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Palmaria

(61 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic island in the Mare Tyrrhenum , the modern Palmarola (province of Latina). From north to south, it measures 3.5 km at a maximum elevation of 253 m. P. is the westernmost of the insulae Pontiae (Pontia [2]; Varro Rust. 3,5,7; Plin. HN 3,81). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G.M. De Rossi (ed.), Le isole pontine attraverso i tempi, 1986.

Trivicum

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Township, developed out of three vici (cf. place name), of the Hirpini in Apulia (Apuli), possibly modern Trevico (formerly Vico) or modern La Civita 7 km to the east. A villa near T. (possibly at modern Scampitella) was used as a mansio by Horatius [7] on his journey to Brundisium in 37 BC (Hor. Sat. 1,5,79 f.). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Colucci Pescatori, Evidenze archeologiche in Irpinia, in: G. d'Henry et al., La Romanisation du Samnium (Colloque Neapel 1988), 1991, 85-122, here 105 f.  A. Russi, s. v. Apulia, Enciclopedia Oraziana 1, 199…

Corioli

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Volsci in Latium adiectum, perhaps to be located near Monte Giove. Home city of  Coriolanus; C. is mentioned in connection with the events of 490 BC (Liv. 2,39; 3,71). Ceased to exist in the course of the 5th cent.; no traces left at the time of Pliny (HN 3,69). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Gsell, Top., Jahr, 180f. A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topographico-antiquaria della carta de'dintorni di Roma 1, 1837, 512f. Nissen 2, 631.

Melpis

(55 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River originating in the area of the Volsci (Latium) to the north-east of Atina. Between Fabrateria and Aquinum, in a distance of four miles, it flows in the river Liris. It is crossed by the via Latina ( Melfel, Tab. Peut. 6,2), modern Melfa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 669 Miller, 330.

Cingulum

(137 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Town in the Picenum on the river Fiumicello Town in the  Picenum on the river Fiumicello (Musone). Municipium of the tribus Velina (Plin. HN 3,111); T. Labienus, who was from C., richly endowed the city with buildings at his own expense (Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). Monuments: remains on the terrace of Borgo San Lorenzo under the modern Cingoli (Macerata); opus reticulatum walls, remains of a temple in the church; aqueduct (restored by Hadrian). The territory of C. extended to the mountain of the same name (Str. 5,2,10; possibly the modern Monte Cingulo). Uggeri, Giovanni (F…

Luca

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Caesar | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Coloniae City on the fossilized (that is, practically dried-up) tributary of the Auser (modern Serchio), which in ancient times flowed into the Arno at Pisa, today Lucca; last colonia of Latin law, founded in 180 BC by Rome on the territory of the Pisani (Liv. 40,43,1); from 89 BC municipium of the tribus Fabia. Important road junction (It. Ant. 283ff.; Tab. Peut. 4,1); in 56 BC the so-called triumvirate between Caesar, Po…

Planasia

(27 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum off Etruria, modern Pianosa. Prehistorical finds, villa of Agrippa [2] Postumus, catacombs. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 13, 535-546.

Caecina

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin ( Ceicna, Schulze, 75, 285, 567; ThlL, Onom. 15f.), whose bearers belonged to the city aristocracy of Volaterrae (cf. Cic. Fam. 6,6,9), where the family is attested in several branches and partly through richly adorned graves. (CIE 18-24; 36-42 et al.). The lineage appeared in Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but never lost its links with its homeland (cognomen Tuscus in C. [II 9]); villa of the Roman city prefect of AD 414, Caecina Decius Atinatius Albinus, (PLRE 1, 50)…

Mons Albanus

(205 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Volcanic massif (956 m) in Latium Vetus (Latini), modern-day Monte Cavo, southeast of Rome (from it derives the term lapis Albanus,  a grey-coloured peperino or volcanic tuff used in buildings in Rome). The centre of cult worship originally lay beneath Alba Longa in a grove, then later in the temple of Iuppiter Latiaris ( templum Iovis Latiaris, CIL XIV 2227) 20 miles from Rome, where , in spring, the Latins and Romans sacrificed a white bull on occasion of the feriae Latinae and organised games in the presence of all the  magistrates.The grove of Diana Nemorensis ( nemus D…

Frentani

(240 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Samnite tribe on the Adriatic coast (Str. 5,4,2). The name is derived from the dissimilation of the place name [1] * Frentrum, which in turn was inferred through numismatical ( Frentrei) and inscriptional ( Frentra[ni]) methods [2]. The F. settled on the slopes of the regio VII that fall away towards the Adriatic, between the Maiella mountains and the coastal region surrounded by Ortona, the valleys of the Sagrus (Sangro), the Trinius (Trigno), the Tifernus, and the Frento (Fortore). In the west, the tribal area bordered on t…

Mater Magna

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Takacs, Sarolta A. (Cambridge, MA) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Anatolian goddess in Rome More fully Mater Deum Magna Idaea (see [1] on the name), the goddess Mḗtēr/ Cybele, who was brought from Pergamum to Rome in 204/5 BC as demanded by the Sibyllini libri and with the help of Attalos [4] I. Even in antiquity the precise place of origin was disputed: Pessinus (Liv. 29, 10,5; 11,7), Pergamum (Varro ling. 6, 15), or the mountain chain Ida [2] in the Troad (Ov. fast. 4,263f.). The cult of Mḗtēr/Kybele is attested at all three places. Research favours an origin on Ida [2.16-20] or from Pessinus [3.318] - in each case t…

Alba Fucens

(199 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae Latin   colonia with 6,000 colonists, founded as a fortification to control a road junction in 304 BC (Liv. 10. 1. 2) in the area of the  Aequi: the later via Valeria (between Rome and the Adriatic;   decumanus of the city laid out at right angles) and a road that connected Etruria with Campania along the Liris met there. Served as place of exile for Syphax, for Perseus and for Bituitus. Decline since the 3rd cent.…

Padusa

(112 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Marshy region on the river Eridanus, which had originated from a southern arm of the Padus (Po) in the period of Early History and had dried up in the Roman period. The fossil river bed was used in the construction of the fossa Augusta , the navigable canal between Padus and Classis which was the port for Ravenna (cf. Plin. HN 3,119). P. is associated with the myth of Phaethon and Cycnus [3] (Diod. Sic.5,23,3). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Gambi, Cosa era la Padusa, 1950  G. Uggeri, La Romanizzazione dell'antico Delta Padano, 1975, 49  Id., Insediamenti, viab…

Tamarus

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Right-bank tributary of the Calor (modern Calore) in the territory of the Hirpini, modern Tammaro. It rises in the region of Saepinum, crosses the Ager Taurasinus, touches Forum Novum (modern Sant' Arcangelo) and into the Calor at Beneventum; stretches of it are flanked by the via Minucia (station Super Thamari fluvium:  It. Ant. 103,1) and the via Traiana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Miller, 370 G. De Benedittis, L'alta valle del T., in: Studi Beneventani 4-5, 1991, 3-38.

Nar

(156 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Tributary of the Tiber running through Sabina and Umbria, present-day Nera, parts of which formed the boundary between regio IV and VI (Enn. Ann. fr. 260 V2: sulphureas ... Naris ad undas; Verg. Aen. 7,517; nar is Sabine for  ‘sulphur’). It had its source at Mons Tetrica in the territory of Nursia. M'. Curius [4] Dentatus diverted the Velinus (outflow of the Lacus Velinus and the Avens, Himella und Tolerus rivers) into the N. It flowed past Interamna [1] Nahars (modern Terni), where it was crossed by the via Flaminia, which led to Spoletium. It ran below Narnia and wa…

Pallia

(56 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (the modern Paglia). Right tributary of the Tiber which at Volsinii (the modern Orvieto) is joined by the Clanis flowing from Clusium.  A harbour (Pagliano) is formed where it flows into the Tiber. A station Pallia was situated on the via Cassia between Volsinii and Clusium (Tab. Peut. 4,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Herculem, ad

(37 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station in Etruria on the via Aemilia Scauri between Vada Volaterrana and Pisae (It. Ant. 293). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Sordi, La via Aurelia da Vada a Pisa, in: Athenaeum 59, 1971, 302-312.

Falerii

(786 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Oracles Capital city of (non-Etruscan) Falisci in southern Etruria on a tuff spur of the eastern Monti Cimini between two righthand tributaries of the Tiberis (Vicano and Fosso Maggiore). Founded by the Argive hero  Halesus (Ov. Fast. 4,73), according to others a Chalcidian foundation (Iust. 20,1,13). Had its own Italic dialect (Str. 5,2,9; [1; 2; 3]). Cu…

Senones

(630 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Demarolle, Jeanne-Marie (Nancy)
[German version] [1] Celtic people in Umbria and Picenum Celtic people which migrated at the end of the 4th cent. BC from the south of Gaul into the area between the Apennine mountains and the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic) in the region of the Rivers Sena and Tinna in Umbria and Picenum (Liv. 5,35,3). As allies of the Samnites in the third Samnite War, they were defeated by the Romans in 295 BC, and their territory was seized by Rome; they were expelled a few years later ( Ager Gallicus ). Rome founded Sena Gallica there probably in 289 BC (Pol. 2,19,12; Liv. Epit. …

Fibrenus

(57 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the Liris in Latium in the region between Sora and Arpinum, modern Fibreno. At its mouth was the location of Cicero's villa (Cic. Leg. 2,6), remains of which are thought to be recognizable in the abbey of San Domenico near Isola del Liri. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 670.

Camerinum

(160 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in Umbria ( regio VI) in the Apennines between the rivers Potenza and Chienti on the border with Picenum, modern Camerino. Allied with Rome by an aequo foedere from 309 BC (Liv. 9,36), it supported Scipio in 205 BC in his fight against Hannibal (Liv. 28,45); Marius granted Roman citizenship to two cohorts from C. in the war against the Cimbri. Municipium of the tribus Cornelia. Septimius Severus confirmed the rights of the municipes Camertes (CIL XI 5631). Mosaic on the Piazza Garibaldi, finds in S. G…

Compsa, Cossa

(134 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town of the Hirpini in the regio II on the border to Lucania, modern Conza della Campania (Province of Avellino). Located on a height by the upper  Aufidus, at the crossing to the Sele valley (Sella di Conza). Involved in the Second Punic War, Hannibal's base of operations after Cannae (216 BC), but it was reconquered by Fabius Maximus (214 BC). In the Social War on Rome's side (Vell. 2,16). Municipium of the tribus Galeria. Cults of the Mater Deum and Iupiter Vicilinus in agro Compsano (Liv. 24,44,8). Epigraphy: CIL IX, p. 88, 963-993, Roman sarcophagi, episcopal…

Corbio

(179 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ancient city in Latium Ancient city in Latium on the north-eastern foothills of mons Albanus, perhaps today's Roccapriora. It became involved in the Roman wars with the  Aequi: conquered by Cincinnatus in 458 BC (victory at mons Algidus), taken back by the Aequi, then destroyed by consul C. Horatius Pulvillus in 457 (Liv. 3,30). Near C., T. Quinctius Capitolinus defeated the Aequi in 446. Archaeological monuments: a few remnants, Imperial Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topographico-antiquaria della carta…

Nomentum

(155 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Latini, Latium (or Numentum). Latin town founded by Alba Longa (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,53; Verg. Aen. 6,773; 7,706) in Sabine territory on the left bank of the Tiber on the Via Nomentana (Tab. Peut. 5,5), 14 miles north east of Rome, modern Mentana. Member of the Latin League (Latini, with map). N. received the civitas Romana, under a dictator, in 338 BC (Liv. 8,14,3). Martial praised N., especially the merits of its vineyards (Mart. 2,38; 10,48; 13,119; Columella 3,2f.; Plin. HN 14,23; 48) and …

Tarracina

(210 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | | Coloniae Originally Anxur (Liv. 4,59,4), a city of the Ausoni and the Volsci on a rocky promontory on the coast of Latium Adiectum, modern Terracina (Latina). Conquered in 406 BC by the Romans who established a colonia maritima ( Coloniae C.) there in 329 BC. T. was linked to Rome in 312 BC by a stretch of the via Appia ( decumanus maximus). Municipium of the tribus Oufentina. The city wall survives, as does the 'Forum Aemilianum' (paved by Aulus Aemilius, modern P…

Mandela

(70 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Pagus (‘district) in the land of the Sabini (Hor. Epist. 1,18,105) at the confluence of Digentia and Anio, later Massa Mandelana (CIL XIV 3482), modern Mandela near Vicovaro. Near M. Chalcolithic tomb chambers and a Roman villa. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Lugli, La villa sabina di Orazio, in: Monumenti antichi, pubblicati dall' Accademia dei Lincei 31, 1926, 457-598 C. F. Giuliani, in: Tibur 2, 1966, 67-77.

Aventia

(23 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in the  Apuani region in Etruria (Tabula Peutingeriana), possibly that known today as the Avenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Suessa Pometia

(139 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Latium, not located. Colony of Alba Longa, occupied by the Volsci, destroyed by Tarquinius Superbus (Liv. 1,53,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,50; Tac. Hist. 3,72); conquered again by the Romans in 495 BC (Liv. 2,17,1; 2,25,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,29). According to [1; 2], SP refers to the pre-Volscan phase of Satricum (10th-6th cent. BC), according to [3; 4], it is identical to Apiolae or can be located in a pre-Roman city discovered at Cisterna di Latina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 C. M. Stibbe, …

Aesis

(78 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River, forming the border between  Picenum and the  Senones (Liv. 5,35), later taken as Umbrian ( Umbria), modern Esino. From its source on the territory of Sentinum, it runs to the Adriatic, where its mouth is bridged by the   via Flaminia at the   statio ad Aesim (modern Falconara Marittima) (large cistern: three parallel water chambers). The A. valley was known for its excellent cheeses (Plin. 3,112; 11,241). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Q. Maule, SE 59, 1993, 87-102.

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Ostia

(807 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Oracles | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones (cf. map). City at the mouth of the Tiber, 16 miles from Rome, of the tribus Voturia ( tribus Palatina for freedmen), later regio I (Italia), connected to Rome by the via Ostiensis. According to Liv. 1,33,9, the colony was founded by Ancus Marcius [I 3] when, having deprived Veii of the silva Mesia, he extended his rule to the coast and set up salt refineries there (cf. CIL XIV 433…

Bovillae

(146 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium, colony of Alba Longa, ancestral seat of the gens Iulia, 11 miles south-east of Rome in Frattocchie near the via Appia, which had been extended to B. in 294 BC. B. became a municipium under Sulla. In 52 BC, it was the location of the dispute between Clodius and Milo. In memory of the obsequies of Augustus, Tiberius erected a memorial to the gens Iulia in B. (Tac. Ann. 2,41). Monuments: remains of quadratic town walls made from tufa ( lapis peperinus) near Due Santi, and also of the arcades of a circus and a theatre. Villa of Domitianus. Aqueducts and three cister…

Iulium Carnicum

(105 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Venetic | Coloniae Venetic, later Celtic ( Carni) settlement centre, probably constituted as a Roman vicus after the attack of the  Iapodes in 52 BC. Municipium since Augustus, colonia since Claudius. Location: on the road from Aquileia to Aguntum. Local Belenus cult. After its destruction, most likely by  Alaricus [2], the inhabitants moved to the hill of San Pietro, modern Zuglio. Archaeology: forum with porticus, capitolium, in the south a basilica; thermae; aqueduct; early Christian cemetery basilica. Uggeri, Giova…

Leucosia

(238 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Λευκωσία; Leukōsía). [German version] [3] Island on the Lucanian coast (Mela 2,7,121; Plin. HN 3,83: Leucothea) on the Punta della Licosa, modern Isola Piana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, s.v. L., EV 3, 1987, 196f. BTCGI 9, 1991, 5; 14, 1996, 505f. [German version] [1] One of the three post-Homeric Sirens One of the three post-Homeric Sirens, who no longer - as with Homer - appear in a group but as individuals: L. reaches south-west Italy through colonization. Consequently her suicide (she plunges into the sea) is local…

Clitumnus

(167 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Small river in Umbria, tributary of the Tiberis, modern Timia. The sources of the C. (between Spoletium and Fulginiae below Trebiae) were made famous by Plin. Ep. 8,8; Caligula and Honorius visited them; they were surrounded by chapels for the god of the same name and other oracle deities, taken care of by the citizens of Hispellum; sacraria of a statio of the via Flaminia (It. Burd. 613); villae in the surrounding area. In S. Salvatore de Piscina (6th cent. AD) reused stones and inscriptions have been used in buildings (CIL II 4963). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography…

Falesia

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour on the Etruscan coast opposite Ilva (modern Elba), 12 miles south of Populonia (It. Ant. 501; Faleria, Rut. Namat. 1,371, should be corrected to Falesia [2]). In the Middle Ages Porto di Felesa [1], modern Piombino (Livorno). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 G. Targioni Tozzetti, Relazione d'alcuni viaggi fatti in diverse parti della Toscana 4, 1751, 250 2 R. Gelsomino, Nota a Rut. Nam. 1,371, in: Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 15, 1973, 35-47.

Martis, ad

(117 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Various stations derived their names from a cult site of Mars ad ( fanum) Martis. [German version] [1] Station on the road through the Alpes Cottiae Station on the road through the Alpes Cottiae above Segusio at the confluence of the Bardonecchia and the Dora Riparia, modern Oulx. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Station in Etruria Station in Etruria near Pescia on the Via Cassia between Pistoriae and Luca. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [3] Station in Umbria Station in Umbria on the Via Flaminia, 74 miles from Rome, between Narnia and Mevania ( Vicus Martis …

Mons Circeius

(149 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Cape on the Tyrrhenian Sea, said by the sources to have been an island connected to the mainland by silting (Theophr. C. plant. 5,8,3; Plin. HN 2,201), modern Circeo (513 m high). The MC has been identified with the island of Circe (Hom. Od. 12,9; Hes. Theog. 1011f.). In the Roman period, Circe and Athena were venerated here (CIL X 6422; Strab. 5,3,6). The grave mound of Elpenor was displayed (Ps.-Scyl. 8). Nearby: villa of Domitian. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography T. Ashby, Monte Circeo, in: MEFRA 25, 1905, 147-209  G. Lugli, Circeii, 1928  R. Righi, La villa di…

Soracte

(178 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Limestone ridge (691m), present-day Soratte to the northwest of Sant’Oreste, cut off from the Appennines in South Etruria in the territory of the Falisci to the right of the Tiber between the via Flaminia in the west and the via Tiberina in the east. It dominates the Campagna Romana and is visible from Rome (Hor. Carm. 1,9). Apollo (Verg. Aen. 11,785; Sil. Pun. 5,175; 7,662; 8,492; sanctus Soranus Apollo: ILS 3034). The Manes and Dis Pater Soranus were worshipped as a cult. At its base lies Feronia with a sanctuary to the Sabine goddess of the sam…

Salpinates

(31 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Community in Etruria, probably near modern Orvieto; allies of the Volsinii against Rome in 392/1, but without success (Liv. 5,31,5; 32,2). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 339.

Auser

(59 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in the Apennine Mountains (Plin. HN 3,50) in the territory of the Apuani; rising near Luca, it used to discharge into the Arnus near Pisa; nowadays, it has its own mouth into the Tyrrhenian Sea; modern Serchio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography F. Castagnoli, SE 20, 1948-49, 285-90 G. Ciampoltrini, SE 58, 1992, 53-74; SE 59, 1993, 59-86.

Xiphonia

(78 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ξιφωνία; Xiphōnía). Port (Scyl. 13) and headland (Str. 6,2,2) on the eastern coast of Sicily on an elongated  sword-like (cf. ξίφος/ xíphos, 'sword') peninsula in the east of Megara [3], on which the king Frederick II  founded the city of Augusta in the 13th cent. X. played an important part in connection with Hannibal's [2] sea manoeuvres in 263 BC (Diod. 23,4,1). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 62, 241 f.

Amiternum

(166 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre Town of the  Sabini (Str. 5,3,1; Liv. 38,45,19) in a fertile region, situated on a terrace, the source of the river Aternus, which gives its name to the town (Varro, Ling. 5,28); modern Vittorino near L'Aquila on the via Caecilia between Rome and Hadria. A Roman   praefectura from 293 BC, it then became a   municipium of the tribus Quirina with   octoviri . Birthplace of  Sallustius (86 BC). Augustan theatre ( opus reticulatum), leaning against the hillside; an amphitheatre (90 x 68 m…

Trebula

(357 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Gargini, Michela (Pisa)
(Τρήβουλα; Trḗboula). [German version] [1] Sabine town This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town of the Sabini tribe (Str. 5,3,1; Plin. HN 3,107; ILS 442: Mutuesca; Obseq. 41-43: Mutusca), c. 65 km northeast of Rome on a side street of the via Salaria , c. 1 km to the east of Monteleone Sabino (Rieti). In 290 BC, they were probably subjugated by the Romans like the other Sabini (cf. Flor. Epit. 1,10; Oros. 3,22,11); still a vicus (ILS 21a) in 149 BC. After the abolition of the prefectures it became a municipium , tribus Sergia, with octoviri (cf. ILS 6554)…

Tifernus

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Samnium (Samnites; Plin. HN 3,103; 3,106; Ptol. 3,1,18: Φιτέρνος/ Phitérnos), modern Biferno. It rises on T. Mons (modern Matese), forms the border with Campania, flows through the territory of the Pentri of Bovianum and Fagifulae, separates the Frentani from the Larinates (Larinum) and flows into the Adriatic (Ionios Kolpos) to the south of Buca (modern Termoli). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Barker, A Mediterranean Valley, 1995  S. P. Oakley, The Hill-Forts of the Samnites, 1995, 107-120.

Marcina

(57 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Etruscan town in the ager Picentinus (cf. Plin. HN 3,70), later inhabited by Samnites, at a distance of 120 stadia from Pompeii (Str. 5,4,13); therefore probably to be identified with Vietri sul Mare (Salerno) (archaic graves). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography B. D'Agostino, Marcina?, in: Dialoghi d'Archeologia 2, 1968, 139-151 M. Frederiksen, Campania, 1984, 33.

Callicula

(79 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Mountain north of Campania, which constituted the border of the ager Falernus at Casilino. It probably corresponds to the massif of Monte Maggiore (1037 m), which is encircled by a great loop of the river Volturnus. It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus attempted to halt Hannibal's progress in 217 BC (Liv. 22,15,3; 22,16,5). In Pol. 3,92 named as Ἐριβιανὸς λόφος, Eribianòs lóphos (possibly Τρεβιανὸς λόφος; Trebianòs lóphos, from Trebula). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 688.

Olana

(70 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] At Trigaboli, the Padus (Po) divided (Pol. 2,16,11; somewhere near Ferrara) to north and south into the  O. ( Volana, Plin. HN 3,120) and Padoa river branches, thus forming the delta. The mouth of the O. ran into a large harbour on the Adriatic (Pol. 2,16,12). Although its course today is somewhat different, the name has been preserved in that of the River Volano. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Carventum

(57 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Town in Latium near Praeneste; member of the Latin League (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,61). The arx Carventana is mentioned in connection with the disputes between Rome and the  Aequi until 409 BC (Liv. 4,53,55). No traces from a later period; its identification with Roccamassima is unfounded. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography BTCGI 5, 20-28.

Tarentum

(145 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] see Taras [2] See Taras [2]. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Sacred district in Rome Sacred district in Rome at the extreme northwest of the Campus Martius on the Tiber (Rome III. D.; Paul. Fest. 440 f.: Terentum). It was there that the Sabine Valesius from Eretum is supposed to have landed and established a cult on the spot where he had discovered an altar to Dis Pater and Proserpina at a depth of 20 feet. The cult was the preserve of the Valeria gens. For the games in T. see Ludi (III. K.). The nearby ford over the Tiber was…

Sabatinus Lacus

(168 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Lake in southern Etruria near Caere (Frontin. Aq. 71; Columella 7,16; Sil. Pun. 8,492: Sabatia stagna; Str. 5,2,9: λίμνη Σαβάτα/ límnē Sabáta), modern Lago di Bracciano. The eponymous city (Geogr. Rav. 4,36: Sabbatis) is probably identical to modern Bracciano and was a station on the road running north of the SL from Forum [IV 1] Clodii (modern San Liberato) via Aquae Apollinares Novae (modern Vicarello; thermae, Roman sanctuary) to Baccanae (modern Baccano; Tab. Peut. 5,3). The tribus Sabatina (Fest. 464 f.) was named after the SL, while the tribus Arnensis [1. 274]…

Carsioli, Carseoli

(222 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae A town of the  Aequi on the upper course of the Turano between Arsoli and Carsòli. Colonia latina (302-298 BC) on the via Valeria, 42 miles from Rome. In 168 BC, Bithys, the son of the Thracian king, was exiled there. From 89 BC a municipium of the tribus Aniensis. Ovid staid there (Ov. Fast. 4,681ff.). Few pre-Roman remains, regular town structure with tufa walls in opus quadratum and polygonal limestone terracing. Temple complex; 3 km to the east a votive repository of the 6th-2nd cen…

Valvata

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Road station on the Via Quinctia between  Faesulae and Pisae on the Arnus (Tab. Peut. 4,1 f.) at modern Cascina. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. Mosca, Via Quinctia 2, in: Journal of Ancient Topography 9, 1999, 165-174.

Salebro

(72 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Harbour in Etruria (It. maritimum 500,6: Scabris), modern Portiglione di Scarlino in the Gulf of Follonica opposite Ilva (Elba). Station on the via Aurelia between the mouth of the Umbro and Populonia (It. Ant. 292,3: Salebrone; Tab. Peut. 4,3: Saleborna), where parts of road paving survive. Labrone in Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,5,8 is probably the corruptly transmitted placename S. (amended by Wesseling to Salebrone). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Volcei

(103 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City in Lucania on a hilly ridge (663 m high) in the valley of the Tanager, modern Buccino (in the province of Salerno). Subjugated in 209 BC by the Romans (Liv. 27,15,2), at first a municipium of the tribus Pomptina, then a praefectura (Liber coloniarum 1,209). The Numestrani (Plin. HN. 3,61; Numistro) and the pagi Forensis and Naranus (Nares Lucanae, modern Lo Scorzo) were assigned to it (CIL X 407). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Bracco, V. (Forma Italiae, Regio III, vol. 2), 1978  Id., V. in: Supplementa Italica, N. S. 3, 1987  W. Johannowsky, Italici …

Xuthia

(73 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ξουθία; Xouthía). Region ( chôra) at Leontini, kingdom of a mythical ruler, Xuthus [2], still so called in the time of Diodorus [18] (5,8,2)  (in Steph. Byz. s. v. Ξ. incorrectly listed as a city). The name of Sortino, 16 km to the south of modern Lentini, recorded from the 13th cent. onwards, may derive from X. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 92, 242.

Roboraria

(53 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Statio of the Via Latina in Latium, 13 Roman miles away from Rome (Itin. Anton. 305,7), possibly today's Osteria della Molara. The name is derived from the oaks (Latin robur) in this area (compare Gell. NA 2,20,5). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Tomassetti, La Campagna Romana, 1910, 519 (reprint 1976).

Tolenus

(82 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Central-Italian river (Ov. Fast. 6,565), modern Turano. It rises in the Montes Simbruini (modern Monti Simbruini), flows through the territory of the Aequi of Carsioli (to the northeast of modern Cársoli), of the Sabini of Trebula Mutuesca (near Monteleone Sabino) and Reate, where it joins with the Avens to form the Rosea Rura wetlands. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography A. R. Staffa, La viabilità romana della valle del Turano, in: Xenia 6, 1983, 37-44  Id., L'assetto territoriale, in: ArchCl 36, 1984, 231-265.

Vescia

(140 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] City of the Ausones on the northwestern slopes of Mons Massicus, where the Liris (modern Garigliano) flows into the Mare Tyrrhenum (Luc. 2,425). It remains to be located. V. became involved in the war between Rome and the Latini (341-340 BC; Liv. 8,11,5 for the year 340); it was destroyed by the Romans in 314 BC (Liv. 9,25,4) and not rebuilt. The place name has survived in Saltus Vescinus (Liv. 10,21,8; modern Monte Roccamonfina; [1. 12 f.]), in Montes Vescini, in Aquae Vescinae (modern Terme di Suio), in Ager Vescinus (Liv. 10,21,7, modern Piano di Sessa, where i…

Peltuinum

(133 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Praefectura of the Vestini, tribus Quirina, in regio IV (Plin. HN 3,107; CIL IX 3314) on a plateau (approx. 870 m) at the foot of the Mons Fiscellus (now Gran Sasso), the present-day San Paolo di Peltuino at Castelnuovo di Ansedonia. Evidence of intensive construction in the period after 43 BC (city wall, theatre and housing; Aqua Augusta, restored AD 78). The decumanus maximus was overlaid by the via Claudia Nova from AD 47 (today 'tratturo'). The settlement concentrated along this road from the 3rd cent. AD. It declined gradually after the earthq…

Septempeda

(102 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Municipium in Picenum, tribus Velina, Regio V, established in the 2nd cent. BC on the left bank of the upper Flusor (modern Potenza) (Str. 5,4,2; Ptol. 3,1,52; Plin.  HN  3,111); located 2 km to the east of San Severino Marche near Macerata. S. was on a connecting road between the Via Salaria and the Via Flaminia (It. Ant. 312; 316; cf. CIL IX 5936). Remains of the city wall survive. The existence of a 7th cent. BC Piceni settlement with a necropolis at Pitino 4 km to the northeast of S. has been demonstrated. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Landolfi, S., 1991.

Maternum

(34 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Way station in Etruria on the v ia Clodia, 12 miles from Tuscana and 18 miles from Saturnia (Tab. Peut. 5,1). Its exact location is unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Miller, 296.

Anio

(230 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left tributary of the  Tiber, the border between Sabinum and Latium; it rises on the southern slope of the Simbru(v)ini colles ( Simbru(v)inus) on the territory of the  Aequi; at the waterfalls of Trevi (Treba) with their deep and narrow gorges, it flows out into the plains. The river dams up at the three Simbru(v)ini colles -- near Sublaqueum, Varia (modern Vicovaro), and at Tibur, where it cascades down to the plains from a height of 100 m. From that point onwards, it is navigable (Str. 5,3,11; Plin. HN 3,5 -- export of travertine = lapis Tiburtinus, tuff, and red sandsto…

Silva Maesia

(61 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Forest in southern Etruria to the southwest of Veii on the coastal strip to the north of the Tiber's mouth between the sea and the lagoon. It was taken from Veii in the course of the construction of Ostia under Ancus Marcius [I 3] (Liv. 1,33,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,41). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 359.

Romulea

(85 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ῥωμυλία; Rhōmylía). Samnite city in the region of the Hirpini, located on the La Toppa mountain (988 m) near present-day Bisaccia (Prov. Avellino) (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ῥ.). In 296 BC, R. was badly affected in the 3rd Samnite War (Liv. 10,17,6 f.; 11: Romulea). Situated below R. was the statio Subromula on the via Appia (It. Ant. 120,3; Tab. Peut. 6,5; Geogr. Rav. 4,20: Submurula), 16 Roman miles from Aec(u)lanum and 11 miles from Aquilonia [2]. Samnites, Samnium Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Farfarus

(52 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Tiber in the region of the Sabini (Ov. Met. 14,330; Sil. Pun. 4,182); Latinized as Fabaris (Verg. Aen. 7,715; Vibius Sequester 148), the modern Farfa; it flows by Trebula Mutuesca. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 478 M. P. Muzzioli, s.v. Fabaris, EV 2, 451.

Tabellaria

(40 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Road station in Etruria (Tab. Peut. 5,1) on the via Aurelia between Centumcellae and Graviscae near the mouth of the Minio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C. Corsi, Le strutture di servizio del cursus publicus in Italia, 2000, 143.

Perusia

(282 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Regio, regiones | Batavian Revolt Originally an Umbrian settlement, then a member of the Etruscan League of twelve cities (Liv. 9,37,12), east of Lacus Trasumenus on a rise on the right bank of the Tiber, modern Perugia. Municipium of the tribus Tromentina, regio VII (Plin. HN 3,52). Subjugated by Rome in 295 BC (Liv. 10,31,3), P. in 205 BC supplied grain and wood to Cornelius [I 71] Scipio for the planned invasion of Africa (Liv. 28,45,18). P. was the site of the bellum…

Nursia

(193 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes Northernmost city of the Sabini on a high plain in the upper Nar valley near Mons Tetrica; praefectura of the tribus Quirina (Fest. 262,15 L.), later in regio IV (Plin. HN 3,107; Ptol. 3,1,55), present-day Norcia, province of Perugia. During the 2nd Punic War  N. provided soldiers for P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio, in 205 BC (Liv. 28,45,19). As punishment for the inscription in memory of the war dead of Mutina, coloni were settled in N. by the later Augustus. N. was home to Sertorius (Plut. Sertori…

Hirpini

(252 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Samnite tribe in Samnium from mons Taburnus to the valleys of Volturnus, Calor, the upper Aufidus as far as mons Vultur. The name H. probably derives from that of the wolf ( hirpus), holy to the H., which was said to have led the H. into their area of settlement from the north (Str. 5,4,12). During the Iron Age, they are represented by the Cairano culture and the Fossa culture of Caudium. The area of the H. encompassed Caudium, Malventum, Aeculanum, Romulea, Aquilonia [2] and Compsa, as well as the Abellinates, …

Hellana

(67 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Staging-post in Etruria on the via Cassia between Florentia ( c. 27 km away) and Pistoriae ( c. 9 km away; Tab. Peut. 4,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,36); in AD 848 attested as Alina (MGH, Diplomata Karolina 3,242, no. 102) and therefore to be identified with Agliana (Pistoia). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography S. Pieri, Toponomastica della Valle dell'Arno, 1919, 114 M. Lopes Pegna, Itineraria Etruriae, in: SE 21, 1950/1, 407-443, esp. 426.

Fidenae

(163 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Latin town on a hill left of the Tiber along the via Salaria (Tab. Peut. 5,5), five (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,53) or six (Eutr. 1,4,19) miles from Rome. It was settled from the Iron Age onwards [1], and took part in the feriae Latinae on mons Albanus (Plin. HN 3,69). During the 5th cent., it was allied with Veii (Liv. 4,17ff.). At the time of Horace (Epist. 1,11,8), it was almost completely abandoned. The collapse of the wooden amphitheatre in AD 27 claimed many victims, the majority of…

Neminia

(38 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Fons Neminiae, spring in the region of Reate in the territory of the Sabines, regio IV (Plin. HN. 2,230; 31,12?), which surfaced at various places; cannot be identified. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 474.

Mevania

(86 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Umbrian city above the Plain of Foligno (modern Bevagna), municipium of the tribus Aemilia traversed by the Via Flaminia. Ancient remains: city walls, forum with a pseudoperipteros temple, theatre (1st cent. AD), amphitheatre, thermae (mosaics, 2nd cent. AD) and aqueduct. In the territory of M. there was viticulture and cattle breeding. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography C. Pietrangeli, Mevania (Bevagna), 1953 P. Fontaine, Cités et enceintes, 1990, 223-244 A. E. Feruglio, Mevania, 1991.

Aesernia

(185 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae Main town of the Pentri in  Samnium, on a mountain ridge between the rivers Sordo and Carpino at the source of the  Volturnus, modern Isernia. Important road junction ( via Aesernia, CIL IX 2655). In 295 BC captured by the Romans, in 264 BC extended by a Latin colony (minting). Following the Social War (80 BC)   municipium of the tribus Tromentina. Remains of polygonal walls, enclosing an area of 12 hectares, were part of the Latin colony. The   cardo maximus equat…

Falacrinae, Falacrinum

(77 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Settlement of the Sabini ( regio IV) at the sources of the Avens in the area of Reate on the border with Picenum. Station of the via Salaria (It. Ant. 307; Tab. Peut. 5,4), near the church of S. Silvestro in Falacrino in Collicelle (Cittareale, Rieti). Birth place of Vespasianus (Suet. Vesp. 2,1). Inscriptions.: CIL IX, p. 434. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen vol. 2, 468 N. Persichetti, Viaggio archeologico della via Salaria, 1893, 79f.

Suessa Aurunca

(199 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae Capital of the Aurunci (Vell. Pat. 1,14,4) between Minturnae and Teanum Sidicinum, modern Sessa, settled since the 8th cent. BC. After it was destroyed by the Sidicini and resettled, the Romans established a colony there in 313 BC (with ius Latii: Liv. 9,28,7; Vell. Pat. 1,14,4). Minting (280-268 BC; HN 42). In 90/89 BC municipium, tribus Aemilia (CIL X 4776; Cic. Phil. 13,18). In 30/28 BC the establishment of the colony colonia Iulia Felix Classica S. followed (CIL X 4832; Plin. HN …

Aurunci

(21 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Latin tribal name, derived by rhotacism from the more usual ethnic  Ausones.  Suessa Aurunca Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Sena Gallica, Senagallia

(174 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones City in Umbria to the south of the mouth of the Sena on the Ionios Kolpos (Adriatic) coast (Lucan. 2,407; Sil. Pun. 8,453; in its lower reaches the Sena is the modern Misa) in the  Ager Gallicus region, modern Senigallia. The Romans founded a colonia maritima there, probably in 289 BC (Pol. 2,19,12; Liv. Per. 11; Str. 5,2,10). In 207 SG was used by the Romans as fixed quarters (Liv. 27,46,4; Punic Wars), before the battle of the Metaurus [2] ( proelium…

Sagis

(75 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River branch in the delta of the Padus (Po), splitting from the main stream west of Spina, where the Tab. Peut. 5,1 places the statio of Sacis ad Padum. In the Etruscan period, the city of Atria diverted the S. to fill the Venetian swamps (Septem Maria), thereby obtaining a navigable channel, which the Romans under Vespasian (AD 69-79) remodelled into the fossa [3] Flavia (Plin. HN 3,120). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Venetulani

(49 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Latin people, counted among the 30 Alban communities that carried out sacrificial activities on Mons Albanus (probably Varro in Plin. HN 3,69). The name may derive from a Veneti [1] settlement which may have been called Venetulum. Location unknown. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 556.

Firmum Picenum

(232 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Coloniae | Coloniae Settlement from the early Iron Age; town in the Picenum, regio V, on a rise (319 m) on the right bank of the Tinna, modern Fermo (Ascoli P.), 8 km from the Adriatic coast where the harbour was situated (Φίρμον Πικηνόν· ἐπίνειον ... Κάστελλον, Str. 5,4,2 or castellum Firmanorum, Plin. HN 3,111). In 264 BC it was a colony with ius Latii (Vell. Pat. 1,14,7), five quaestores. In the war with Hannibal it sided with Rome, in the Social War it was a Rom…

Tres Tabernae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Town between Aricia and Forum Appii Town between Aricia and Forum Appii (modern Faiti) on the via Appia (Cic. Att. 1,13; 2,10; 2,12; It. Ant. 107,3; Tab. Peut. 6,1) where it crosses the road Antium - Satricum - Norba [1], located south-east of modern Cisterna. In TT, members of the Roman Christian community encountered Paulus [2] on his trip to Rome (Acts 28,15). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] City of the Mediomatrici City of the Mediomatrici with the rank of a vicus (CIL XIII 11648), modern Saverne (Dép. Bas Rhin) on …

Trebiae

(51 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Umbrian settlement (412 m high) on the upper reaches of the Clitumnus, later a municipium above the Via Flaminia , Regio VI, ethnic Trebiates (Plin. HN 3,114), modern Trevi with remains of the city wall. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography L. Sensi, T., in: Quaderni Istituto Topografia Antica 6, 1974, 183-190.

Venaria

(32 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Island in the Mare Tyrrhenum between Corsica and the Etruscan coast (Plin. HN. 3,81), not precisely located. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography W. V. Harris, Rome in Etruria and Umbria, 1971, 118.

Casinum

(154 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Oscan, later Volscian and Samnite town in the Liris valley. Because of its location on the via Latina, C. played a strategically important role during the Samnite wars; it probably became a colonia Romana in 312 BC. The acropolis was located in Montecassino, a walled circle ( opus polygonale) enclosed C. on the slope south of the modern Cassino (province of Frosinone). Archaeological monuments: amphitheatre, forum (on a terrace with a temple), theatre; villa with thermae on the Rapido, attributed to Varro; a…

Telesia

(179 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City of the Samnites in Campania in the valley on the right side of the river Calor (modern Calore) at its confluence with the Volturnus (modern Volturno) at the branching of the roads from Alifae to Beneventum and Capua. In 217 BC T. was conquered by Hannibal [4], in 214 by Fabius [I 30] (Pol. 3,90,8; Liv. 22,13). T. was a colonia Herculea (ILS 5987) probably from the time of Sulla with new buildings, then a municipium of Regio IV, tribus Falerna. Copper coins: TELIS. There is evidence of centuriation (Surveyors)…

Digentia

(43 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Stream in the ager Sabinus, received the fons Bandusia, passed by the villa of Horatius Flaccus (Hor. Epist. 1,18,104) and entered the Anio on the right side between Mandela and Varia; modern Licenza. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 616.

Argoos Limen

(30 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Ἀργῷος λιμήν; Argôios limḗn). Port on  Ilva, named after the resting place of the  Argonauts (Str. 5,2,6; Apoll. Rhod. 4,658), modern Portoferraio. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)

Norba

(197 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci, modern Norma. Possibly founded in 492 BC (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,13,5), but more likely in the 4th cent.; laid waste by the Privernates in 327 (Liv. 7,42,8). Loyal to Rome through the Punic Wars, destroyed by Sullan forces in 82/1 BC (App. B Civ. 1,94). Archaeology: Ring walls, adapted to the topography ( opus polygonale) from the 4th cent. BC, 2,662 m long, three gates; two acropoleis, rectangu…

Ficulea

(94 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus Town in Latium, north-east of Rome on the via Ficulensis (Liv. 3,52,3), subsequently the via Nomentana [1. 43], localized near Casale di Marco Simone Vecchio. It was originally founded by Aborigines (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,16), then by the Prisci Latini; captured by Tarquinius Priscus (Liv. 1,38,4); municipium (Plin. HN 3,64). Atticus (Cic. Att. 12,34) and Martial (6,27,2) owned estates near F. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography 1 A. Nibby, Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta dei d…

Interamna

(533 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Buonocore, Marco (Rome)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Tribus | Umbri, Umbria ( Interamna Nahars, CIL XI 4213; ethnic designation Interamnates Nartes, CIL VI 140). Town in Umbria, modern Terni. The place name refers to its location on the confluence of the Nera (Umbrian Nahar [1], Latin Nar) and the Serra (which had a different course in antiquity). Settlement phases of the 10th-7th cents. are attested in Pentima and in San Pietro in Campo. A 7th cent. settlement in the town's Clai district appears to confirm the …

Natiso

(85 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (Νατίσων; Natís ōn). River in Venetia (Ptol. 3,1,26) which rises in the Alpes Carnicae, flows below Forum Iulium (present-day Cividale), reaches the Turrus from the right (Plin. HN 3,126) and flows into the Laguna Veneta near Aquileia [1]. It protected the east walls of Aquileia and formed a canal port there (Str. 5,1,8). At the estuary the river is nowadays called Natissa (as in Iord. Get. 42), but Natisone and Torre in the interior regions. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 229.

Manates

(71 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Archaic people of Latium, possibly identical with the Sanates Tiburtes, who were neighbours of the Forcti Gabini, and who, according to Plin. HN 3,69, as one of the 30 pagi of the populi Albenses, gathered for sacrificial rites on Mons Albanus. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen 2, 555-557 M. Pallottino, Le origini di Roma, in: ArchCl 12, 1960, 27 A. Alföldi, Early Rome and the Latins, 1963, 13.

Narnia

(231 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | | Coloniae City in Umbria, regio VI, located on a high limestone spur of the Apenninus, 56 miles from Rome, present-day Narni. In the year 299 BC (Liv. 10,10,5) a colony under Latin law was founded there at the site of the Umbrian city of Nequinum, its ominous name (in popular etymology derived from nequire, ‘to be unable’) replaced as it was renamed for the Nahartes in the Nar valley. Municipium of the tribus Papiria, birthplace of the Emperor Nerva [2]; it was of strategic significance in AD 69 …

Ufens

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] River in Latium (Latini), after which the tribus Oufentina was named in 318 BC (Liv. 9,20,6; Fest. 212,7 ff. L.: Ofens); modern Uffente. The U. rises on Mons Lepinus (modern Monti Lepini) to the north of  Setia and flowed into the Pomptinae paludes ( Ager Pomptinus ), where it collected (Verg. Aen. 7,801;  Str. 5,3,6;  Sil. Pun. 8,382). There it was crossed by the Via Appia on a two-arched bridge. To the east of Cerceii it flowed into the sea. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography M. Cancellieri, s. v. Ufente, EV 5, 354.

Sontius

(151 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] (also: Isontius, Aesontius). River in Venetia (Tab. Peut. 4,5; Cassiod. Var. 1,18,1; 1,29; with no mention of the name: Str. 5,1,8; Hdt. 8,4,2). The source is in the Alpes Carnicae, it is joined from the left by the Frigidus (modern Vipacco) and flows into the Adriatic Sea between Aquileia [1] and Tergeste, modern Isonzo. During the yearly snow-melt, it swells strongly and is difficult to cross. It was crossed by the Via Gemina (Aquileia - Emona) near Pons Sontii (modern Mainizza)…

Cutilia

(56 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Sabine town between Reate and Interocrium, founded by the local inhabitants, made famous by Varro; the Aquae Cutiliae and the lacus Cutiliensis, situated in the centre of the peninsula, considered the umbilicus Italiae (‘navel of Italia’) (Varro, Ling. 5,71; Plin. 3,109) take their name from Cutilia. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography Nissen, 2, 475.

Tripontium

(64 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] Station on the Via Appia , where a road branches off to Setia, about 58 km from Rome in the Pomptinae Paludes (Ager Pomptinus) outside Forum Appii (modern Faiti), modern Torre Tre Ponti. A three-arch Roman bridge still crosses the Nymphaeus (modern Ninfa) today; the Decennovium to Tarracina began there. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography V. Galliazzo, I ponti romani, 1994, 86, No. 131.

Carsulae

(167 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Umbri, Umbria Town of the imperial age (Tac. Hist. 3,60; Plin. Ep. 1,4), on the via Flaminia between Narnia and Mevania in Umbria, on an elevated plain, a little to the north of San Gemini. Municipium of the tribus Clustumina. Excavations: via Flaminia within the town area, forum (lining the via Flaminia in the east with two small tetragonal arches, trapeziform, its southern end delimited by a temple with two cellae), theatre, amphitheatre (86 × 62 m), cisterns. To the east of the road, the church of S. D…
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