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Aesthetics

(1,902 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Theology I. Philosophy Aesthetics is the discipline concerned with reflective perception, feelings, and the beautiful in nature and art. The discussion of “aesthetics” has used this term, however, only in the modern era. In the context of metaphysics and ontology, epistemology and practical philosophy, poetics and rhetoric, however, the questions of aesthetics have accompanied thought since Antiquity. In fact, the history of aesthetics began with Plato, who designated the beautiful as the goal of human endeavor in the Symposion and underscor…

Communitarianism

(1,435 words)

Author(s): Reese-Schäfer, Walter | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics – III. Philosophy of Religion, Fundamental Theology, and Practical Theology I. Philosophy The social philosophy of communitarianism originated in the USA in the 1980s. Its starting point was a fundamental philosophical critique of John Rawls's liberal contract theory of justice (Liberalism). According to the critique, this theory understands individuals totally apart from their social contexts and favors a republic where justice is only pro…

Glory of God

(2,368 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas | Lis, Hanna | Zumstein, Jean | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The English expression glory of God derives from the Greek translation (δόξα κυρίου or τοῦ ϑεοῦ / dóxa kyriou or toú theoú) of the Hebrew phrase כְּבוֹד יהוה /kĕbôd YHWH. In ordinary usage, Heb. כָּבוֹד/ kābôd denotes a person's “weight” or “weightiness,” which is displayed outwardly to mark to his or her social status (Gen 31:1; 45:13). As a fundamental aesthetic concept, the glory of God can be understood …

Hatred

(1,212 words)

Author(s): Schoberth, Wolfgang | Winkler, Klaus
[German Version] I. Bible and Dogmatics – II. Psychology and Ethics I. Bible and Dogmatics Because hatred, as opposed to spontaneous and short-lived affects such as anger and wrath, refers to a long-term attitude (I. Kant; cf. II below) which grips a person entirely, the biblical antithesis of hatred and love can denote a comprehensive alternative of extremes in which human beings find themselves. The biblical texts speak of love and hatred in the context of situations that make nuanced reflection impossible…

Art and Religion

(16,087 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard | Lentes, Thomas | Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle | Imorde, Joseph | Ganz, David | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies, Systematics – II. Academic Research Disciplines – III. History – IV. Christian Theology I. Religious Studies, Systematics 1. Methodology. In defining the relationship between art and religion from the perspective of religious studies, one cannot speak of a universal concept of art and religion on the phenomenal level. To do comparative work, however, sufficient abstract characteristics must be established as a tertium comparationis to enable a systematic examination of the relationship betwe…