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(2,517 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Willi-Plein, Ina | Mell, Ulrich | Köntgen, Ludger | Kranemann, Benedikt
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Practical Theology and Liturgy I. History of Religions Many magical and religio-cultic rituals are associated with rubbing, spreading, sprinkling, or dousing persons and objects with fats, oils, or salves, but also with special waters. In addition to the cosmetic and medical uses of salves, the various cultures and religious tradition…


(765 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Ingrid | Mell, Ulrich | Wingate, Andrew
[German Version] I. Concept – II. New Testament – III. Practical Theology I. Concept The term “apostasy” – like faith a specific of the Judeo-Christian tradition – is rarely used today, although it has greater significance in Catholic sacramental practice and communion (Excommunication). Apostasy indicates the departure from the teaching and life of the faith community; heresy refers to the rejection of binding doctrine without renouncing the faith entirely. Idolatry, historically the veneration of other gods, can also refer to secular forms of de facto adherence. While these t…


(7,453 words)

Author(s): Feldtkeller, Andreas | Mell, Ulrich | le Boulluec, Alain | Jorissen, Hans | Schuck, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Philosophy and Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Practical Theology – IV. Church Law – V. Judaism – VI. Islam I. Philosophy and Religious Studies The word “heresy” derives from Gk αἵρεσις/ haíresis (“act of choice,” “decision”). In the Hellenistic period, when a plurality of philosophical schools had developed, the word was used to express the need of budding philosophers to choose between these schools. Hence it came to be used to denote both a philosophical school and the school's teaching; in…

Jülicher, Adolf

(157 words)

Author(s): Mell, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jan 26, 1857, Falkenberg – Aug 2, 1938, Marburg), professor of New Testament and church history in Marburg (1889–1923). Jülicher established the modern field of parable research with his methodical (1886) and exegetical (1899) twin studies: he drew a historical-critical distinction between the allegories (Allegory: III) of the Gospels and the parables of Jesus of Nazareth, which are elaborated around a point of comparison. As a representative of liberal theology, Jülicher promoted church history as a science, spoke out for academic self-administration, ¶ and wo…