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Hecabe

(713 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑκάβη/ Hekábē, Lat. Hecuba). Wife of the Trojan king  Priamus, mother of numerous children (Hom. Il. 24,496; Eur. Hec. 421), among them  Hector,  Paris/Alexander,  Cassandra,  Polyxene and  Troilus. Her parentage is unclear, in Hom. Il. 16,718f. she is the daughter of king  Dymas [1], in Eur. Hec. 3 of king Cisseus (cf. also Hyg. Fab. 91; 111; 243), and in Apollod. 3,148 of Sangarius. Her mother is mentioned in Suet. Tib. 70,3. In Homer, at Hector's urging, she goes to Athena's te…

Clymene

(225 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κλυμένη; Klyménē, Clymene). [German version] [1] Mother of Atlas [2]  Oceanid, wife of  Iapetus, who by her fathered  Atlas [2],  Prometheus and Epimetheus (Hes. Theog. 351; 507ff.; Hyg. Fab. praef. 11,31). In Euripides (Phaethon 1ff.; 45ff. Diggle; cf. also Ov. Met. 1,750ff.; Hyg. Fab. 152a; 154; 156) she is the mother of  Phaethon. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Nereid  Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,47; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8), who according to Pausanias (2,18,1) had with  Dictys [1] an altar in Athens as saviour of Perseu…

Laothoe

(84 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαοθόη; Laothóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thespius Daughter of Thespius, by Heracles [1] mother of Antiphus (Apollod. 2,163). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Lover of Apollo Lover of Apollo, by whom she bears Thestor, grandmother of Calchas (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 108). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Concubine of Priamus Concubine of Priamus, by whom she bears Lycaon and Polydorus (Hom. Il. 21,34f., 85-96; 22,46-48). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography O. Scherling, s.v. L. (1)-(3), RE 12, 761.

Creusa

(223 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κρέουσα; Kréousa, Latin Creusa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Gaia and Oceanus Daughter of Gaia and Oceanus, who bears  Hypseus and Stilbe to the river god Peneius (Pind. Pyth. 9,14f.; Diod. Sic. 4,69). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Erechtheus The youngest daughter of  Erechtheus and  Praxithea. Apollo begat  Ion [1] with her, whom she abandons but whom Hermes took to Delphi. C. marries  Xuthus (Hes. fr. nova 10a 20ff.), who becomes king of Athens after Erechtheus' death. When consulting th…

Andromache

(220 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομάχη; Andromáchē). Daughter of king Eetion in Hypoplacian Thebes, wife of  Hector, mother of  Astyanax-Scamandrius (Hom. Il. 6,395 ff.). At her wedding (Sappho fr. 44 Voigt) Aphrodite gives her gifts (Hom. Il. 22,470). Hector is affectionate towards A., especially after the death of her family (Hom. Il. 6,370 ff.). Her lament for her fallen spouse is impressive (Hom. Il. 22,477 ff.; 24,723 ff.). Her son is murdered after the conquest of Troy (Ilioupersis arg. fr. 5 PEG; Eur. …

Phyllis

(201 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Φυλλίς; Phyllís). [German version] [1] Eponymous heroine of the territory on the lower Strymon Eponymous heroine of the territory on the lower Strymon (Struma), which she brings as the dowry to her marriage with Acamas the son of Theseus. When he is unfaithful to her she curses him and he dies. The legend illustrates the great interest of Athens in the region with its rich mineral sources (Aeschin. 2,31 with schol.; Thuc. 1,100,3; 4,102; Androtion FGrH 324 F 33; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 495). P. hangs herself and i…

Polyclea

(100 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πολύκλεια/ Polýkleia). Heroine from the family of the Heraclidae, who received an oracular prediction that the first person to cross the Achelous [1] would become ruler of the Boeoti, who were at the time living in Thessalia. She asked her brother Aeatus to carry her over the river, broke away shortly before reaching the other bank and was the first to set foot there; her brother then married her to secure power for his family and they had a son, Thessalus (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,44). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography G. Radke, s. v. Polykleia (1), RE 21, 1695-1698.

Helena

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη; Helénē, Lat. Helena). [German version] [1] Beautiful wife of Menelaus ('Helen of Troy') Goddess who was worshipped at various cult sites in and around Sparta, especially in the Menelaion in  Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hsch. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). In  Rhodes she had a cult as H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in  Cenchreae and  Chios she is attested as a deity of springs (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). There is no completely reliable etymology for her name [2. 63-80]. For evidence of her cult i…

Niobe

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νιόβη/ Nióbē, Lat. Nioba). [German version] I. Mythology Daughter of Tantalus and Dione or Euryanassa (Hyg. Fab. 9, schol. Eur. Or. 4) and wife of Amphion [1] (Hes. fr. 183 M./W.). The oldest version of the myth is found in Hom. Il. 24,602-617 in the form of a comparison by which Achilles seeks to induce Priam to overcome his grief over his son's death just as N. did. N.'s children, the Niobids (Νιοβίδαι/ Niobídai, Lat. Niobidae), were killed by Apollo and Artemis after N. boasted of her superiority to their mother, Leto, because Leto had borne only two children, whil…

Atalante

(536 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀταλάντη; Atalántē). [German version] A. Myth Mythological daughter of Schoeneus or of Iasius and Clymene. In a Boeotian version she is allowed to remain a virgin, but to do so she has to defeat all suitors in a race (Hyg. Fab. 185).  Hippomenes receives three golden apples from Aphrodite, which he drops in A.'s way during the competition, and which she picks up (Hes. fr. 72-76 M-W, Ov. Met. 10.560-680), whereby he wins. The pair consummate their union in a sanctuary of Cybele or Zeus and are, as pu…

Hermione

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē). Daughter of  Helene and  Menelaus (Hom. Od. 4,12ff.), sister of Nicostratus (Hes. fr. 175 M-W). According to one version of the myth, Menelaus promises her to  Neoptolemus outside the gates of Troy (Hom. Od. 4,3ff.), in another version she is promised to  Orestes before the war (Soph. Hermione TrGF 4, 192f.; Eur. Andr. 966ff.; Ov. Epist. 8, slightly different in Eur. Or. 1653ff.). Neoptolemus abducts her but is killed by Orestes (Eur. Andr. 993ff.; 1085ff.; Hyg…

Andromeda

(183 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομέδα; Androméda). Daughter of  Cepheus king of the Cephenes or Aethiopians, and  Cassiepea (Apollod. 2,43), who boasted that she was as beautiful as the Nereids. This angered Poseidon, who sent tidal waves and a sea monster onto the shore. An oracle then promises release from the plague, if A. would surrender herself to the sea monster. Cepheus then has A. bound to a rock at the shore, where  Perseus sees her on his return after the Gorgon adventure. After she promises to go …

Praxithea

(249 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πραξιθέα/ Praxithéa). [German version] [1] Wife of Erechtheus Daughter or granddaughter of Cephisus; on the one hand, she is the wife of Erechtheus (Demaratus FGrH 42 F 4) and mother of several children (amongst them Creusa [2], Oreithyia, Procris); on the other, the wife of Erichthonius [1] and mother of Pandion [1] (Apollod. 3,190; Φρασιθέα/ Phrasithéa Tzetz. Chil. 1,174). According to an oracle, Erechtheus can only win the war against Eumolpus after sacrificing one of his daughters. In his play 'Erechtheus', Euripides allows P. to give detailed …

Galatea

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Γαλατεία; Galateía). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid, daughter of  Nereus and  Doris (Hom. Il. 18,45; Hes. Theog. 250; Apollod. 1,11), whose name probably refers to the milky-white colour, i.e. either to sea-foam or milk in its important role in pasture farming (Lucian 14,3; Eust. 1131,5 ad Hom. Il. 18,42). In Sicily, G. was venerated as the protector of herds (Duris FGrH 76 F 58). The love story between the Cyclops  Polyphemus and G. also originates from Sicily (Prop. 3,2,7f.; Nonnus, Dion. 39,25…

Lanassa

(170 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Λάνασσα; Lánassa). [German version] [1] Ancestress of the Molossian dynasty Daughter of Cleodaeus, granddaughter of Hyllus, great-granddaughter of Hercules [1], ancestress of the Molossian dynasty of Epirus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,2; Lysimachus, FGrH 382 F 10). Neoptolemus abducts her from the Zeus temple of Dodona, marries her and has eight children with her, among them Pyrrhus (Iust. 17,3,4). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography P. Levêque, Pyrrhos, 1957, 643 M. Schmidt, s.v. L., RE 12, 617. [German version] [2] Wife of Pyrrhus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, 3rd cent. BC Daughter…

Alcmene

(274 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλκμήνη; Alkmḗnē). Daughter of king Electryon of Mycenae or Tiryns and of Lysidice, Eurydice or Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. Sic. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). She marries  Amphitryon, who kills Electryon and has to flee with A. The marriage is to be consumated only after Amphitryon has avenged A.'s brother, who died in battle (Apollod. 2,55). He leaves, and Zeus comes in his form to A., tells of the victory and conceives  Hercules with her (Pind. Isthm. 7,5 ff.; Pherec. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. …

Hermione

(125 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἑρμιόνη). Tochter der Helene und des Menelaos (Hom. Od. 4,12ff.), Schwester des Nikostratos (Hes. fr. 175 M-W). Nach der einen Mythenversion verspricht Menelaos sie vor den Toren Troias dem Neoptolemos (Hom. Od. 4,3ff.), in einer anderen Version wird sie vor dem Krieg Orestes zugesprochen (Soph. Hermione TrGF 4, 192f.; Eur. Andr. 966ff.; Ov. epist. 8, leicht abweichend Eur. Or. 1653ff.). Neoptolemos raubt sie, wird aber von Orestes getötet (Eur. Andr. 993ff.; 1085ff.; Hyg. fab. …

Alope

(119 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀλόπη). Tochter des Königs Kerkyon von Eleusis (Pherek. FGrH 3 F147), Geliebte des Poseidon, dem sie Hippothoon gebiert. Sie setzt das Kind aus; es wird von einer Stute gesäugt, von Hirten gefunden, die den Streit um die kostbaren Erkennungszeichen vor den König bringen. Der erkennt die Zeichen, läßt A. einsperren und verhungern. Der Knabe wird ein zweites Mal ausgesetzt, wieder von der Stute gesäugt und von Hirten aufgezogen. Poseidon verwandelt A. in eine Quelle (Hyg. fab. 187…

Niobe

(1,193 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νιόβη, lat. Nioba). [English version] I. Mythologie Tochter des Tantalos und der Dione oder Euryanassa (Hyg. fab. 9, schol. Eur. Or. 4) und Gattin des Amphion [1] (Hes. fr. 183 M./W.). Die älteste Fassung des Mythos bietet Hom. Il. 24,602-617 in Form eines Gleichnisses, mit dem Achilleus Priamos veranlassen will, von seinem Schmerz über den Tod des Sohnes abzulassen, so wie dies N. ebenfalls getan habe. N.s Kinder, die Niobiden (Νιοβίδαι, lat. Niobidae), werden von Apollon und Artemis getötet, nachdem sich N. hochmütig über deren Mutter Leto gestellt hat, weil dies…

Elektra

(481 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἠλέκτρα). [English version] [1] Tochter des Okeanos und der Tethys Tochter des Okeanos und der Tethys; Gattin des Thaumas, Mutter der Iris und der Harpyien Aello und Okypete (Hes. theog. 265ff.; 349; Hom. h. 2,418; Apollod. 1,10). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Tochter des Danaos und der Naiade Polyxo Tochter des Danaos und der Naiade Polyxo (Apollod. 2,19; Hyg. fab. 170). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [3] Tochter des Atlas und der Pleione Tochter des Atlas und der Pleione. Eine der Pleiaden. Geburtsort der E. ist das Kylleneg…
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