Schubert, Anselm | Knuth, Hans Christian | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Denominations: Lutheran Churches in History – II. Lutheran Churches Today – III. Statistical Survey – IV. Missions – V. Ecumenism I. Denominations: Lutheran Churches in History 1. General Lutheranism denotes that portion of Christianity that traces its historical and theological origin to the Reformation of Martin Luther and uses his works as its theological foundation. The Latin terms Lutherani and Lutheranismus were coined originally by Roman Catholic opponents of the Reformation movement in order to identify it as heretical (first used by J. Eck in 1520). The German term L…


(116 words)

Author(s): Knuth, Hans Christian
[German Version] The term pastor (from Lat. pastor, “shepherd”) represents the official role of the Protestant minister usually called Pfarrer or Pfarrerin in German (Clergy); it is common in some areas of Germany, especially where…


(109 words)

Author(s): Knuth, Hans Christian
[English Version] . Der Begriff P. stellt die Amtsbez. des bzw. der ev. Pfarrer/Pfarrerin dar, wie sie in verschiedenen Gegenden, etwa im niederdt. Sprachraum, und Ländern (z.B. F…


(4,851 words)

Author(s): Knuth, Hans Christian | Dahm, Karl-Wilhelm | Marhold, Wolfgang | Pirson, Dietrich
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als P. werden Personen bez., die ordiniert sind und in der Regel im hauptamtlichen (neuerdings aber auch im teilzei…