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(639 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[German Version] The science of the document (diploma) is considered one of the so-called auxiliary historical sciences, but it was also important in the judiciary. It developed in the 17th century out of the bella diplomatica between Bollandists and Maurists over the discrimen veri ac falsi in older monastic documents. After Innocent III promulgated criteria of authenticity because of forgery offenses, and Humanism developed the historical-philological method, with his De re diplomatica (Paris 1681) J. Mabillon gave diplomatics a scientific basis …

Gregory VII, Pope (Saint)

(614 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[German Version] (1073 – May 25, 1085; Hildebrand, c. 1020, Sovana [?; Tuscany] – May 25, 1085, Salerno, interred there in the cathedral), canonized 1606 and 1728, and had an epoch-making influence through the “Gregorian Reform.” Educated in the Aventin Monastery in Rome, which was strongly influenced by Cluny, Gregory accompanied ( invitus) Pope Gregory VI into German exile in 1047. Recalled by Leo IX in 1049, he then held various offices in Rome as well as being papal legate in France (Berengar's repentance at Tours) and Germany from 1054 to 10…

Formosus, Pope

(228 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[German Version] (Oct 6, 891 – Apr 4, 896). Before being elected pope, Formosus had been the cardinal bishop of Porto since 864 and had often functioned as a ¶ papal legate. In Bulgaria, there was a move in 868 to make him the archbishop of a church that would be separate from Byzantium, a move Pope Nicholas I denied because of the translation prohibition. After taking part in a Roman revolt against John VIII, Formosus was deposed and defrocked in 876 but then rehabilitated by the next pope. As pope he crowned Duke Wido of S…


(20,018 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages and Reformation – III. Modern Period and Today – IV. Chronological List of the Popes I. Early Church 1. Definition. If papacy is defined as the claim (based on Matt 16:16–19; 28:20; Luke 22:31f.; John 21:15–19) of the bishops of Rome as successors and heirs to Peter to leadership along with jurisdictional and magisterial primacy (I) within the universal church, papacy in the strict sense dates only from the Middle Ages in the Latin West. In the Early Church, the point at iss…

Papal Names

(567 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[German Version] When a new pope is elected (Pope, Election of), it has been the Roman custom since the early 11th century that he replace his baptismal name with a papal or regnal name. Some earlier instances provide justifications and exclusionary criteria. Unacceptable baptismal names included the names of gods (533, John II, changed from Mercurius), emperors (other than Hadrian; in 955 John XII changed his name from Ottaviano [Augustus]), and the prince of the apostles (Peter; 983, John XIV). …

Symmachus, Pope (Saint)

(319 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[German Version] (Nov 22, 498 – Jul 19, 514). On the day that Symmachus, a deacon from Sardinia, was pope, the Roman archpriest was also appointed and consecrated; the conflict was referred to King Theodoric (analogously to the schism between Boniface I and Eulalius). In 499 Theodoric decided in favor of Symmachus, and Laurentius had to withdraw to the bishopric of Nocera. After Roman senators lodged accusations against Symmachus and the administrator appointed by Theodoric proved unable to preven…

Stephen I of Hungary, Saint

(190 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[German Version] (c. 970 – Aug 15, 1038, Székesfehérvár). Married to the German princess Gisela, with Western help he completed the Christianization of the Magyars (not always nonviolently) begun by his father Geisa, against Byzantine competition, unifying the Magyars politically for the first time. Stephen organized the Catholic Church in Hungary under the archbishop of Esztergom, for which he was canonized in 1083 by Gregory VII. His appointment as papal legate is a legend, the presentation of t…

Stephan I.

(166 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[English Version] Stephan I., der Hl., König von Ungarn (um 970 – 15.8.1038 Stuhlweißenburg). Verheiratet mit der dt. Prinzessin Gisela, vollendete er nicht ohne Gewalt die von seinem Vater Geisa mit westlicher Hilfe gegen byz. Konkurrenz begonnene Christianisierung der nun erst polit. geeinten Magyaren und organisierte die kath. Kirche unter dem Erzbf. von Gran. Dafür wurde er 1083 durch Gregor VII. heiliggesprochen. Seine Bestellung zum Legaten ist Legende, die Schenkung der sog. Stephanskrone durch …


(269 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[English Version] Symmachus, Papst 22.11.498–19.7.514. Gegen den aus Sardinien stammenden Diakon S. wurde noch am Tage seiner Papstwahl der röm. Erzpriester Laurentius erhoben und ebenfalls ordiniert. Wegen des zeitlichen Vorranges entschied der um ein Urteil angegangene König Theoderich (analog zum Schisma zw. Bonifatius I. und Eulalius) zunächst 499 für S., so daß sich Laurentius als Bischof nach Nocera zurückziehen mußte, übertrug dann aber nach Anklagen röm. Senatoren gegen S. und nach vergebli…


(16,351 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Alte Kirche 1.Grundsätzliches Im Sinn der Definition von P. als Anspruch der röm. Bischöfe unter Berufung auf Mt 16,16–19; 28,20; Lk 22,31f.; Joh 21,15–19 als Nachfolger und Erben des Petrus auf die Leitung und den Jurisdiktions- und Lehrprimat in der Gesamtkirche (Primat: I.) kann vom P. im eigentlichen Sinne erst seit dem MA und nur für das lat. Abendland gesprochen werden; für die Alte Kirche handelt es sich um die Gesch. des röm. Bischofsamtes und der christl. stadtröm. Geme…


(454 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Harald
[English Version] . Anläßlich der Papstwahl an Stelle des Taufnamens einen P. anzunehmen, ist seit Anfang des 11.Jh. fester Brauch in Rom. Einige frühere Fälle liefern Begründungen und Ausschlußkriterien. Inakzeptabel erschienen demnach die Namen von Göttern (Merkur = 533 Johannes II.), Kaisern (abgesehen von Hadrian; Oktavian Augustus = 955 Johannes XII.) und des Apostelfürsten (Petrus = 983 Johannes XIV.). Reformbewegungen veranlaßten wohl den Rückgriff auf die Alte Kirche (1046 Clemens II., 105…