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Aspledon

(131 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀσπληδών, Σπληδών; Asplēdṓn, Splēdṓn). Boeotian town, 20 stades north of  Orchomenus on the other side of the Melas; because of their climate, A. and its surrounding area were renamed Εὐδείελος (‘the sunlit’, Str. 9,2,41); the settlement was abandoned because of water shortage (Paus. 9,38,9). A. has been localized near Pyrgus (formerly: Xeropyrgos) (Hom. Il. 2,511; Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀ. and s.v. Ὑηττός; Nonnus, Dion. 13,94). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 360-363 J. Knauss,…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Libethria, -um

(111 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Λειβήθριον, Λιβήθριον; Leibḗthrion, Libḗthrion). Boeotian mountain range with a cult cave and spring sanctuary of the Muses and ‘L(e)ibethridian’ nymphs c. 7 km from Coronea; either the part of Helicon situated in the south-west between the mountains Megali Lutsa (1,548 m) and Paliovuna (1,747 m) or the mountain range stretching from modern Coronea east to modern Petra. Sources: Paus. 9,34,4; Str. 9,2,25; 10,3,17; Verg. Ecl. 7,21 with Serv. Ecl. 7,21. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 236 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίο…

Hysiae

(210 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ὑσίαι; Hysíai). Boeotian town on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron east of Plataeae, west of Erythrae (Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Paus. 9,1,6), c. 2 km east of modern Erythres (formerly Kriekouki) near the church of Pantanassa. Before the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC, the Persian encampment on the Asopus stretched from Erythrae through H. to Plataeae, whereas the Greek army initially took up a position near Erythrae, then moved via H. to the sanctuary o…

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …

Messapium

(77 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Μεσσάπιον; Messápion). Mountain chain (modern Ktypas) in the northeast of Boeotia, the eastern edge of which separated the mainland territory of Chalcis on Euboea from the rest of Boeotia. Sources: Aeschyl. Ag. 293 (with schol.); Aeschyl. fr. 55,10 Mette; Strab. 9,2,13; Paus. 9,22,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography S. C. Bakhuizen, Salganeus and the Fortifications on Its Mountains, 1970 Philippson/Kirsten 1,2, 497f. P. W. Wallace, Strabo's Description of Boiotia, 1979, 61.

Glisas

(158 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Γλίσ[σ]ας/ Glís[s]as, Γλισ[σ]άς/ Glis[s]ás). Town already mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Il. 2,504), located on the southern slope of the Hypatus mountain range by modern Hypaton (formerly Sirtzi) c. 10 km northeast of Thebae, to which G. belonged (Hdt. 9,43,2; Str. 9,2,31; Paus. 9,19,2f.; Stat. Theb. 7,306; Steph. Byz. s.v. G.); settlement traces reach back into the Neolithic period; extant are graves from the Early Helladic, geometric and c…

Oeroe

(57 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὠερόη/ Ōeróē). River (present-day Livadostras) which rises on the northern slope of Mt. Cithaeron at Plataeae and flows into the bay of Creusis in the Corinthian Gulf. References: Hdt. 9,51,2; Paus. 9,4,4. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2031-2033  H.G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland: 1876 und 1877, 1989, 556-562  Müller, 528f.

Haemon

(380 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Αἵμων; Haímōn, ‘skilful’), name of heroes. [German version] [1] Eponym of the Thess. Haemones Eponym of the Thessalian Haemones, son of  Pelasgus, father of  Thessalus (Rhianus of Bene, FGrH 265 F 30), or son of Zeus and Melia (IG IX 2, 582: 1st cent. BC, Larisa [1]), or son of Ares (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,527e). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia Son of  Lycaon, founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia (Paus. 8,44,1; Apollod. 3,97). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [3] Companion of Nestor Leader of the Pylians, companion of  Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,296). Dräg…

Hercyna

(84 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἕρκυνα; Hérkyna). River in Boeotia, whose powerful, in part lukewarm springs originate in  Lebadea at the mouth of a rock canyon (cave sanctuary and temple) and were closely connected to the cult of the neighbouring oracle of  Trophonius. References: Paus. 9,39,2-8; Plin. HN 31,15; Plut. Mor. 771f; Philostr. VA 8,19. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. H., RE 8, 690f. H. G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland (1876 und 1877), 1989, 609-614 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 21981, 244-250 Philippson/Kirsten 1, 445-448.

Coronea

(908 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Boeotian city (Κορώνεια; Korṓneia). Boeotian city 2 km east of modern Agios Georgios, c. 4 km north of modern C. (formerly Kutumala) on a low promontory (244 m) on the south-eastern edge of a very fertile plain stretching northwards as far as the southern shore of the former Lake  Copais, then south of C., narrowing to a valley, reaching deep into the northern side of the  Helicon [1] and opening up access to an important pass crossing to Thisbe in Boeotia. In the north-eastern part of the…

Hyria

(140 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὑρία; Hyría). Boeotian town on the  Euripus near Aulis and Chalia, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships. Hometown of Lycus, Nycteus, Orion, Euphemus and Antiope. Dependent on Thebes in the classical period, from the Hellenistic period on Tanagra; the localization north of modern Paralia Avlidas (formerly Dhramesi) or on a hill called Tseloneri (also Glypha) on the west side of the Euripus Bay across from Chalcis remains …

Eteonus

(132 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἐτεωνός; Eteōnós). Boeotian city on the northern slope of Cithaeron, described in Hom. Il. 2,497 as πολύκνημος ( polýknēmos, ‘with many mountain forests’); renamed in the classical period as Σκαφ(λ)αί/Σκάρφη ( Skaph(l)ai/ Skárphē); References: Str. 7,3,6; 9,2,24; Plin. HN 4,26; Stat. Theb. 7,266; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; inscriptions in [2. 84f.]. E. belonged to one of the regions in the Boeotian League under the control of Thebes (Hell. Oxy. 19,3,387; 20,3,438). The tomb of Oedipus was visible in the Demeter sanct…

Hadylium

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁδύλιον, Ἡδύλε[ι]ον; Hadýlion, Hēdyle[i]on). Mountain range (modern Vetritza) with an average ridge height of 300-400 m (highest point: 543 m) on the northern border of Phocis and Boeotia. In the west at Parapotamioi separated from  Parnassus by the Kephisos. In the east and southeast bordering on the mountains Palaiovouna (ancient Hyphanteion?) and Akontion. Evidence: Dem. Or. 19,148 (with schol.); Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 157; Str. 9,3,16; Plin. HN 4,25; Plut. Sulla 16f. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, I,2, 425.

Celones

(80 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κέλωνες; Kélōnes). Tribe, only mentioned in Diod. Sic. 17,110,4, who during Xerxes' campaign were deported from Boeotia to Media, where Alexander the Great still found them in 326 BC. Probably a mix-up with the Euboean  Eretria [1] whose inhabitants were deported by Datis and Artaphernes in 490 BC (Hdt. 6,119,1f.; Str. 16,1,25; Anth. Pal. 7,256; 259; cf. also the Gortuae, mentioned in Curt. 4,12,11, who supposedly followed the Persians from Euboea to Media). Funke, Peter (Münster)

Onchestus

(316 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀγχηστός/ Onchēstós). [German version] [1] Site, mentioned in Homer, of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Site, already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,506; H. Hom. ad Apollinem 229-238; H. Hom. ad Mercurium 185-188), of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon, whose origins may stretch back as far as the Mycenaean period [3]. Initially O. probably belonged to Thebes and from the 5th cent. BC to Haliartus; in the Hellenistic period O. was the political…

Boium

(139 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Βοιόν, Βοῖον; Boión, Boîon). City in Doris, belonging, along with Erineus, Cytenium and Acyphas, to the Doric tetrapolis of cities allegedly founded by Doris (Diod. Sic. 4,67,1; schol. Pind. Pyth. 121; Plin. HN 4,28; Ptol. 3,14,14; Scyl. 62; Scymn. 592ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.; Str. 9,4,10; 10,4,6). B. is still mentioned in the 6th cent. AD in Hierocles, Synekdemos 643,9. The only attested historical event was the Phocian attack of 458/7 BC (Thuc. 1,107,2; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4). Probab…

Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Hippotae

(94 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱππόται; Hippótai). Boeotian settlement (κώμη; kṓmē) between Thisbe and Coronea, probably identifiable with ancient remains near modern Koukoura on a high plateau on the eastern slope of the southern peak of Helicon, known as Paliaovouna. Thebes besieged and destroyed H. at an indeterminate time and divided the land between Thisbe and Coronea. Named in Plut. Mor. 775 A-B. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography A. R. Burn, Helikon in History, in: ABSA 44, 1949, 317f., 321 Fossey, 339 Pritchett 5, 156 A. Schachter, Reconstructing Thespiai, in: A. Hurst, A. Schachter…
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