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(498 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf | Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] 1. Johann Christian Friedrich (Oct 25 1779, Esslingen – Oct 24, 1837, Tübingen). In 1797 he began study of theology, philosophy, and Near Eastern languages in Tübingen. He also studied at Paris in 1808. In 1810 he was appointed deacon in Cannstatt and in 1812 in Tübingen, where he was appointed professor of biblical theology in 1815. In 1816 he was made senior of the faculty and superintendent of the Tübingen Stift, fighting for its continued existence. He lectured on the Old Testamen…

Wolff, Walther

(210 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1870, Neuwerk – Aug 26, 1931, Aachen), with an honorary doctorate, one of the most high-profile church politicians of the Weimar Republic. The son of a orphanage director, Wolff studied from 1889 to 1893 at Greifswald, Marburg, and ¶ Halle. In 1895 he was appointed pastor in Otzenrath, on the Lower Rhine; he moved to Aachen in 1901, and energetically pursued an ecclesiastical career: his offices included the presidency of the Rhenish provincial synod (1919–1931) and the vice-presidency of the Prussian general syn…

Sturzo, Luigi

(176 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Nov 26, 1871, Caltagirone, Sicily – Aug 8, 1959, Rome), was ordained to the priesthood in 1894 and received his Dr.theol. in 1896. From 1905 to 1920 he was (acting) mayor of Caltagirone. Since the 1890s he had been appealing to the conscience of politically passive (“non-participating”) conservative, clericalist Catholics. His 1919 appeal “A tutti gli uomini liberi e forti” was followed by the formation of the Partito Popolare Italiano, the third-largest party in the Italian parl…

Mazzini, Giuseppe

(358 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Jun 22, 1805, Genoa – Mar 10, 1872, Pisa), Italian patriot, revolutionary, journalist, and a key figure of the risorgimento (“resurgence,” the name for 19th-cent. efforts toward the national unification of Italy and its position as a national culture). As a young Genoese student, Mazzini became enthusiastic for the idea of the national struggle for freedom through the experience of the Carbonari revolt of 1821 and through the reading of the Dante studies of Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827). From 1822 to 1827 he studied ¶ law. In 1827 he joined the revolutionary secret or…

Loofs, Friedrich Armin

(473 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Jun 19, 1858, Hildesheim – Jan 13, 1928, Halle an der Saale), Protestant church historian, historian of dogma, and patrologist. He was the son of a conservative Lutheran pastor. As a student (1877–1882 in Leipzig, Tübingen, and Göttingen), he belonged to the Leipzig circle of students around A. v. Harnack, and in Göttingen he was heavily influenced by A. Ritschl. He gained his Habilitation in Leipzig in 1882, became assistant professor there in 1886, and went to Halle as professor extraordinarius in 1887. Already professor of church history …

Sasse, Hermann Otto Erich

(198 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1895, Sonnewalde, Lower Lusatia – Aug 8, 1976, North Adelaide, South Australia), son of a pharmacist, Sasse studied in Berlin from 1913 to 1916 and served in the army from 1916 to 1918; he received his Lic.theol. in 1923. From 1921 to 1928 he served as pastor in Oranienburg and after that in Berlin. In 1926, during a study year at Hartford, Connecticut, he received his license to teach. He was at the Faith and Order Conference in Lausanne in 1927 and edited the proceeding…