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Glory of God

(2,368 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas | Lis, Hanna | Zumstein, Jean | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The English expression glory of God derives from the Greek translation (δόξα κυρίου or τοῦ ϑεοῦ / dóxa kyriou or toú theoú) of the Hebrew phrase כְּבוֹד יהוה /kĕbôd YHWH. In ordinary usage, Heb. כָּבוֹד/ kābôd denotes a person's “weight” or “weightiness,” which is displayed outwardly to mark to his or her social status (Gen 31:1; 45:13). As a fundamental aesthetic concept, the glory of God can be understood …

Art and Religion

(16,087 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard | Lentes, Thomas | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Imorde, Joseph | Ganz, David | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies, Systematics – II. Academic Research Disciplines – III. History – IV. Christian Theology I. Religious Studies, Systematics 1. Methodology. In defining the relationship between art and religion from the perspective of religious studies, one cannot speak of a universal concept of art and religion on the phenomenal level. To do comparative work, however, sufficient abstract characteristics must be established as a tertium comparationis to enable a systematic examination of the relationship betwe…

Hatred

(1,212 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Wolfgang | Winkler, Klaus
[German Version] I. Bible and Dogmatics – II. Psychology and Ethics I. Bible and Dogmatics Because hatred, as opposed to spontaneous and short-lived affects such as anger and wrath, refers to a long-term attitude (I. Kant; cf. II below) which grips a person entirely, the biblical antithesis of hatred and love can denote a comprehensive alternative of extremes in which human beings find themselves. The biblical texts speak of love and hatred in the context of situations that make nuanced reflection impossible…

Communitarianism

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Reese-Schäfer, Walter | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics – III. Philosophy of Religion, Fundamental Theology, and Practical Theology I. Philosophy The social philosophy of communitarianism originated in the USA in the 1980s. Its starting point was a fundamental philosophical critique of John Rawls's liberal contract theory of justice (Liberalism). According to the critique, this theory understands individuals totally apart from their social contexts and favors a republic where justice is only pro…

Aesthetics

(1,902 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Theology I. Philosophy Aesthetics is the discipline concerned with reflective perception, feelings, and the beautiful in nature and art. The discussion of “aesthetics” has used this term, however, only in the modern era. In the context of metaphysics and ontology, epistemology and practical philosophy, poetics and rhetoric, however, the questions of aesthetics have accompanied thought since Antiquity. In fact, the history of aesthetics began with Plato, who designated the beautiful as the goal of human endeavor in the Symposion and underscor…

Doubt

(2,045 words)

Author(s): Mayer, Helmut | Schoberth, Wolfgang
1. Philosophical Aspects 1.1. As a look at everyday usage shows (Language 1), the “language game” (L. Wittgenstein) of doubt is very diverse. One may doubt the truth of a statement, the rightness of a decision to act, the motives of actions, one’s own feelings or those of others, perceptions of meaning, and religious or other beliefs of every kind. Philosophical tradition has taken over the broad claim that the essential meaning of doubt lies in the subjective impossibility of assessing truth claim…

Death

(1,850 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Wolfgang
1. State of the Problem All societies share the basic experience of death, yet they respond to it in different ways in their thinking and customs (Dead, Cult of the). We find ideas ranging from self-evident certainty of the presence of the dead (Ancestor Worship; Demons) to preparation for the journey of the dead to their new home and hope of redemption in a new life beyond the present course. The various theories of the relation to death that are also found in society and religion do not allow of sy…

Nature

(1,705 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Wolfgang
1. History of the Term The term “nature” clearly is used in many different ways, in both everyday speech and technical language. This imprecision makes its meaning versatile but problematic in relation to such concepts as life, experience, and reality. The flexibility and imprecision mark its whole history (Philosophy of Nature), in which we find all the meanings that it has in common parlance. Common to them all is the idea that “nature” stands for the sphere of the given. 1.1. Greek Philosophy Physis in Greek philosophy is more a forerunner than an equivalent of “nature.” In…