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Dengizich

(96 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Dintzic, Greek Δεγγιζίχ, Δινζίριχος; Dengizích, Dinzírichos). Son of Attila, king of the Huns; after the latter's death D. assembled an army from the elements of the Hun empire that were still under his control, to fight the Goths. He was, however, defeated at Bassianae (Pannonia) by the Goths (probably after AD 456/57, Iord. Get. 272f.). He later conducted several wars against the Romans but was killed in 469 by the mag. mil. per Thracias Anagestes (Prisc. fr. 36 [FHG 4,107f.]; Chron. pasch. 323d Dindorf). PLRE 354f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Boch…

Eparchia

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (ἐπαρχία; eparchía). Territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states. In the Seleucid kingdom, Antiochus [5] III especially supported the setting up of smaller provinces in order to prevent power concentrations in the areas of individual satraps, as for example  Molon (222 BC). Polybius describes their head, who evidently had military and civil power, as éparchos or stratēgós (Pol. 5,46,7; 48,14); however his terminology is misleading since from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC on, eparchia started taking on the meaning of Lat . provincia (cf. SIG3 683,55 and …

Fravitta

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Fravitus). Tervingian army commander in the service of Rome, married to a Roman woman. In support of maintaining the Roman alliance with the Goths of AD 382, he killed Eriulf in 391 at the court of Theodosius I (Zos. 4,56,1-3; Eunapius fr. 60 FHG 4,41). In about 400 as the magister militum on behalf of Arcadius he prevented Gaenas from crossing the Hellespont (Zos. 5,20-21; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,4,19-21) and was rewarded for it in 401 with the consulate (Eunapius fr. 82 FHG 4,50). Around 403/4, however, he was accused of allowing …

Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Anaxibius

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Spartan nauarchos in Byzantium, when in 400 BC the remains of the army of the younger Cyrus entered Bithynia. Recalled from there in 400/399, A. was sent as harmost to Abydus in 389 to secure the Spartan position in the northern Aegean against Athens, but he fell in 388 in a battle against the Athenians under Iphicrates (Xen. An. 5,1,4; 6,1,16; 7,1.2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,4; Xen. Hell. 4,8,32 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Epigraphy

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Epigraphy, from Greek ἐπιγράφειν ( epigráphein, ‘to write on something’). The term refers to ancient texts that were documented on various, mostly permanent materials (stone, bronze, etc.), as well as to the respective sub-discipline of archaeology.  Inscriptions; Epigraphy Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Chirisophus

(237 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χειρίσοφος; Cheirísophos). [German version] [1] Spartan commander under Cyrus Spartiate; on the instructions of his polis, at Issus in 401 BC he joined the army of the younger  Cyrus with 700 hoplites (Xen. An. 1,4,3; Diod. Sic. 14,19,4f.); after Cyrus' death at Cunaxa C. was sent by  Clearchus to Ariaeus, to offer him the Persian throne (Xen. An. 2,1,4f.). After Clearchus had been imprisoned and put to death, C. received supreme command of the entire remaining army (Diod. Sic. 14,27,1), and led the ret…

Sparta

(5,406 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Theatre | Christianity | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Hellenistic states | Achaeans, Achaea | Colonization | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σπάρτη/ Spártē, Doric Σπάρτα/ Spárta). I. Political history [German version] A. Archaic period City in Laconica on the middle reaches of the Eurotas; originally four villages (Cynosura [3], Limnae, Pitana/Pitane, Mesoa), which developed from settlements of D…

Gildilas

(57 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Eastern Goth, comes Syracusanae civitatis in AD 526/7, commander of the province of Sicilia, known from two letters of  Athalaric (Cassiod. Var. 9,11; 14) who threatened the comes Gotharum G. with dismissal from office because of serious irregularities in the levying of taxes and in legal decisions. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Hippocles

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλῆς; Hippoklês). H. of Cyme on the island of Euboea, oikist (‘founder’) of the Italian Cyme together with Megasthenes of Chalcis. According to Strabo (5,4,4), the colony was named by mutual agreement after H.' hometown, but must be considered as a Chalcidian foundation. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 1957, 38f.

Eurylochus

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρύλοχος; Eurýlochos). [German version] [1] Relative and companion of Odysseus Close relation and ambivalent companion of  Odysseus. He is the only one not to accept the invitation of  Circe, and so escapes being transformed into a pig (Hom. Od. 10,205-274; Apollod. Epit. 7,14-15; Ov. Met. 14,287). When E. later incites the companions against Odysseus, he is threatened with punishment by death (Hom. Od. 10,429-448). Together with  Perimedes he takes part in the sacrifice to the dead before Odysseus ente…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…

Evagon

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐάγων / Euágōn, in MSS also as Εὐγαίων / Eugaíōn, Εὐγέων / Eugéōn). Of Samos, hailed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as one of the earliest of the Greek historiographers (De Thucydide 5) and the first Samian historian (last third of the 5th cent. BC), the author of Hôroi Samíōn, which was still referred to by Aristotle; Thucydides, too, used it. In the course of a 2nd cent. BC territorial dispute with Priene, the Samians cited an old border agreement (early 7th cent.), mentioned by E. ─ who thus is one of the earliest local …

Dekadarchia

(482 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(δεκαδαρχία; dekadarchía). [German version] [1] Rule by ten c. 400 BC ‘Rule by ten’; commissions of ten men, used in 405/04 BC by the oligarchically inclined Spartan Lysander, especially in the former Athenian sphere of influence; according to Diodorus (14,13,1), besides dekadarchia he also set up oligarchies, but according to Xenophon (Hell. 3,5,13; 6,3,8), Plutarch (Lys. 13) and Nepos (Lys. 1,4-2,1) dekadarchia persisted ‘everywhere’. This is improbable, as Sparta had proclaimed freedom and autonomy as its goal in the war against Athens, and in Greek constitutional conceptions d…

Echestratus

(52 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐχέστρατος; Echéstratos). Legendary Spartan king, son of Agis I, father of Labotas and thus the third king from the house of the Agiads (Hdt. 7,204). According to Paus. 3,2,2, the Cynureans are said to have been expelled from the Argolis in the reign of E. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Damippus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Δάμιππος; Dámippos). Spartan in the service of Hieronymus of Syracuse to whom he gave the advice of adherence to the alliance with Rome in 215 BC (Pol. 7,5,3). Later he also served Epicydes; in 212 he was sent as envoy to Philip V of Macedonia, and in the process fell into the hands of the Romans. The negotiations for his release, in the course of which M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus noticed a tower that was only poorly guarded by the Syracusans, ultimately led to the successful Roman attack on Epipolae (Liv. 25,23,8ff.; Plut. Marcellus 18; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,11). Meier, Mischa…

Hegesidamus

(22 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡγησίδαμος; Hēgēsídamos). In the Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías named as the teacher of  Hippias of Elis. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Peace, concept of

(30 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A unified notion of peace, comparable to the modern concept, was unknown in Antiquity. Eirene; Koine Eirene; Pax. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Aratus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Ἄρατος; Áratos). [German version] [1] Legendary figure in the early history of Sparta Legendary figure in the early history of Sparta. According to Just. Epit. 3,4,8, in the first Messenian War A. sent the younger soldiers back to their homes, where they had intercourse with all the women and thus ensured the growth of the Spartan population. The so-called  Partheniae conceived in this way, later founded Tarentum under  Phalanthas, the son of A. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sikyonian leader of the Achaean League (245-213 Bc) Sicyonian, 271-213 BC, between 245 an…

Euergetes

(325 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εὐεργέτης; euergétēs, ‘benefactor’). An honorary title bestowed by Greek communities upon people who rendered particularly outstanding services to them. There is evidence of this term with this meaning from the 5th cent. BC (cf. Hdt. 8,136), but euergesia as an aspect of the ideal of generosity of the Greek aristocracy can be traced back to the Homeric period ( Euergetism). In Athens the work of individual citizens for the polis in the 5th cent. was still primarily regulated by  liturgies and it was expected of on…

Nicander

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος; Níkandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king, c. 715 BC Spartan king, Eurypontid, the father of Theopompus (Hdt. 8,131). N. led the raid of Spartans and Asinaeans into Argolis, in retaliation for which the Argives destroyed Asine [1] ( c. 715 BC). The settlement was refounded a few years later on the Messenian Gulf (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [German version] [2] Strategos in the Aetolian League, 190/189, 184/3 and 177/6 BC Son of Bittus of Trichonium (Syll.3 5…

Dexippus

(719 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Chase, Michael (Victoria, BC)
(Δέξιππος; Déxippos). [German version] [1] Spartan, mercenary leader c. 400 BC Lacedaemonian, 406 BC mercenary leader of Acragas in the war against Carthage in which he played an obscure role. The Syracusans appointed him as the commander in Gela where he refused to support Dionysius I and was then sent back to his homeland (Diod. Sic. 13,85,3f.; 87,4f.; 88,7f.; 93; 96,1). D. is perhaps identical with a perioecus who drew attention to himself in the army of Cyrus the Younger through his wicked machinations and was finally executed by Nicander (Xen. An. 5,1,15; 6,1,32; 6,5ff.). Meier, Misc…

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Amphidamus

(71 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀμφίδαμος, Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphídamos, Amphidámas) Captain of the Eleans. In 218 BC A. was imprisoned by Philip V, but was released without payment of ransom after he promised to press the Eleans to form an alliance with Philip. His efforts failed, however; suspected of betrayal, A. had to flee Elis and returned to Philip (Pol. 4,75,6; 84-86).  Philippus Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, Philip V of Macedon, 1967, 48 f.

Epeunaktai

(148 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπευνακταί; Epeunaktaí). Literally ‘bedfellows’. According to Theopomp (FGrH 115 F 171 in Ath. 6,271c-d), Helots who during the 1st Messenian War were set free by the Spartans and received citizenship; they were supposed to unite with the widows of those who had fallen (cf. also Just. Epit. 3,5,6, who however dates the events in the second Messenian War). According to this, the E. would have been the fathers of the so-called  Partheniai, who appear in tradition as the founders of …

Gesalicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gesalech; also Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimate son of  Alaricus [3] II; after the latter's death at Vouillé in AD 507 he was elected king of the Visigoths, as his legitimate half-brother  Amalaricus, grandson of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic, was still a minor (Procop. Goth. 5,12,43). G. was soon forced to retreat to Spain by the Burgundians and Franks (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen). When Theoderic contested his leadership on behalf of Amalaricus (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46), G. …

Fritigern

(180 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Dux ( reiks) of the  Tervingi; in AD 376, with the permission of  Valens and under threat from the Huns, he led his tribe as dediticiideditio ) across the Danube to Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,4,8; Iord. Get. 134), where the Arian won over parts of the indigenous population. After conflicts with the Romans the Goths defeated the Romans on 9 Sept. 378 in the battle of Hadrianople (Amm. Marc. 31,6,3-5; 11,5; 12,8 [1. 133-139]). F., who was not able to take advantage of the victory because his …

Aneristus

(100 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνήριστος; Anḗristos). [German version] [1] Spartan (beginning of 5th cent. BC) Spartan. After the murder of the Persian envoy in Sparta, his son  Sperthias went willingly to atone for this debt to the great king, but was let go there (Hdt. 7,134 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan, died 430 BC Spartan, son of Sperthias. According to Hdt. 7,137 A. conquered Halieis. In 430 BC he fell into the hands of the Athenians as a member of a Peloponnesian delegation on the way to the great king and was killed (Hdt. 7,137; Thuc. 2,67). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Duenos inscription

(465 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] An inscription in archaic Latin on the so-called ‘Vasculum Dresselianum’, a ceramic vessel discovered in Rome, south-east of the Quirinal, in 1880 by H. Dressel. The triangular object with rounded tips and concave sides (length of sides: 10,3-10,5 cm; max. height: 4,5 cm; cf. [1. 55]) has a round opening at each tip. The inscription is on the outer side, written in three lines to be read from right to left (see fig.; other fig. in [1; 2. 134f., 140]; a version of transcription in [3. 70]). The dating of the text ranges from the 7th to the late 3rd cent. BC; ar…

Eteonicus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐτεόνικος; Eteónikos). Spartan, campaigned under Astyochus against Lesbos in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,23); as  harmost of Thasos he was forced out by an anti-Spartan faction in 410 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32). After the Spartan defeat at Arginusae in 406, E. took his ship and troops safely to Chios and stationed them there until Lysander's arrival (Xen. Hell.1,6,26; 35-38; 2,1,1-6; 10; Diod. Sic. 13,97,3; 100,5). He held a command at Aigospotamoi (405) (Diod. Sic. 13,106,5; Paus. 10,9,10). E. late…

Chaeron

(334 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Χαίρων; Chaírōn). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Apollo and Thero Mythical son of Apollo and Thero (in Plut. Sulla 17: Thuro); founder of the city named after him,  Chaeronea (Hes. Cat. fr. 252 M-W = Paus. 9,40,5f.; Hellanicus FGrH 379 F3). Plutarch names a son dead in childhood after him (Consolatio ad uxorem 5 p. 609d). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spartan polemarch, late 5th cent. BC Spartan polemarch who died in 403 BC in  Pausanias' assault on Piraeus. He was buried on the Cerameicus (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33; Lys. epit. 63). His grave has been p…

Kalokagathia

(309 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (καλοκἀγαθία; kalokagathía). ‘Excellence’, a combination of kalós k(aì) (‘and’) agathós, where kalós means ‘beautiful’, and agathós ‘good’. Because since Homeric times Greek aristocrats had been defining themselves with these two adjectives [1. 8f.], kalokagathia was thought to be an expression of aristocratic self-representation in the Homeric tradition (cf. e.g. [2]). However, this has proven to be false [3. vol. 1, 611ff.]: kalokagathia is not recorded as a set expression until the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC (evidence: [4. 1054ff.; 107…

Archinus

(89 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀρχῖνος; Archînos). Athenian, around 404 BC initially an adherent of the political group around  Theramenes (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34,3). Together with  Thrasyboulus in 404/3 he launched the struggle against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) from  Phyle (Dem. Or. 24,135). After the victory he was a proponent of preserving the general amnesty and opposed to expanding Athenian citizenship (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 40,1 f.). The Ionian alphabet was introduced in Athens at his suggestion in 403/2 (Theop. FGrH 115 F 155; PA, 2526; Traill PAA, 213880. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Lucius [I]

(732 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
(Λούκιος; Loúkios) [German version] [1] L. Kathegetes Author of pharmacological texts, 1st cent. AD Author of pharmacological texts, active in the middle to the end of the 1st cent. AD. Galen (De compositione medicamentum secundum genera 13,295 K.), quoting from Andromachus [5] the Younger, records a remedy against diarrhoea by L. of Tarsus, a city with a long pharmacological tradition (cf. also 13,292 K., where the name of the city is not mentioned). He is almost certainly to be identified with the more fa…

Dorylaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Δορύλαος; Dorýlaos). [German version] [1] Great-great-grandfather of Strabo, friend of Mithridates V From Amisus, great-great-grandfather of the geographer Strabo, recruited mercenaries in Thrace, Greece and Crete as anḕr taktikós and friend of Mithridates V of Pontus. In Knossos he was chosen as stratēgós and defeated the Gortynians. After the assassination of Mithridates in 120 BC he remained in Knossos (Str. 10,4,10). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Philetaerus, participated in the 1st Mithridatic War Son of Philetaerus, nephew of D. [1]. Raise…

Axiochus

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀξίοχος; Axíochos). Uncle of  Alcibiades (Pl. Euthd. 275a), and accused together with him in 415 BC of the profanation of the Mysteries in the house of Charmenides, after which he fled from Athens (And. 1,16); his possessions were auctioned. On his alleged amorous adventures: cf. Ath. 12,534F-535A; 13,574E and [1. 20]. He appears in the pseudo-Platonic dialogue that is named after him. Traill, PAA 139755. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989.

Gesimund

(87 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Hunimund the Elder, first Gothic king under Hunnish rule. In AD 376 he helped the Hunnish king Balamber to victory over the Amalian Vinitharius (Iord. Get. 248). Perhaps identical to Gensimund, who, although the kingship was offered to him as Amalian magister militum, declined in favour of the legitimate successors (Cassiod. Var. 8,9). PLRE 2,510 and [1. 26f.] consider the two to be identical; contrary [2. 254f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Heather, Goths and Romans 332-489, 1991 2 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 31990.

Aristarchus

(2,018 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀρίσταρχος; Arístarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian politician, in 411 BC the most embittered opponent of the demos among the 400 Oligarchs in Athens (Thuc. 8,90,1). A. participated in the fortification of  Eetioneia when he was strategos (Xen. Hell. 2,3,46). After the regime was toppled, he betrayed the border fortification Oenoe to the Boeotians (Thuc. 8,98), for which he was executed in 406 (?) (Lycurg. Leocr. 115; PA, 1663; Traill PAA, 164155). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] of Tegea Tragedian, 5th cent. BC Tragedi…

Daochus

(157 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Δάοχος; Dáochos). [German version] [1] D.I. Tagos of the Thessalian koinon 431-404 BC from Pharsalus, son of Agias, was the   tagos of the Thessalian koinon for 27 years ( c. 431-404 BC?); his tageia was reputedly a time of peace and prosperity (Syll.3 273) [1. 110f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] D. II. Thessalian, envoy of Philip II 338 BC high-ranking Thessalian, grandson of D. [1]. In 338 BC, Philip II sent him together with others to the Thebans to procure support against Athens (Pol. 18,4,4; Dem. Or. 18,211…

Column/Monumental column

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meier, Hans-Rudolf
Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] A. Interpretatio Christiana ofIillustrated Columns (CT) Whether in architectural contexts or isolated as monumental columns, scarcely any building element in post-classical times is linked so closely with reference to Antiquity as the column. This is true both positively, in the sense of a conscious renovatio of Classical or Christian Antiquity, and negatively, in connexion with idols as the embodiment of vanquished paganism. Columns with standing ‘idols’, mostly nude, became almost a topos in the art of the later Midd…

Rhetra

(758 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(ῥήτρα/ rhḗtra, Ionian ῥήτρη/ rhḗtrē, Elean ράτρα/ wrátra; related to εἴρειν/ eírein ('speak')). [German version] [1] Contract (general) Generally 'ceremonial utterance, something said with a claim to authority', figuratively also 'agreement, contract' (e.g., Hom. Il. 14,393; Syll.3 9, Elis, 6th cent. BC), later 'resolution, law' [1. 17-22; 2. 431; 3. 120283]. The phrase εὐθεῖαι ῥῆτραι/ eutheîai rhêtrai ('legal covenants') attested in Tyrtaeus fr. 1b,6 = °14,6 Gentili/Prato (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) expresses an ideal of a consensus extending to all po…

Maldras

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Son of Massilia, was elevated to king of the Suebi by the king of the West Goths Theodericus II in AD 456 after the murder of Rechiarius, although he had to defend himself against other pretenders [1. 124]. In 457 he plundered Olisipo (Lisbon) and laid waste to Gallaecia, in 459 to Lusitania and Portumcale Castrum (Oporto). In the same year, he murdered his brother, was then killed himself in 460 (Chron. min. 2,29-31 Mommsen). PLRE 2, 704. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 D. Claude, Geschichte der Westgoten, 1970.

Endius

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἔνδιος; Éndios). Spartan, son of Alcibiades. In 420 BC, E. attempted in vain as a delegate in Athens to prevent a symmachia between the Athenians and Argos, Mantineia and Elis (Thuc. 5,44-47). As ephor he voted in 413/2 on the advice of Alcibiades [3], who was banned from Athens and with whose family he was associated by proxenia, for a rapid shift of the war theatre to the territory of Athens' allies in Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,6; 17). After the Spartan defeat at Cyzicus (410 BC) E. attempted in vain to broker a peace in Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,52f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Aristomenes

(638 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης; Aristoménēs). [German version] [1] Messenian hero and freedom fighter (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) Messenian hero and freedom fighter, seen as a descendant of the Aepytids. With the support of Arcadians and Argives, A. was the supposed leader of a Messenian revolt against Sparta which lasted for many years. Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 reports that on his defeat, after initial successes, in the so-called battle of the ‘Great Trench’ because of the treachery of the Arcadian king  Aristocrates [1], A. retreated…

Gundiok

(112 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundovech). King of the Burgundians in AD 457-470, from the family of  Athanaric [1. 44], married a sister of Ricimer (Malalas 374-75; Johannes Antiochenus fr. 209), his sons are Gundobad, Godigisclus, Chilperic and Godomer (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,28). As an ally of Theoderic II he attacked in 455 with his brother Chilperic I the Suebians in Gaul and settled there after the victory of Theoderic in 457. In 463 he was magister utriusque militiae (per Gallias); in the same year he informed Pope Hilarius about the irregular administration of the bishop of  Vienna (Hilarius Ep…

Flaccus

(255 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘floppy-eared’), probably originally an individual cognomen, in the Republican period especially widespread in the senatorial families of the Fulvii, Norbani and Valerii, and in the Imperial period also among numerous other families. Nickname of the poet Q.  Horatius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Statilius F. Writer of epigrams Writer of epigrams. The cognomen F. is often mentioned in combination with the nomen Statilius (Στατύλλιος Φλάκκος; Statýllios Phlákkos). He lived at the beginning of the 1st cent. AD, if the Latin ver…

Euricus, Euric

(323 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (also Eurichus, Euarix). King of the Visigoths in AD 466-484, son of Theoderic I, succeeded to the throne after the murder of his brother Theoderic II (Iord. Get. 190; Hydatius Lemiensis 237). E.'s reign was marked by the constant endeavour to expand the area of his kingdom (originally Aquitania II, Novempopulana and parts of Narbonensis I) and to weaken the dependence on Rome, which is clear from the termination of the   foedus with the Romans. From 468 he advanced against the Suebi and in the following years conquered almost the e…

Timomachus

(495 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμόμαχος/ Timómachos). [German version] [1] From Thebes, commander in the Peloponnesian War commander of the Theban Aegidae, claimed to have supported the Spartans with his army in the conflict against Amyclae [1] and to have instructed them in the art of warfare. His bronze armour was displayed at the Hyacinthia (Hyacinthus) and T. himself was always highly honoured in Sparta (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [German version] [2] Athenian strategist from Acharnae, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategist …

Herpyllis

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑρπυλλίς; Herpyllís). Life companion (first as slave, then freed, but probably not second wife) of Aristotle [6] (died 322 BC), in whose will she was lavished with money, servants, and the right of residence in the philosopher's estates in Chalcis and Stageira because of her excellent care of him (ὅτι σπουδαία περὶ ἐμὲ ἐγένετο). In case of a future marriage, the executors were to take care that she would not be given to someone unworthy of her (Diog. Laert. 5,13). It is impossible…

Leo

(2,156 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Arens, Herbert (Aachen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Domitius [II 17] Leo Praefectus urbi under Elagabalus; see Domitius [II 17] Leo. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Leo Narbonensis High-ranking Gaulish senator, 5th cent. AD High-ranking Gaulish senator ( vir spectabilis), a descendant of Fronto [6]; poet, orator, and jurist. As consiliarius (‘adviser’) to the kings Euricus and Alaricus [3] II, L. was between c. AD 475 and 484 (as a Roman) the most important official within the Visigoth kingdom. He wrote Euricus' speeches and received envoys on his behalf (such as in 474…

Eraricus, Erarich

(95 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐράριχος; Erárichos). A Rugian, AD 541 king of the Ostrogoths in succession to Ildibad. Officially, E. negotiated with Justinian a withdrawal of the Goths to the region north of the Po, but secretly he offered to abandon the whole of Italy in return for a large sum of money and the status of patricius. While his ambassadors were still negotiating, E. was eliminated after having reigned for only five months; his successor was Totila (Procop. Goth. 3,2; Jord. Rom. 378f.; Chron. min. 2,106f. Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Abascantus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀβάσκαντος; Abáskantos). Athenian from Cephisia, son of Eumolpus, from AD 135/6 34 years παιδοτρίβης δια βίου ( paidotríbēs dia bíou) (CIA 3,1112; 740 and passim), died after 169/70 Traill, PAA, 101125). His son A. (Traill, PAA, 101135) was κοσμητὴς τῶν ἐφήβων ( kosmētḕs tôn ephḗbōn) 192/3-200/1 (CIA 3, 1159). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Guntharith

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Guntharis, Gundarus, Gontharis). Bucellarius of  Solomon I, magister militum and dux Numidiae from AD 545 (Iord. De origine actibusque Romanorum 384). G., whom Solomon had sent out in advance to Bagae on the River Abigas with an army to fight the Moors, escaped defeat only through the latter's rapid assistance (Procop. Vand. 2,19,6-16). In a secret alliance with the prince of the Moors Antalas, G. decided in 546 to remove  Areobindus [3], which also occurred (Procop. Vand. 2,25,1-28). G. oc…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Aristocrates

(485 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Legendary king of the Arcadian Orchomenus (2nd half 7th cent. BC) Legendary king of the Arcadian Orchomenus (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 334; according to Paus. 4,17,2; 8,5,13 king of Trapezus) at the time of the Second Messenian War (2nd half of the 7th cent. BC); according to Diog. Laert. 1,94, he ruled, together with his son, over almost all of Arcadia. As leader of the Arcadians, on several occasions A. supposedly betrayed his Messenian allies under the leadership of  Aristomenes to Sparta (Paus. 4,17,2-8; 22,1-6), and he was finally stoned …

Herostratus

(117 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡρόστρατος; Hēróstratos). Arsonist, of unknown origin, involved in the destruction of the Temple of Artemis at  Ephesus in 356 BC. Under torture he confessed that he had been motivated by a thirst for glory, whereupon the Ephesians decided that his name should never again be mentioned. According to Valerius Maximus (8,14 ext. 5), only Theopompus did not abide by that (Ael. NA 6,40; Solin. 40,2-5; Str. 14,1,22 are based on him). In fact, other sources (collected in [1. 262ff.]) do …

Dekaprotoi

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (δεκάπρωτοι; dekáprōtoi). College of the 10 highest ranked decuriones ( Decurio), attested from the middle of the 1st cent. AD for communities in the east of the Roman empire. The obligations of the dekaprotoi, the western equivalent of which were the  Decemprimi, varied according to region and in the course of time. As a rule they represented their communities before the Roman magistrates, received the sworn public accounts of departing municipal officials and administered the community treasury. From the 2nd c…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Anytus

(172 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνυτος; Ánytos). Son of Anthemion, a well-to-do Athenian. In 409 BC A. was sent as commander with a fleet towards Pylos, but was forced to turn back by a storm; he was, however, cleared at the subsequent investigation -- allegedly through bribery (Diod. Si c. 13,64,6). In 404 he was banished by the ( Thirty), subsequently playing a large part in their overthrow when he joined  Thrasyboulus (Xen. Hell. 2,3,42;44), becoming like him one of the most influential Athenian politicians after 403 (Isoc. Or. 18,23). A lover of  Alc…

Fredericus

(243 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Frederick). [German version] [1] Son of the West Gothic king Theodoric I, co-ruler of Theoderic II about AD 450 Son of the West Gothic king Theoderic I, brother and co-ruler of Theoderic II, whom he helped to the throne in AD 453 after the murder of the eldest brother Thorismud (Chron. min. 1,483; 2,27 Mommsen; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,7); after successful battles against the Spanish Bagauds (probably as magister militum, cf. Chron. min. 2,27; in this regard [1. 690f.]) he was involved in 455 in the rise of  Avitus [1] to the position of emperor (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,…

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Hegesilochus

(145 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἡγεσίλοχος; Hēgesílochos). [German version] [1] Rhodian, middle of 4th cent. BC Rhodian, exploited the conflict between Rhodes and Athens ( Social Wars [1]) in 356/5 BC, in order to take over power in Rhodes at the head of an oligarchical clique with the support of  Maussollos of Caria. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984, 31, with n. 41 (sources and bibliography). [German version] [2] Rhodian prytanis and envoy, 2nd cent. BC (also: Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos). Son of Hagesias, Rhodian, moderate friend of Rome, who as prytanis (17…

Gundobad

(229 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gundiok, king of the Burgundians in AD 474-516, Arian. On the side of  Ricimer he, as magister utriusque militiae in 472, killed Anthemius [2] (Chron. min. 1,306 Mommsen), administered the western empire and in 473 elevated Glycerius to the status of Augustus (Chron. min. 1,664). In 474 he ─ in the meantime comes and patricius ─ returned to Gaul and succeeded Ricimer in Vienna. He defeated the Alemanni and around 490 invaded Liguria (Ennod. 80). In 496 he married his son Sigismundus to Areagni, a daughter of Theoderic. In 501 he defeated…

Aristophon

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστοφῶν; Aristophôn). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Member of the Athenian regime of 400 oligarchs in 411 BC. Sent by them as an emissary to Sparta, he was abducted to Samos by Athenian democrats and Argives (Thuc. 8,86,9; PA, 2102; Traill PAA, 175995. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian politician (end of the 5th-middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athens. Politician, who was honoured in 403 BC for his resistance against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) by   ateleia (ἀτέλεια) (Dem. Or. 20,148). Until his deat…

Gorgidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Γοργίδας/ Gorgídas, or Γοργίας/ Gorgías in Diodorus). The most important Theban politician and commander of the 4th cent. BC (cf. Diod. Sic. 15,39,2) alongside  Epaminondas and  Pelopidas, Hipparchus in c. 383. After the Spartan seizure of the Cadmeia, G. remained in contact with Theban fugitives in Athens (Plut. Mor. 578BC; 576A). He is said to have organized the resistance against Sparta by forming the ‘holy throng’ ( hieròs lóchos, ἱερὸς λόχος) (Plut. Mor. 594AB; Plut. Pel. 12; 18f.; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,5,1; in Ath. 13,602a attributed to Epami…

Archedemus

(200 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance)
(Ἀρχέδημος; Archédēmos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician of c. 400 BC Athenian politician of c. 400 BC. Archedemus was close to  Socrates and  Criton (Xen. Mem. 2,9). As administrator of the diobelia, after the battle of the Arginusae in 406 BC he accused the strategos  Erasinides of misappropriation of funds and faults in the performance of his official duties (Xen. Hell. 1,7,2), thus initiating the so-called trials of the generals at Arginusae. As a demagogue, he was mocked in comedies (cf. Aristoph. Ran. 416 ff. with schol.; PA, 2326; Traill PAA, 208855. Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Gastaldi

(91 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Administrators of goods and representatives of the king's interests in the Lombardic kingdom, first attested under Authari (AD 584-590). Since the 7th cent. they watched over the dukes (cf. Edictus Rothari 23); in the 8th cent. they could preside over courts of law. They were directly subject to the king in their non-inheritable office. In the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevent they administered the most important towns for the dukes. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. G. Mor, Lo stato longobardo nel VII secolo, 1969, 1, 271ff.

Gunthamundus

(60 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gentunis, king of the Vandals in AD 484-496 (Iord. Get. 170; Procop. Vand. 1,8,6f.), fought successfully against the Moors. In 491 his attempt to reconquer Sicily failed (Ennod. Panegyricus 70). He showed tolerance to the Catholics after initially persecuting them. PLRE 2, 525f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography H.-J. Diesner, Das Vandalenreich, 1966, 84-88.

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Athenaeus

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος; Athēnaîos). [German version] [1] Lacedaemonian, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens Lacedaemonian, son of Periclidas, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens (Thuc. 4,119), which he officially announced to  Brasidas a little later together with the Athenian Aristonymus (Thuc. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Attalus I of Pergamum, member of the 'Royal Council' A. was, as the youngest son of Attalus I of Pergamum, a member of the ‘Royal Council’; he is also documented as an agonothete (Alt. Perg. 8,3,…

Diadochi, wars of the

(935 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] The term refers to the wars between the former companions and generals of king Alexander [4] ( Diadochi and Epigoni) for his inheritance, lasting from his death in 323 BC to the formation of the Hellenistic state system. The period of the D. can be roughly divided into two periods: the wars leading up to the death of  Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos (301 BC), who championed most forcefully the unity of the empire, and the subsequent phase, beginning as early as c. 305, in which the Hellenistic successor states of Alexander's empire slowly took on the characteris…

Byrebista(s)

(164 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Βυρεβίστας; Byrebístas, Βοιρεβίστας; Boirebístas). King of the Dacians, c. 60 BC founded a coherent kingdom, which at times extended from the Hungarian low plain to the Julian Alps. His conquests included Scordisci, Taurisci and Boii; his attacks on Thracian territories in the western Pontus region also led to heavy plundering of Greek colonies (i.a. Apollonia). Pompey negotiated with him in 48 for military support (Syll.3 762,22-42). In 44 Caesar planned a campaign against B. (Str. 7.3.5), but almost simultaneously with his assassination the …

Eudocia

(467 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Εὐδοκία; Eudokía). [German version] [1] Aelia Eudocia. Original name Athenais. Came from a traditional background in Athens (her father was the rhetor Leontius) and had an excellent education. Allegedly at the instigation of  Pulcheria, she married  Theodosius II on 7 June 421; she was baptized for this purpose and given the name Aelia E. She was considered pious and increasingly exerted an influence on her husband, pushing aside Pulcheria. In 422 she gave birth to  Eudoxia [2] and before 431 to Flacc…

Papianilla

(55 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Daughter of the West Roman emperor Avitus [1], sister of Ecdicius, married the poet Sidonius Apollinaris before AD 455. She brought great wealth to the marriage and was supposedly opposed to her husband's charitableness (Sidon. Epist. 2,2,3; 2,12,1f.; 5,16; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,21f.). PLRE 2, 830 (P. 2) with stemma 14. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agias

(130 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Elean, brother of the seer Teisamenus (5th cent. BC) Elean, son of Antiochus, received as a result of the activity of his brother, the seer Teisamenus, together with him Spartan citizenship (Hdt. 9,33; 35). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Elean, seer in Sparta (5th cent. BC) Elean, son of Agelochus, grandson of Teisamenus. As a seer, A. is supposed to have predicted for  Lysander the victory at Aegospotami (in 405) (Paus. 3,11,5 f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Companion of  Aristomachus [4] II (3rd cent. BC) Companion of  Aristo…

Dagisthaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαγισθαῖος; Dagisthaîos). As a young Roman commander D., who probably was of Gothic origin, unsuccessfully besieged Persian-occupied Petra in the area of the Lazi in AD 548/9 (Procop. Pers. 2,29 especially 33-43). On account of this he was later taken to court under Justinian on the charge of pro-Persian sentiments and arrested by the emperor (Procop. Goth. 4,9,1-4). For the Narses campaign to Italy he was released from custody and took part in the decisive battle against Totila a…

Ereleuva

(111 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Erelieva, Hereleuva). Concubina of the Amal Thiudimer, mother of  Theoderic the Great (Iord. Get. 269); for the legal position of marriage [1. 262]; for her origins, Anon. Val. 58: Gothic lady; but differing [1. 263]: possibly of provincial Roman origin. E. accompanied her son on his military campaigns (Malchus fr. 18, FHG 4, 130) and was honoured for that by Ennodius (Ennod. MGH (AA) 7,208). At a Catholic baptism, she was given the name Eusebia (Anon. Val. 58) and maintained conta…

Mesotes

(494 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (μεσότης, mesótēs: ‘middle’, ‘mean’, understood in the positive sense). Key concept of a Greek ethical (and resulting political) maxim, which - according to the classical definition of Aristotle (see below) - postulates an orientation toward the mean between ‘too much’ ( hyperbolḗ) and ‘too little’ ( élleipsis). A diffuse mesótēs ideal is perceptible since the Archaic period, and was already propagated by Hesiodus (Op. 694) and ascribed primarily to the Delphic oracle or the Seven Sages ( mēdén ágan: ‘nothing too much’, supporting documents in [1. 11f.]). A…

Cethegus

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen of a branch of the patrician  Cornelii (ThlL, Onom. 356-59). Attested from the 3rd cent. BC onwards; also Cetegus (Cic. Or. 160); Greek Κέθηγος ( Kéthēgos), supposedly because the family refused to wear the tunica (Porph. Hor. Ars P. 50). Also attested in inscriptions as a family name [1. 293]. There is perhaps no connection between the imperial and republican bearers of the name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rufius Petronius Nicomachus C. Cos. 504 AD Cos. AD 504, patricius from c. 512, mag. officiorum, princeps senatus. During the siege of Rome …

Hypomeiones

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (οἱ ὑπομείονες/ hoi hypomeíones, literally: the ‘lesser ones’). In the context of the conspiracy of  Kinadon in 398 BC, the hypomeiones are named along with the  helots, the   neodamṓdeis and the   períoikoi as a group of Spartans with limited rights (Xen. Hell. 3,3,6). This was probably not a technical term but rather a collective designation for former   Spartiátai , who for various reasons and in different ways had fewer rights than the   hómoioi : cowardice in battle (cf.   trésantes ) caused the hypomeiones to be socially stigmatized, and loss of wealth or failure in the   a…

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Nauarchos

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύαρχος; naúarchos). Title of a Spartan naval commander, first evidence of use during the Persian Wars in 480 BC, when Sparta commanded the Greek forces, including the fleet, and the establishment of military offices became necessary. The first naúarchos was Eurybiades (Hdt. 8,2; 8,42). The office of nauarchía then only became significant again in the Peloponnesian War, where it appeared as a one-year office, which any Spartiate could hold only once; this stipulation could be evaded, however, by appointing a competent military commander, e.g. Lysander [1], as epis…

Anaxidamus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀναξίδαμος; Anaxídamos). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,7,6 and 4,15,3 Spartan king, Eurypontid, whose reign together with the Agiad Anaxander fell in the time of the second Messenian War. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Achaean, subcommander in 207 BC Achaean, subcommander of  Philopoemen in 207 BC at Mantinea against  Machanidas (Pol. 11,18,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Achaean (middle of 2nd cent. BC) A. from Megalopolis, Achaean envoy to Rome in 164 and 155/4 (Po…

Gundericus

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gunderic). In AD 406 G. was chosen as king of the Vandal Hasdingians after the death of his father  Godigiselus; he united his troops with the Alani under Respendial (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), defeated the Franks and by the end of 406 crossed the Rhine. Without facing organized resistance, he plundered Gaul (Oros. 7,40,3; Chron. min. 1,299; 465 Mommsen; Zos. 6,3), crossed the Pyrenees in 409 (Chron. min. 2,17; Soz. 9,12; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,2) and secured for himself the east of th…

Geisericus (Geiseric)

(718 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Regarding the name [5. 394]. King of the Vandals and Alani AD 428-477, successor to his half-brother  Gundericus. In 429 G. crossed from the south of Spain to north Africa with 80,000 others (Victor Vitensis 1,2), possibly called in by the Comes Africae  Bonifatius [1], who fell from grace in 427, but ultimately he went because the wealth of the country. Neither Boniface nor an eastern Roman auxiliary corps commanded by Aspar ( Ardabur [2]) were able to stop the Vandals' advance; in 431 G. conquered H…

Eudamidas

(170 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐδαμίδας; Eudamídas). [German version] [1] Spartan, general about 380 BC Spartan, the brother of Phoebidas. E. was supposed to lead a campaign in 382 BC together with Amyntas of Macedonia against Olynthus, but was defeated because of his weak forces and probably killed (Xen. Hell. 5,2,24f.; Diod. Sic. 15,20f.; Dem. Or. 19,264). Maybe he is identical with the early 4th-cent. ephor mentioned in IG V 1, 1232. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king about 330 BC E. I, Spartan king, Eurypontid, the son of Archidamus III, since 331 or 330 successor of his …

Pantaleon

(501 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πανταλέων/ Pantaléōn). [German version] [1] King of the Pisates, middle of the 7th cent. BC Son of Omphalion, king of the Pisates (middle of the 7th cent. BC); P.'s rule may have been perceived as tyranny already in his own lifetime (cf. Paus. 6,21,1). He temporarily wrested the organisation of the Olympic Games from the Eleians (Olympia IV.; Paus. 6,22,2) [1. 220f.]. His support of the Messenians in the second of the Messenian Wars (Str. 8,4,10) is a later invention [2. 153f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996 2 K. Tausend, Amphikty…

Gannys

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Γάννυς; Gánnys). G. was raised in the house of  Iulia Maesa and had a relationship with her daughter  Iulia Soaemias, who made him the tutor of her son  Elagabalus [2] (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. and  Valerius Comazon had the troops elevate Elagabalus to emperor in Emesa in May AD 218 (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Despite a lack of military experience, G. defeated  Macrinus in June, but was eliminated in the winter of 218-219 by Elagabalus, who had toyed with the idea of marrying…

Agesandridas

(76 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγησανδρίδας; Agēsandrídas) Spartan, son of Agesander, vanquished the Athenians under  Thymochares with a Peloponnesian fleet in 411 BC at Eretria, which caused Euboea (with the exception of Oreos) to secede from Athens (Thuc. 8,94 ff.). After the Spartan defeat at Cynossema (411), A. was sent with a contingent to the Hellespont, where he beat Thymochares again (Thuc. 8,107; Xen. Hell. 1,1,1). In 409/08 he was in Thrace (Xen. Hell. 1,3,17). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Ermanaric,

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (H)ermanaricus (also Ermenrichus, Hermenerig). King of the East Goths who, as the first historically documented  Amal, already belongs to the 10th generation of the Amal family tree (Iord. Get. 79 from Cassiodorus). He was the youngest son of Achiulf, brother of Ansila, Ediulf and Vultuulf, and was regarded as the founder of the ‘younger’ family line which, in AD 515, rejoined the 'older' line, founded by Vultuulf, as a result of the marriage of  Eutharicus with  Amalasuntha (Iord…

Epicteta

(384 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικτήτα; Epiktḗta). Widow of the aristocrat Phoenix from Thera. Under the instruction of her son Andragoras, who died two years after his father, she completed the construction of a shrine to the Muses (mouseion) that Phoenix had started, as a memorial to their son Cratesilochus, but had not been able to finish. In her will (early 2nd cent. BC, preserved epigraphically: IG XII 3,330, l. 1-108), E. entrusted the mouseion to her ‘heiress’ (  epikleros ) daughter Epiteleia. In the will she provided for the setting up of an association o…

Godigisclus

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundian king, son of  Gundiok, lived from c. AD 474 in Geneva, always in the shadow of his older brother  Gundobad (Ennod. Vita Epiphanii 174). In 500, together with the king of the Franks, Chlodovechus ( Clovis I), he defeated Gundobad at Dijon, but in 501 he was killed by the latter when Chlodovechus had to turn against the Visigoths (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 with n. 2.
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