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Sparta

(5,406 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Theatre | Christianity | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Hellenistic states | Achaeans, Achaea | Colonization | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σπάρτη/ Spártē, Doric Σπάρτα/ Spárta). I. Political history [German version] A. Archaic period City in Laconica on the middle reaches of the Eurotas; originally four villages (Cynosura [3], Limnae, Pitana/Pitane, Mesoa), which developed from settlements of D…

Basilica Fulvia

(255 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Built in Rome in 179 BC on instruction from the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 40, 51, 2f.). It is possible that a previous building from 210 BC was incorporated (Plaut. Capt. 815; Plaut. Curc. 472). In 78 BC, the consul in office, M. Aemilius Lepidus, intervened in the construction (Plin. HN 35, 13);  Basilica Aemilia. H. Bauer developed an outline of the basic shape based on sparse structural remnants. Judging from the north-east corner of its foundation, the portico was located in front of the tabernae and ran 3 m behind the portico from …

Capitolium

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] I. Capitol Hill in Rome, consisting of a summit called C. in the south (46 m) and the Arx in the north (49 m), linked by the depression of the asylum. Until Trajan's forum was built, the C. was the south-western spur of the Quirinal and linked with it by a bridge. From archaic times, buildings on the C. had to have very deep foundations because of unfavourable geological conditions; in addition, since ancient times, there have been landslides, terracing (in the 15th and 16th cents.), as well as other substa…

Domus Aurea

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] As the successor building of the   domus transitoria , which was destroyed in the fire of AD 64, the domus aurea (DA) was still uncompleted at the time of Otho (Suet., Otho 7). Its main aspects were the extensive expropriation and inclusion of public space and the mobilization of all technical and artistic means in shaping an artificial world. After Nero's death the main areas, apart from the Palatine, were systematically returned to public use by the Flavians and Hadrian. The DA included the Palatine, the Oppius, the Caelius and the Velia. The city wall of th…

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Colossus Neronis

(260 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Colossus Solis). C. 40 m high, bronze portrait statue of Nero in Rome (Plin. HN 34,45; Suet. Nero 31; Mart. epigr. 2), conceived as a counterpart to his 120 foot high portrait on canvas in the horti Maiani (Plin. HN 35,51), near the vestibulum of the   domus aurea . The commissioned artist was  Zenodorus; Pliny visited his workshop and saw a clay model of the Colossus Neronis (HN 34,46). After the   damnatio memoriae of Nero, the colossus was transformed into a statue of Sol (Plin. HN 34,45; Suet. Vesp. 18); according to another tr…

Ager Vaticanus

(102 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Territory on the right bank of the Tiber (Plin. HN 3, 54; Liv. 10, 26,15) below the confluence of the Cremera. The area was used for farming and, just as the quality of its wines (Mart. 1, 18, 2; 6, 92, 3; 10, 45, 5; 12, 48, 14), was regarded as poor (Cic. Leg. agr. 2, 96). In the areas close to Rome, horti ( Gardens) were established in the 1st cent. BC, which later became imperial possessions. The more distant areas remained farmland up to late antiquity (Symmachus, Ep. 6, 58, 1). Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 405.

Basilica Opimia

(124 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] It was erected by the consul A.L. Opimius in 121 BC in Rome simultaneously with the Temple of Concordia, and was torn down possibly when the latter was rebuilt by Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10. No relics are extant, which complicates the effort to localize the Basilica Opimia (BO) relative to the Temple of Concordia in the vicinity (Varro, Ling. 5, 156). We can therefore hardly determine whether we are dealing with an independent basilica or with only a room that had similar fun…

Atrium Libertatis

(136 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Building to the north-east of the Forum Iulium, used under the Republic as the office of the  censors, whose documents were kept there along with the texts of various statutes (Liv. 43,16,13; 45,15,5); in exceptional circumstances it was also the meeting place of the Senate. In 193 BC a porticus was erected from the nearby Porta Fontinalis to the altar of Mars on the  Campus Martius, where the census was held (Liv. 35,10,12). Extended in 194 BC (Liv. 34,44,5), the Atrium Libertati…

Aqua Marcia

(334 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Erected in 144-140 BC by praetor urbanus Q. Marcius Rex who had been commissioned by the Senate to repair the Aqua Appia and Anio Vetus (Plin. HN 36, 121; Frontin. Aq. 7). It brought the coolest and purest water of all Roman city aqueducts right to the Capitol (Plin. HN 31, 41;  Roma;  Water supply). Repairs were carried out in 33 BC by Agrippa, in 11-4 BC by Augustus (Frontin. Aq. 9; 125), AD 79 Titus (CIL 6, 1246), by Hadrian, in 196 by Septimius Severus (CIL 6, 1247) and 212/13 Carac…

Basilica Aemilia

(292 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Common designation for the basilica on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome; it was first known also as  Basilica Fulvia (Varro, Ling. lat. 6, 4) or Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia (Liv. 40, 51, 5), and from 55 BC on it was called  Basilica Paulli as well (Plut. Caes. 29). The designation of Basilica Aemilia (BA) is a result of the increased number of building projects by the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34, 14 BC, also in AD 22). The differences in scholarly opinion about this building are rooted in the different views on the building activities of L.  Aem…

Esquiliae

(629 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] General term for the hills Cispius and Oppius in  Rome (Varro, Ling. 5,49). Here was the end of the plateau that extended to the Anio; and from it important aqueducts (Anio vetus 270 BC, Aqua Marcia 144 BC, Aqua Claudia and Anio novus AD 52) led into the city. The Anio novus that was incorporated into the Porta Maggiore is particularly impressive. A hasty and exhaustive redevelopment started in 1870/71 caused large-scale exposure and destruction, with which the documentation process could not keep pace; as a result, the considerable number o…

Campus Agrippae

(89 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Part of the   campus Martius in Rome; according to the Constantinian regionaries, it was located in regio VII to the right of the via Flaminia and north of the aqua Virgo; originally belonging to Agrippa, it was given to the Roman people by Augustus in 7 BC (Cass. Dio 55,8). According to one of the fragments of the acta fratrum Arvalium from AD 38, it was also the location of the Tiberian ara Providentiae. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 217 Richardson, 64.

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…

Aequimelium

(96 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Non-built-up district in Rome, regio VIII, in the south of the Forum Boarium near the northern foothills of the capitol. According to a widespread tradition (Varro, Ling. 5, 157; Liv. 4, 16, 1; Cic. Dom. 101; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12, 4; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; Quint. Inst. 3, 7, 20), the house of the rich grain merchant Sp. Maelius was demolished here in 432 BC by order of the senate because he was said to have aspired to kingship. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 3 G. Pisani Sartorio, in: LTUR 1, 21.

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Cloaca maxima

(252 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The invention of the cloacae (Str. 5,8; Plin. HN 36,24) is stressed in ancient literature as one of the greatest achievements of civilization; Pliny (HN 36,105) ascribes it to  Tarquinius Priscus, others (Liv. 1,38,6; 1,56,2; Dion. Hal. 3,67,5; 4,44,1) to  Tarquinius Superbus. The edifice designated in Roman literature as Cloaca maxima (CM) (Liv. 1,56,2; Varro, Ling. 5,157) has not been located with certainty, but is generally identified which the largest sewage canal in Rome, preserv…

Domus transitoria

(428 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] In the period of his reign before the great fire of AD 64, which was followed by the building of the   domus aurea , Nero combined the horti Maecenatis on the Esquiline ( Esquiliae) with the palatial buildings on the Palatine ( Mons Palatinus) (Suet. Nero 31; Tac. Ann. 15,39). Preserved are a building section of the domus Tiberiana, walls at the sunken peristyle as well as under the aula regia and the cenatio Iovis of the later Flavian palace. The affinity of an elaborate vaulted hall in the terraces of the Hadrianic temple of Venus and Roma by the Vel…

Carinae

(226 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Two Roman municipal districts, separated by the murus terreus Carinarum, a part of the pre-Servian wall which still existed in Varro's times (Varro Ling. 5,48), between Esquiline and Palatine. As part of the Augustan reorganization, both districts were jointly assigned to regio IV (Templum Pacis); the origin of the name is disputed (Serv. Aen. 8,351; Hor. Epist. 1,7,48). The district was the most desirable residential area for the Roman nobility; it was said that, even in Archaic times,  T…
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