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(330 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] Screening tests, also called filtering tests, are diagnostically predictive tests, especially mass screening of defined population groups using the methods of molecular genetics, to identify the bearers of specific markers for or predispositions to a disease. The many potential applications of the resulting data – economic (working conditions, insurance), sociopolitical (criminal proceedings, preventive health policies), and psychological (early detection of behavioral syndromes, …

Freedom of Religion

(3,650 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee | Kronauer, Ulrich | Link, Christoph | Ohst, Martin | Witte, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Philisophy – V. History – VI. Mission I. Dogmatics Freedom of religion, as generally understood, combines freedom of belief, of conscience, and creed, as well as freedom to practice one's religion (cf. German Basic Law, art. 4, §§1, 2), in one fundamental right. Dogmatics needs to clarify the relationship between religious certainty and freedom. A statement consonant with Reformation belief would run as follows: If Christian certainty, as certainty about the …


(337 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] In everyday speech, moralism denotes morally rigorous thinking which, firstly, tends to reduce moral judgments (Morals, Ethics) to the principles of abstract formal legalism, thus failing to do justice to the multiplicity of moral life, and/or, secondly, subordinates all parts of life without distinction to moral evaluation, thus falsely absolutizing the moral dimension. In view of its complex conceptual development, this connotation is pejorative. Originally, the middle Latin verb moralizare denoted the moral exposition of biblical texts in patris…

Women’s Studies

(268 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] Women’s studies flourished in the public sphere in the early 20th century but largely came to an end under National Socialism. Modern women’s studies developed in the early 1970s in the United States and Western Europe in the context of the New Feminism, primarily as a discipline studying the social and cultural evolution of the issue of women’s rights (Feminism and feminist theology: I), in service to the social emancipation of women. Personal commitment and partisanship were cen…

Picht, Georg Max Friedrich Vallentin

(186 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] (Jul 9, 1913, Strasbourg – Aug 7, 1982, Breitnau), head of the Birklehof secondary school at Hinterzarten between 1946 and 1956; head of the research center of the Evangelische Studiengemeinschaft (FEST; Protestant Student Fellowship) from 1968 to 1982; professor of the philosophy of religion at Heidelberg between 1965 and 1978. Influenced by the crisis experience of National Socialism and by the Platonic ideal of philosophical responsibility for the community, Picht took an activ…

Raiser, Ludwig

(195 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1904, Stuttgart – Jun 13, 1980, Tübingen), lawyer. The historical experience of National Socialism impressed on Raiser the need for active civil co-responsibility in democratic society. Therefore, as full professor and rector from 1945 to 1952 in Göttingen, and from 1955 to 1973 in Tübingen, and in many roles in academic and university politics, he took an active part in shaping university reforms during that time. The recurrent theme of his legal writings was the orderin…

Symbols/Symbol Theory

(9,049 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Recki, Birgit | Schlenke, Dorothee | Biehl, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Use of the Greek word σύμβολον/ sýmbolon in a sense relevant to religious studies is attested quite early in the history of European religions; Dio of Prusa (1st/2nd cent. ce), for example, used it in his speech on Phidias’s statue of Zeus in Olympia ( Oratio 12.59). In this context, the Greek term reflects the problem posed by images of the gods: what is intrinsically inaccessible to human vision (Vision/Intuition) is somehow to be represented visually. In religious studies, especially in the phenomenology of religion, the concept of sy…


(6,443 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparison with expiation (I), reconciliation is defined more specifically; as a rule, its goal is to restore a personal relationship undermined by guilt or sin. In reconciliation we are dealing with a category rooted in ¶ the Judeo-Christian tradition that cannot be translated readily into other contexts. In comparison with Western Christianity, the understanding of reconciliation in Judaism displays several distinctive features. As in Christianity, the concept of reconciliation is complementar…