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Conscience

(4,604 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund | Käppel, Lutz | Dautzenberg, Gerhard | Härle, Wilfried | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics and Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. History of Religion The original meaning of the word, (divine) “joint knowledge, knowledge, consciousness, and self-consciousness” (Gk syneídēsis, Lat. conscientia), had already changed in antiquity to refer to an evaluative consciousness of one's own actions. Western philosophical and theological discourse formed various metaphors: the internal; the inner voiced ( daimónion; daimon), also interpreted as the vo…

Conscience Formation

(569 words)

Author(s): Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] The terms conscience training and conscience formation are used interchangeably today. Following J.H. Jung-Stilling the two ( Gewissenserziehung and Gewissensbildung) were distinguished, however: conscience formation was associated with the formation of the temperament and the psyche (Gemüt), consc…

Value/Values

(5,528 words)

Author(s): Großheim, Michael | Heesch, Matthias | Evers, Dirk | Mokrosch, Reinhold | Würtenberger, Thomas
[German Version] I. Philosophy The philosophical value concept is the result of a hypostatization of value predicates that are assigned to objects or circumstances as signs of human esteem. By way of inference, the evaluative assessment gives rise to a value, which is in turn meant to serve as a source of norms.…

Human Rights

(5,661 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Udo | Cancik, Hubert | Leppin, Volker | Wielandt, Rotraud | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. Concept and Terminology – II. History – III. Ethics – IV. Constitutional and International Law – V. Education I. Concept and Terminology In the usage of international law and national constitutional states, human rights are rights posses…

Moral Education

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] compromises the education with regard to values, norms, and virtues, and – as reflection on these – ethics. Values education (Value/Values) aims to provide guidance in the cognition and realization of life goals (terminal values), everyday standards (instrumental values), and valuation criteria. Norms education (Norms) aims at the assessment of behavioral patterns. Virtues education (Virtues) is concerned with the adoption of moral stances and capabilities. Ethics education stimul…

Wert/Werte

(4,454 words)

Author(s): Großheim, Michael | Heesch, Matthias | Evers, Dirk | Mokrosch, Reinhold | Würtenberger, Thomas
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Der philos. Wertbegriff ist das Ergebnis einer Hypostasierung von Wertprädikaten, die Gegenständen oder Sachverhalten als Zeichen menschlicher Hochschätzung zugeschrieben werden. Von der Wertung wird auf einen W. geschlossen, der als Quelle von Normen fungieren soll.…