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Cyril IV,

(174 words)

Author(s): Reiss, Wolfram
[German Version] Coptic patriarch 1854–1861 (Dâwûd Tûmâs Bâshût, born 1816 near Ahmîm). In 1828, he entered the monastery of St. Anthony and was elected abbot in 1830. In 1851, he undertook a mission to Ethiopia on behalf of Peter VII. In the conflict over the latter's successor, the reform camp prevailed and elected Cyril patriarch. He introduced comprehensive reforms, which marked the turning point towards modernity within the Coptic Church (Copts: I). He found…

Cyril V

(218 words)

Author(s): Reiss, Wolfram
[German Version] (1824, in the province of Banî Suef – 1927) was a Coptic patriarch from 1874 to 1927, who enjoyed the longest term of office of any Coptic patriarch (53 years). In 1844, he entered the monastery at Barâmûs, where he later became abbot. Before his election as patriarch, he found it necessary to defend the laity's right to have a voice in almost all ecclesial matters in a lay council (Maglis Millî), newly founded in 1874. Cyril repealed the concess…

Sunday School

(1,424 words)

Author(s): Hörnig, J. Thomas | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Reiss, Wolfram
[German Version] I. Europe and America Traditionally school and worship have also served to hand on the tradition of the faith to children and to communicate values (Children’s church: I). In the 18th century, the philanthropic English system of charity schools pioneered the Sunday school. Initially, because of child labor, Sunday schools were charity schools held on Sundays (Thomas Stock and R. Raikes). What they taught was based primarily on the catechism and, to a lesser extent, the Bible, using th…