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(255 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] On the first Sunday in Lent in 843, after years of struggle, the population of Constantinople were solemnly informed that the heresy of iconoclasm had finally been condemned and defeated. In the Orthodox Church, this proclamation became the occasion of a permanent annual festival: the first Sunday in Lent, formerly dedicated to Moses and all the prophets, has been observed as the “Sunday of Orthodoxy” ever since. In all episcopal cathedrals, the Synodicon is recited on this day in a special rite: a lengthy doxology is followed by a renunciation of all…

Liturgy of the Hours

(3,593 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A. | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter | Kreuels, Matthias
[German Version] I. History – II. Liturgical Practice – III. Catholicism – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Protestantism – VI. Music I. History Praying “at all times” reflects belief in a God who is always present as Lord of every time and all time. The Early Church continued the practice of Israel, but soon enriched the anamnestic remembrance of God's saving work at certain times (deliverance in the morning, preservation of the creation in the evening) with the remembrance of experiences of salvation in the life of th…


(6,849 words)

Author(s): Sfameni Gasparro, Giulia | Fritz, Volkmar | Häußling, Angelus A. | Schmidt-Lauber, Hans-Christoph | Plank, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Israel – III. Christianity I. Religious Studies The term comes from the Lat. “altare,” which is derived from “adolere,” “burn” (thus already Sextus Pompeius Festus, De verborum significatione, v. 14: “altaria sunt in quibus igne adoletur”). In addition to “altare/altaria”, the common term “ara” (from “areo,” “burn”) has the same meaning. Accordingly, the Roman altar could be defined as “place of fire” or “sacrificial hearth.” In Greek, there are a number of alternating terms. Of these θυμέλη/ thymélē and θυσιαστήριον/ thysiastḗrion (fr…

Russia, Theology in

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] The pervasive social reform set in motion by Alexander II’s emancipation of the serfs in 1862 also created the conditions in Russia necessary for an Orthodox theology (Orthodox churches: IV) consistently using historical-critical methods. This new form of theology bore fruit consonant with the cultural level and the capacities of the country and its church, until the October Revolution in 1917 violently interrupted the entire life of the church, including its theological reflectio…


(383 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (Rumanian Cernăuţi, Russian Černovcy). After the incorporation of Bukovina into the Habsburg Empire in 1775, Czernowitz became the seat of the Orthodox bishop of Radautz (Radauti); while its ancient title was retained, it was joined to the Serbian Habsburg metropolitan see of Karlowitz (Sremski Karlovci). In the spirit of Josephinism, the existing monasteries were suppressed and their assets transferred to a so-called religious endowment to the benefit …

Liturgical Implements

(799 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert | Plank, Peter
[German Version] I. Western Church – II. Eastern Church I. Western Church From the very outset, celebration of the Lord's Supper (Eucharist/Communion: IV) required a cup for the wine and a dish for the bread (II). Initially simply chosen from whatever household utensils were available, over the course of time they were gradually withdrawn from everyday use and came to be made of precious materials. Finally their particular requirements (ease of holding and passing) led to the chalice and paten (liturgical…

Church Year

(2,193 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Grethlein, Christian | Richter, Klemens | Plank, Peter
[German Version] I. General Background and History – II. Practical Theology – III. Orthodox Church I. General Background and History The church year – like church art, architecture, etc. – is one of the great cultural products of the Christian faith. It attempts to give cultural form to the gospel by means of the human perception of time. It thus stands alongside other attempts to cultivate the experience and perception of time, and to structure it meaningfully. As a sign of salvation…

Pectoral Cross

(175 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] The pectoral cross represents a special development of the encolpion ( pectorale), otherwise usually rectangular or oval, which Christians as well as pagans and Jews used as an ornament in antiquity. Although long worn by other secular and religious notables, by the 12th century the encolpion and pectoral cross were becoming increasingly a mark of episcopal office. Since 1570 the pectoral cross has been part of the mandatory attire of bishops. Since the 18th century, priests in the Orthodox …

Vestments, Liturgical

(306 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] Basically, liturgical vestments derive from the festal and official garb of antiquity; as secular fashions changed, they became the distinctive liturgical attire of the clergy and identified their various ranks (Clothing and vestments: II). All clergy wear an alb (sticharion), a full-length garment with sleeves. The stole (stola) serves as a mark of ordination; it is a strip of cloth worn over the left shoulder by deacons (orarion), over both shoulders by priests and bishops (epit…

Nikon of the Black Mountain

(165 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1025, Constantinople – after 1100, near Antioch), important encyclopedist and canonist of the Chalcedonian patriarchy of Antioch. After a military career in Byzantine service, Nikon was a monk on the “Black Mountain” near Antioch and a monastic teacher appointed by the patriarchate. In this role he gathered and critically evaluated in three works what seemed genuine and normative to him in legal, liturgical, and ascetic traditions (I: Explanations of the Commandments of the Lord [῾Ερμηνεῑαι τῶν ἐντολῶν τοῦ κυρίου], also called the Pandects; II: Little Book [Μικρ…

Ordination of Priests

(830 words)

Author(s): Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter
[German Version] 1. Catholic understanding. In Roman Catholic usage, the expression ordination of priests (or presbyters; Ordination: V, 1) reflects a specific, sacerdotal understanding of ecclesiastical office (VI, 3). The Christian priesthood is associated in the first instance with baptism (IV, 1). Postbaptismal anointing is the ritual sign of inclusion in the priestly people of God through participation in the priestly office of Christ. In the Roman tradition in particular, this anointing has always been associated with…


(7,504 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Otto, Eckart | Dignas, Beate | Elm, Dorothee | Kraus, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Etymologically the term priest derives from Greek πρεσβύτερος/ presbýteros, “elder”; it denotes a religious functionary, especially an expert responsible for the cult. The Greek word did not originally have this meaning. A second semantic strand puts a priest (Gk ἱερεύς/ hiereús, Lat. sacerdos) in charge of things that are sacred (Sacred and profane). The characteristics that comparative religion usually associates with priesthood are often transferred globally from Christianity, especially Roman Cathol…

Marriage Ceremonies

(4,074 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgics – V. Law – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion In Christendom marriage was considered a secular act until well into the Middle Ages, before it was declared a sacrament in 1184. Many religions view marriage as a religious duty, and nuptial rites (Rites of passage; see III below) often have sacral character, but civil marriages are also obligatory in certain countries. Regulations gover…

James, Liturgy of Saint

(281 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] James, Liturgy of Saint, is the indigenous eucharistic liturgy of the Holy Land, named after the Lord's brother, James, verifiable as the foundation for the fourth and fifth mystagogical catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem or John of Jerusalem; passages are also already evident in Eusebius of Caesarea and in the eucharistic prayer in Origen. In terms of content, the sequence, formulated strictly in accordance with salvation history, of post-sanctus, words of institution, anamnesis, and epiclesis, and the extraordinary scope of the intercessions are n…


(8,314 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Hezser, Catherine | Dan, Joseph | Küchler, Max | Bieberstein, Klaus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Early Church – V. Patriarchates – VI. Islam – VII. Religious and Political Situation Today – VIII. Archaeology I. Old Testament Jerusalem (ירושׁלם/ yerûšālēm, MT yerûšālayim) was founded c. 1800 bce as a fortified town in the central Palestinian uplands at a strategic point for transportation between northern and southern Palestine. Outside the Bible, the name appears from the 18th century on in the Egyptian execration texts and the Amarna letters (as Akkad. uruu-ru-sa-lim). It derives from the verb yrh I…


(5,831 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Rees, Wilhelm | Plank, Peter | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics and Canon Law – IV. Missiology I. New Testament The NT contains no evidence of the episcopate in the traditional Catholic sense (a single bishop at the apex of a hierarchical clerical ministry functioning as head of a Christian community), but it does use the word ἐπίσκοπος ( epískopos; the etymological source of bishop) for functionaries and officials exercising oversight in the community (Acts 20:28; Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:1–7; Tit 1:7–9). For the primitive church, it is therefore better ¶ to speak of episkopoi rathe…


(13,915 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski , Bernd | Hartenstein , Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Scope The book of Psalms is a unique collection of 150 poetic texts compiled to make a work sui generis. Its Hebrew title תְּהִלִּים(סֵפֶר) /( sēper) tĕhillîm, “(Book of) Praises,” is already found at Qumran (earliest instance: 4QMa [= 4Q491] 174, 1st cent. bce). As in the New Testament occurrences from about a century later (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20: βίβλος ψαλμῶν/ bíblos psalmṓ n), it appears to be used primarily in the technical sense of a scroll containing psalms (cf. the frgm. 4QPs), but it might also denote a form of the Psalter. In 11QPsa, a collectio…


(295 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] Troparion, name of a special chant in Byzantine Orthodox worship; its origin and original meaning are disputed. Over the centuries, the characteristics of a troparion have been subject to considerable variation. As a hymnographic genre, a troparion is hard to distinguish formally from a sticheron and a kathisma. Originally a troparion appears to have been a short text serving as a refrain, framing and/or subdividing the recitation of a psalm. Such troparia have been preserved in c…

Liturgical Languages

(1,039 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] In principle any language capable of supporting a literature is suitable as a liturgical language. All languages in which liturgy has been recorded in writing turn out to be potential literary languages or have become such through the translation of biblical and liturgical texts. Not unlike liturgical vestments, liturgical languages that differ significantly from languages in daily use, spoken or written, have arisen through the exclusion of the liturgical domain from processes of change and development, as well as from potential replacement of spoken idioms. The …

Theodore Graptos and Theophanes Graptos, Saints

(287 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] The two brothers were born in Palestine c. 775 as sons of a priest named Jonas. Like their father, they became monks in the Sabas Monastery. Probably while traveling in the service of Patriarch Thomas I of Jerusalem (807–820), they were detained in Constantinople and became involved in the turmoil of the Iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI), which had flared up against in 815 under Emperor Leo V (813–820); in the course of it, as declared iconodules, they were forced to have their foreheads branded (γραπτοί/ graptoí) with satirical verses. Theophanes …


(5,925 words)

Author(s): Kraus, Georg | Kinzig, Wolfram | Schlemmer, Karl | Plank, Peter | Schwier, Helmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Church History – III. Liturgy – IV. Customs and Traditions – V. Homiletics and Education – VI. Art History I. Terminology Easter (cf. Ger. Ostern) is the English word for the feast of Jesus Christ's resurrection (II). The name in other Germanic and Romance languages derives instead from Gk πάσχα/ páscha (Aram. פַּסְחָא/ pascha' or פִּסְחָא/ pischa' for Heb. פֶּסַח/ pesah. [from פסח/ psh., “limp/go past”, etymology not entirely clear]; Lat. as pascha or passa), for example, Påske (Danish and Norwegian), Pasen (Dutch), Påsk (Swedish), Pasqua (…

Sabas Monastery

(298 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] The monastery was established between 483 and 490 by St. Sabas alongside the Kidron Valley nine km southeast of Jerusalem. It was founded as a laura, consisting of individual caves in the rock with a communal building as its center. Despite its deep involvement in the Origenist controversies, by the time of the Persian invasion in 614 it had already experienced an initial spiritual and intellectual flowering (Cyril of Scythopolis); it played an essential role in the development of…


(2,226 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | Plank, Peter | Dan, Joseph
[German Version] I. Western Hagiography – II. Eastern Hagiography – III. Medieval and Modern Judaism I. Western Hagiography Western hagiography, as a literature that has no scholarly purpose but serves to venerate saints, first followed Greek examples. Its most important genre, the lives of the saints, is shaped less by the panegyric biography of the martyr bishop Cyprian of Carthage, written by the deacon Pontius (2nd half of 3rd cent. ce), than by the vitaes of the desert father Anthony of Padua, written by Athanasius (with two Latin translations), and of Martin …

Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity

(11,509 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Theobald, Michael | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Plank, Peter | Küster, Volker | Et al.
[German Version] ¶ I. Terminology To an unusual degree, the theology of the Trinity is characterized by a strained combination of narrative biblical language and speculative philosophical language. The word trinitas was first used by Tertullian ( Prax. 2.1–4), as a translation of Greek τριάς/ triás (orig. “threeness”). To denote the divine unity (God: V, 1), the 4th-century debates showed that the term οὐσία/ ousí (“Essence”; see also Divine essence) borrowed from Greek philosophy was theologically legitimate. The term ὑπόστασις/ hypóstasis (Hypostasis) was sometimes used i…

Bishops, Consecration of

(532 words)

Author(s): Ratzmann, Wolfgang | Plank, Peter
[German Version] I. Practical Theology – II. Orthodox Church I. Practical Theology Episcopal ordination is the rite whereby a person chosen as bishop receives his office (the legal aspect) and is empowered to exercise this (the spiritual aspect). After Vatican II, episcopal ordination in the Roman Catholic church was given a structure parallel to the ordination rites of deacons and …

Theodore of Studios, Saint

(335 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (759, Constantinople – Nov 11, 826, island of Prinkipo [modern Büyükada]) (feast day Nov 11), influential reformer of monastic and liturgical life, ecclesiastical politician, prolific writer and poet. His family moved in the highest social circles. Led by his uncle Platon, in 781 he along with his parents, siblings, and other family members turned the family estate of Sakkudion in Bithynia into a monastery; he was ordained to the priesthood in 787 and served as abbot after 794. In…

Nikolai Kasatkin, Saint

(163 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1836, Berezovskij, district Bel’sk – Feb 3, 1912, Tokyo), founder and first archbishop of the Orthodox Church of Japan. In 1860 he graduated from the seminary in St. Petersburg (II); he worked in Japan from 1861, first as priest of the Russian consulate in Hakodate and, after the granting of religious tolerance in 1873, as missionary; from 1880, as bishop. He achieved an exemplary inculturation of the Orthodox Church in Japanese language and mentality. A minority church wa…

Stephen of Perm, Saint

(135 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1340, Veliky Ustyug – Apr 26, 1396, Moscow), important early Russian missionary. Around 1365 he entered the monastery of Gregory the Theologian in Rostov Velikhy. There besides Greek he learned the language of the Finno-Ugrian Zyrians (Komi), for whom he devised a new alphabet and translated biblical and liturgical texts. In 1383 he was consecrated bishop, so that he was able to conduct a successful missionary campaign among them. He found an outstanding biographer in his fellow student Epifany the Wise. Peter Plank Bibliography Source: Svjatitel’ Stefan Permsk…


(169 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] Until well into the 15th century, the term typicon, which in principle can mean any fixed order, was often used by founders of Orthodox monasteries to denote the structures and offices peculiar to their foundations. Since the 11th century, however, the term has been applied primarily to a collection of rubrics governing the course of worship throughout the year. Its beginnings can be traced back to the 7th century and the Sabas Monastery. From the 9th century on, the dominant typicon was …

Unleavened Bread Controversy

(173 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] Originally ordinary leavened bread (enzyma) was used in celebrations of the Eucharist (III, 3) throughout Christendom. In the mid-11th century, its replacement by unleavened bread (azyma) – attested in the Armenian Church since the 6th century and in the Latin Church since the 9th century – provoked a fierce controversy between Byzantium and Rome; in 1054 it occasioned the schism between East and West. Since the introduction of unleavened bread was obviously modeled after the Isra…


(178 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[German Version] (Strēnopoulos; Sep 15, 1872, Bithynia, Turkey – Jan 23, 1951, London), metropolitan of Thyateira with seat in London and a leading figure in the ecumenical movement. After attending the theological seminary at Chalkis and earning his doctorate in Leipzig, Germanos was appointed professor at Chalkis in 1904 and rector of the same in 1907, retaining his rectorship even after his consecration as bishop in 1912. In 1922, Patriarch Meletius Metaxakis dispatched him to Western Europe as…


(22,186 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. History of Liturgy – VII. Law – VIII. Missions – IX. Art I. History of Religion From the standpoint of the history of religion, baptism is not a general type of rite (Rite and ritual) but a lustration ritual that is carried out not only in Christianity but also in historically related religions such as …


(7,716 words)

Author(s): Roll, Susan K. | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. Christian Liturgy – III. Practical Theology – IV. Art History – V. Music I. History 1. Origins. “Christmas,” the nativity feast or birthday celebration of Christ on Dec 25, comes from Middle English Christmesse, Christ's Mass; cf. Dutch Kerstmis. The German Weihnachten, “holy nights,” refers to the twelve days between Dec 24 and Jan 6. The Lat. natalis, dies nativitatis, or nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi is reflected in Span. navidad, Ital. natale. Gk ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέρα τὰ γενέθλια, ἡ κατὰ σάρκα γέννησις τοῦ κυρίου/ hēgenéthlios h…


(5,513 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Köpf, Ulrich | Plank, Peter | Hafner, Johann Ev. | Mohr, Hubert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Relics are the remains (Lat. reliquiae) of individuals endowed with power, such as warriors, chiefs, sorcerers, heroes, prophets, martyrs, and saints – their bodies, their clothing, or objects they have used. Veneration of relics reflects the belief that these forces continue beyond the grave; the intent is to benefit from this power or blessing by erecting structures over the grave, lighting candles or leaving flowers, processions, touching or kissing, or burial near…


(202 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
Of Antiochian origin, “catholicos” is the title of some Orthodox or ancient Eastern archbishops (Bishop, Episcopate) who have supervision over scattered and relatively independent areas. Among the Jacobites in Persia, the term “maphrian” is also found. Where full autonomy is achieved or claimed, the title is associated with that of patriarch in the Orthodox Church of Georgia and the Assyrian Church of the East. It is used alone for the leaders of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church and of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Among the …


(335 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
From the word synagō, “collect,” the synaxarion is a collection for the church year of short lives and notices of the saints (§5.1) that, in the Eastern churches, can be used either in public worship or privately (Orthodox Christianity; Orthodox Church). From the 9th century onward, the literary genus of the synaxarion has merged into that of church calendars and martyrologies (Martyrs; Martyrs, Acts of the). There are examples in Byzantium and Italy and Greece, and also in the Near East, though usually in translation from the Greek. Modern Greek usage has added the texts to the li…

Patriarch, Patriarchate

(1,573 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
1. Biblical Usage The LXX coined the Gk. word patriarchēs, which derives from patria (family, tribe). In the OT it may be used for any group leaders, but in the NT it refers specifically to Abraham (Heb. 7:4), the 12 sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8–9), and David (2:29). 2. Jewish History From the third century to the fifth, the nasi (prince), the head of t…


(161 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
The Acathistus (from Greek, meaning “not [sung] sitting”), a Byzantine hymn to the Virgin Mary sung while standing, takes the form of an alphabetic acrostic and is thought to have been first composed by Romanus Melodus (6th cent.). The original served as a model for many similar hymns, especially in Russia. At times having considerable influence in the West, the Acathistus has been illustrated in picture-cycles since the 14th century. See Mariology; Mary, Devotion to Peter PlankBibliography A. Chadzinikolau, “Akathistos Hymnos,” RBK  1.94–96 G. Dévai, “Akathistos–Prooemia in …


(304 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
“Pentarchy” (lit. “the rule of five”) denotes the widespread theory in the Greek East that the five patriarchs of Rome, Constantinople (Byzantium), Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem are jointly responsible for oversight of the church (Church Go…


(149 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
“Archimandrite” (from Greek roots meaning “head of a sheepfold [ mandra]”) refers to a dignitary ranking below a bishop. It was used from the 4th century for certain heads of monasteries (Orthodox or united with Rome). After the 6th century it was reserved for leaders of groups of monasteries and at first restricted to certain abbots. Since the 18th century the title has been conferred on other monks or unmarried priests only loosely connected to the monastic state (as a rhasophore, or novice), either in an honorary way or as a promotion on the way to the episcopal office. See Orthodox Church Peter PlankBibliography P. de Meester, De monachico statu iuxta disciplinam Byzantinam (Rome, 1942) J. Pargoire, “Archimandrite,” DACL  1.2739–61 V. Pospishil, “The Archimandrite,” Diakonia (Bronx, N.Y.) 13 (1978) 214–31 M…


(6,248 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Andreas | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich 1.Entstehung W., dt. Bez. für das Geburtsfest Christi am 25.12., von mhd. wihen (heilige) nachten, womit urspr. die Losnächte um Wintersonnenwende und Jahreswechsel (24.12. – 6.1.) gemeint waren; auch und besser, weil den christl. Festinhalt eindeutig benennend, Christtag/-fest; in der lat. Liturgie natalis, dies nativitatis, nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi; griech. η῾ γεn̆ε´ϑλιος η῾με´ρα, τα` γεn̆ε´ϑλια, η῾ κατα` σα´ρκα γε´n̆n̆ησις του˜ κυρι´ου/hē genéthlios hēméra, tá genéthlia, hē katá sárka génnēsis toú kyríou; …


(3,649 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Das Wort »T.« bzw. »trauen« wird im dt. Sprachraum seit dem 13.Jh. auch im Sinne von »anvertrauen«, »ehelich verbinden«, urspr. »dem Manne zur Frau geben« verwendet. Im christl. Kontext wurde die Vermählung bis ins MA als weltl. Akt betrachtet, bevor die Ehe zum Sakrament erklärt wurde (1184). In vielen Rel. wird die Ehe als rel. Pflicht angesehen, und die Hochzeitsriten (rite de passage/rite de confirmation; s.u. III.) haben häufig einen geheiligten Char…


(260 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . 483/490 vom hl. Sabas in einem Ausläufer des Kidrontals 9 km südöstlich von Jerusalem gegründet als Laura, bestehend aus Einzelhöhlen im Fels mit einem Gemeinschaftskloster als Zentrum, erlebte das S. bis zur pers. Invasion 614 trotz seiner starken Involvierung in die origenistischen Streitigkeiten eine erste geistige Blüte (Cyrill von Skythopolis) und war maßgeblich an jener Ausformung des kirchl. Stundengebets beteiligt (Sabas-Typikon), die später in der gesamten chalcedonisc…

Theodoros Graptos und Theophanes Graptos

(268 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Die beiden Brüder wurden um 775 als Söhne des Priesters Ionas in Palästina geboren. Wie ihr Vater wurden sie Mönche im Sabas-Kloster. Wohl von Patriarch Thomas I. von Jerusalem (807–820) auf die Reise geschickt, wurden sie in Konstantinopel festgehalten und gerieten in die Wirren des 815 unter Kaiser Leon V. (813–820) erneut aufgeflammten Bilderstreits (Bilderkult: VI.), in dessen Verlauf sie als erklärte Ikonodulen im Gesicht mit Spottversen tätowiert wurden (»γραπτοι´«/»graptoi«). Theophanes wurde als Dichter zahlreicher gottesdienstlicher K…


(255 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Am ersten Fastensonntag des Jahres 843 wurde der Bevölkerung von Konstantinopel feierlich kundgetan, daß die Häresie des Ikonoklasmus nach langen Kämpfen endgültig verurteilt und besiegt sei. Diese Proklamation ist in der orth. Kirche zur bleibenden jährlichen Feier geworden, die dem ersten Fastensonntag, der zuvor dem Gedächtnis des Mose und aller Propheten gewidmet gewesen war, den Charakter des »Sonntags der Rechtgläubigkeit« (Orthodoxie) verliehen hat. In allen Bischofskath…


(10,088 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Theobald, Michael | Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Plank, Peter | Küster, Volker | Et al.
[English Version] I. Begrifflichkeit In bes. Maße ist die Trinitätstheol. gekennzeichnet durch ein spannungsvolles Ineinander von bibl.-narrativer und philos.-spekulativer Sprache. Der Ausdruck trinitas begegnet erstmals bei Tertullian (Prax. 2,1–4) als Übers. des griech. τρια´ς/triás (urspr. »Dreiheit«). Im Dt. haben sich neben dem Fremdwort »T.« die Begriffe »Dreieinigkeit« und »Dreifaltigkeit« etabliert. Für die Benennung der göttlichen Einheit (Gott: V.,1.) haben die Auseinandersetzungen des 4.Jh. den aus der antiken Philos. stammenden Terminus ου᾿σι´α/ousía …

Theodoros Studites

(290 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] (759 Konstantinopel – 11.11.826 Insel Prinkipon), Heiliger (Gedenktag 11.11.), prägender Reformer des monastischen und liturgischen Lebens, einflußreicher (Kirchen-)Politiker, fruchtbarer kirchl. Schriftsteller und Dichter. Höchsten Gesellschaftskreisen entstammend, wurde er wie Eltern, Geschwister und andere Verwandte 781 unter der Leitung seines Onkels Platon im Familiengut Sakkudion in Bithynien Mönch, wo er seit 787 als Priester und seit 794 als Abt wirkte. 798 übernahm er di…

Rußland, Theologie in

(961 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Die mit der Bauernbefreiung durch Alexander II. 1862 greifende Gesellschaftsreform schuf auch in R. die Voraussetzungen für eine konsequent mit hist.-krit. Methoden arbeitende orth. Theol. (Orthodoxe Kirchen: IV.), die dem kulturellen Niveau und den Kapazitäten des Landes und seiner Kirche entsprechende Früchte zeitigte, bis durch die Oktoberrevolution 1917 das gesamte Leben der Kirche einschließlich ihrer theol. Reflexion gewaltsam unterdrückt wurde. Doch wäre es falsch, sich …


(4,994 words)

Author(s): Kraus, Georg | Kinzig, Wolfram | Schlemmer, Karl | Plank, Peter | Schwier, Helmut | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum BegriffO. ist der dt. Name für das Fest der Auferstehung (: II.) Jesu Christi (ähnlich engl. »easter«). Dagegen ist in den übrigen germ. sowie in den romanischen Sprachen die Bez. vom griech. Begriff πα´σχα/pa´scha (aram. פַּסְחָא/pascha' oder פִּסְחָא/pischa' für hebr. פֶּסַח/pæsaḥ [von פסח/psḥ, »vorbeihinken, vorbeigehen an«, Etym. nicht restlos geklärt]; latinisierte Schreibvariante: passa) abgeleitet, z.B. Paaske (dänisch), Pasen (niederländisch), Paskit (norwegisch), Pasqua (ital.), Pascua (span.), Pa^ques (fr…


(12,190 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Plank, Peter | Völker, Alexander | Et al.
[English Version] I. Begriff und Umfang der Psalmen/des PsaltersDas Buch der Pss ist eine einzigartige Zusammenstellung von 150 poetischen Texten zu einem Werk sui generis. Seine hebr. Bez. תְּהִלִּים (סֵפֶר)/(sepær) t ehilli^m, »Buch der (Lob-)Preisungen«, findet sich schon in Qumran (ältester Beleg: 4QM a [= 4 Q 491] 174 [1.Jh. v.Chr.]). Ähnlich wie in den ca.100 Jahre jüngeren ntl. Stellen Lk 20,42; Apg 1,20 (βι´βλος ψαλμω˜n̆/bi´blos psalmō´n) scheint damit zunächst im technischen Sinn eine Schriftrolle mit Pss gemeint zu sein (vgl. die Frgm. 4QPs)…


(3,126 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A. | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter | Kreuels, Matthias
[English Version] I. Historisch Das Gebet »zu jeder Zeit« entspricht dem Glauben an einen Gott, der Herr jeder Zeit und alle Zeit gleich nahe ist. Die Alte Kirche verblieb bei der Praxis Israels, bereicherte aber bald das mit Gebetszeiten verbundene anamnetische Gedenken der Heilstaten Gottes (Rettung am Morgen, Bewahren der Schöpfung am Abend) durch das Gedenken von mit Tagzeiten verbundenen Widerfahrnissen des Heils im Leben des Herrn und der Apostel. Noch in der Spätantike entwickelte sich die k…


(19,410 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichAus religionswiss. Sicht ist die T. kein allg. Ritustyp (Ritus/Ritual), sondern ein Lustrationsritual, das sowohl im Christentum als auch in den gesch. mit diesem verwandten Rel. wie Judentum und Mandäismus durchgeführt wird. Die T. hat sich aus Lustrationsritualen antiker nahöstlicher Flußzivilisationen entwickelt, wobei die Einzelheiten dieser Entwicklung eher im dunkeln liegen. In der Spätzeit des Zweiten Tempels wurde die T. in mehreren Gemeinschaften…


(263 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] Troparion, Bez. eines gesonderten Gesangs des byz.-orth. Gottesdienstes, dessen Herkunft und urspr. Bedeutung umstritten ist. Die Charakteristika des T., das als hymnographische Gattung formal nur schwer vom Sticheron und vom Kathisma abgrenzbar ist, haben im Lauf der Zeit merklichen Schwankungen unterlegen. Urspr. scheint ein T. ein als Refrain dienender kurzer Text gewesen zu sein, der den Vortrag eines Psalms einrahmte und/oder ihn unterteilte. Eine solche Art des T. ist im Ve…


(4,677 words)

Author(s): Felber, Anneliese | Köpf, Ulrich | Plank, Peter | Hafner, Johann Ev. | Mohr, Hubert
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich R. bez. die Überreste (lat. reliquiae, »Zurückgebliebenes«) kraftgeladener Menschen (Krieger, Häuptlinge, Zauberer, Heroen, Propheten, Märtyrer, Heilige [Heilige/Heiligenverehrung]), ihrer Körper, Kleidungsstücke und Gebrauchsgegenstände. Ihre Verehrung gründet auf dem Glauben, daß diese Kräfte über das Grab hinaus dauerhaft wirksam sind, mit dem Ziel, dieser Macht oder des Segens teilhaftig zu werden durch Errichten von Gebäuden über dem Grab, Aufstel…


(158 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] . Das Wort T., das an sich jede fixierte Ordnung meint, wurde bis ins 15.Jh. oftmals von Gründern orth. Klöster zur Bez. der speziellen Strukturen und Obliegenheiten ihrer Stiftungen gebraucht. Seit dem 11.Jh. hat sich das T. jedoch vorrangig zu einer Rubrikensammlung (Rubrik) entwickelt, die den Ablauf des Gottesdienstes das Jahr hindurch regelt. Seine greifbaren Anfänge reichen in das 7.Jh. zurück und stammen aus dem paläst. Sabas-Kloster. Seit dem 9.Jh. dominierte das T. des S…


(158 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] vom Schwarzen Berg (um 1025 Konstantinopel – nach 1100 bei Antiochien), bedeutender Enzyklopädist und Kanonist des chalcedonischen Patriarchats von Antiochien. Nach einer militärischen Karriere in byz. Diensten Mönch auf dem »Schwarzen Berg« bei Antiochien und vom Patriarchat bestellter monastischer Lehrer. Als solcher sammelte und wertete er, nicht ohne krit. Sinn, in drei Werken, was ihm an rechtlichen, liturgischen und asketischen Überlieferungen genuin und normativ erschien (I: Erklärungen der Gebote des Herrn [῾Ερμηn̆ει˜αι τω˜n̆ ε᾿n̆τολω˜n̆ το…


(6,604 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Otto, Eckart | Dignas, Beate | Elm, Dorothee | Kraus, Georg | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichEtym. leitet sich der Begriff »Priester« vom griech. πρεσβυ´τερος/presby´teros, »der Ältere«, her; er bez. ganz allg. einen rel. Funktionsträger, insbes. den für den Kult zuständigen Experten. Dem zugrundeliegenden griech. Wort kommt diese Bedeutung urspr. nicht zu. Nach einem zweiten Bedeutungsstrang verwaltet der Priester (griech. ι῾ερευ´ς/hiereu´s, lat. sacerdos) das Heilige (heilig und profan). Die Inhalte, welche heute üblicherweise im Religionsvergleich mit dem Priestertum (Pt.) verbunden …


(144 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] (Kasatkin; 1.8.1836 Berezovskij, Kreis Bel'sk – 3.2.1912 Tokyo), Begründer und erster Erzbf. der orth. Kirche Japans. 1860 Absolvent der Geistl. Akademie Sankt Petersburg (: II.), seit 1861 in Japan tätig, zuerst als Geistlicher des russ. Konsulats in Hakodate, nach Gewährung rel. Duldung 1873 als Missionar, seit 1880 als Bf., gelang ihm eine vorbildliche Inkulturation des orth. Kirchentums in die japanische Sprache und Mentalität. Es entstand eine Minderheitenkirche von ca.30 00…


(145 words)

Author(s): Plank, Peter
[English Version] von Perm' (ca.1340 Velikij Ustjug – 26.4.1396 Moskau), bedeutender altruss. Missionar. Um 1365 Mönch im Kloster Gregorios des Theologen in Rostov Velikij. Dort erlernte er neben dem Griech. auch das Idiom der finnisch-ugrischen Syriänen (Komi), für die er ein eigenes Alphabet entwickelte und bibl. sowie liturgische Texte übersetzte. 1383 zum Bf. geweiht, konnte er so eine fruchtbare missionarische Tätigkeit unter ihnen entfalten. In seinem Mitschüler Epifanij dem Weisen fand S. ei…


(719 words)

Author(s): Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter
[English Version] I.Katholisches Verständnis  Der Begriff P., in der röm.-kath. Umgangssprache für die Presbyterordination (Ordination: V.,1.) gebraucht, spiegelt ein bestimmtes, sazerdotales Verständnis des kirchl. Amtes (: VI.,3.) wider. Das christl. Priestertum hängt zunächst mit der Taufe (: IV.,1.) zusammen. Die postbaptismale Salbung ist das rituelle Zeichen für die Aufnahme in das priesterliche Gottesvolk durch Teilhabe am priesterlichen Amt Christi. Gerade in der röm. Tradition wird diese Salbung durchgehend auf …
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