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(1,435 words)

Author(s): Pöltner, Günther | Brown, Robert F.
1 Term and Concept Ontologia is a term coined in the 1600s, from Gk. ta onta (existing things) and logos (reason, doctrine). Its first use may have been in the Lexicon philosophicum (1613), compiled by Rudolf Goclenius the Elder (1547–1628). With the meaning “doctrine of being,” some authors used the term synonymously with “metaphysics.” Others treated ontology as one branch of metaphysics, alongside the other two branches, cosmology and rational or philosophical psychology. 2. Ontology in the History of Philosophy The topic of ontology (without the name) appears early in …

Time and Eternity

(3,030 words)

Author(s): Pöltner, Günther | Link-Wieczorek, Ulrike
1. Philosophy A philosophical discussion of time faces the task of inquiring into the original, objectively first, and fundamental experience of time, of reflecting on its multiplicity, and then of defining it. It should not be forgotten that time, for its part, has its own temporal and historical conditions. The relationship of time and being, the distinction between time and the temporal, and the fact that those who try to understand time are in time themselves must all be focal points in the discussion. 1.1. Gnostic Philosophy and Thomas Aquinas Classical metaphysics (Philosophy o…