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Midas

(755 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μίδας/ Mídas). [German version] I. Historical King of Phrygia, son of Gordius [1]. Assyrian sources document him as Mit-ta-a, ‘king of the land of Muski, ’ for 718-709 BC. In the epichoric inscriptions of Yazılıkaya (‘city of Midas’) the name M. is found in conjunction with the titles laagtei and anaktei. The name M. is more likely Old Anatolian than Phrygian. According to Assyrian sources M. conspired with the Luwian kings of Atuna (Tyana), Karkemiš, Gurgum and Malida against Sargon II, until he - snubbing Urarṭu and fearing the Cimmerians - placed hi…

Tychon

(284 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Τύχων/ Týchōn). [German version] [1] Ithyphallic god Ithyphallic god (Str. 13,1,12), associated with Priapus (Diod. Sic. 4,6,4), but primarily with Hermes (Clem. Al. Protreptikos 102,1; Theognostus, Anecdota Oxoniensia 2, p. 33,31 Cramer), as in the only inscriptional record, from Magnesia [2] on the Maeander [2] [2. 136 no. 203]; also with Aphrodite (Herodian. 1,37,15 Lentz; Hesych. s. v. T.; cf. Apollophanes PCG 2 fr. 6). His efficacy was considered limited (Anth. Pal. 9,334,1), but Alexander [II 15…

Quadriformis

(124 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('four-formed', also Quadrifrons, 'four-faced'). Sobriquet of Janus (Ianus) whose statue, which looked in four directions, is supposed to have been taken to Rome after the conquest of Falerii [1] in 241 BC (Serv. Aen. 7,607; Macrob. Sat. 1,9,13). Under Domitian it was moved to the Forum Transitorium (Mart. 10,28,5 f.); there is an illustration of the cult image on an as of Hadrian [1. 621 no. 21]. Varro uses quadrifrons as a cosmological symbol of the quattuor partes mundi ('the four directions of the world', fr. 234 Cardauns) [2. 63]. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Biblio…

Lymphae

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (also Lumphae: Prisc. Institutio de arte grammatica 2,36,22). Italian name for water goddesses. The name should be regarded as close, from the point of view of content and language, like Oscan diumpaís, to Greek nýmphai ( Nymphs) [1] to which it is partly used as a parallel: CIL V 3106 (Vicetia), Aug. Civ. 4,34; Paul. Fest. 107,17 L. As an equivalent of Greek nymphólēptos, ‘raging’, Latin lymphatus is created (Varro, Ling. 7,87; Paul. Fest. 107,17-20 L.). The cult worship of the lymphae attested by inscriptions - e.g. CIL III 6373 (Salonae), XI 1918 (Perusia) …

Hippalektryon

(161 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἱππαλεκτρυών; Hippalektryṓn, ‘horse rooster’). Fantastic  monster, a combination of cock and horse. The earliest literary record is Aesch. Myrmidones fr. 134 Radt. The references in Aristophanes (Pax 1177; Av. 800; Ran. 932, as in Aesch. with the epithet xouthós, ‘golden, yellow’) are parodies of tragedies. In Hesychius and Photius s.v. and in the scholia to Aristophanes, the creature has a bird's head - this is the exact opposite of the archaeological findings (a cock's hindquarters with two cock's legs, front of a …

Gegeneis

(175 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γηγενεῖς, ‘Earth Born ’). [German version] [1] Epithet of the Giants Epithet of the Aloads (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,482),  Orion (Apollod. 1,25 Wagner), the Spartans (Eur. Bacch. 264), Argus [I 5] (Aesch. PV 567), and the  giants (Batr. 7; Soph. Trach. 1058f.; Eur. Phoen. 1131). As a noun = giants (Aristoph. Nub. 853; Lycoph. 1408; explained in Diod. Sic. 4,21,7). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Mythical people Mythical people living near Cyzicus, mentioned by Apoll. Rhod. (1,941-3; 989-91 with schola). Dei(l)ochus of Proconnesus called them ἐγχειρογάστορες ( Enche…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187-8 and Pind. P. 6,28-39 also refer to his single combat with Antiloc…

Gorgophonus/-os

(93 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Athena (‘killer of Gorgo’). Epithet of Athena in Orph. H. 32,8 (but see  Gorgophone [1]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Perseus Epithet of Perseus (Eur. fr. 985 Nauck; Nonnus, Dion. 18,305; 30,269; 31,12; 47,506; 47,536). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Son of Electryon and Alcmene Son of  Electryon and Anaxo, Alcaeus' daughter, thus Perseus' grandson.  Alcmene is mentioned as his sister, his brothers' names are listed as Stratobates, Phylonomos, Celaeno, Amphimachus, Ly…

Tenerus

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τήνερος; Tḗneros). Mythical seer ( Mántis : Pind.  Fr. 51d) in Thebes, son of Apollo and the ash-nymph Melia (Melia [1]; schol.  Lycoph. 1211), who gives birth to him in the Ismenion  (Pind. Fr. 52k), where his oracle also was (schol. Pind. Pyth. 11,5); brother of Ismenius (Paus. 9,10,6). Apollo bestows on him the gift of prophecy (schol.  Lycoph. 1211). The Tenerian Plain between Thebes and Lake Copais is named after T. (Str. 9,413; Paus. 9,26,1). Pindar's seventh p…

Nike

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νίκη; Níkē). [German version] I. Mythology N. is the Greek personification of victory. As early as in Hesiod she is an abstract concept: Nike is the daughter of Styx and Pallas and the sister of similar personifications: Zelos (zeal), Kratos (power) and Bia (force) (Hes. Theog. 384-385). Zeus commands these powers forever (ibid. 388), since, on the advise of Styx, they supported him in the Gigantomachy (ibid. 389-403; Serv. Aen. 6,134). Nonnus outlined N.'s participation in the battle (Nonnus, Dion. …

Memnonides

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεμνονίδες/ Memnonídes; Lat. Memnoniae aves).The legend of the birds of Memnon is closely associated with the grave of Memnon [1] on the river Aisepus. According to Paus. 10,31,6 Polygnotus had portrayed Memnon wearing a robe painted with birds in the picture of Hades on the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. The extant versions probably date back to scholarly of Alexandrine poetry: according to Q. Smyrn. 2,642-655 it is the companions of Memnon who are turned into birds by Eos (simil…
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