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Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Panormus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Πάνορμος; Pánormos). [German version] [1] Harbour on the coast of Karia Harbour on the coast of Karia (Stadiasmus maris magni 285; 287; 294 with contradictory details) between Miletus [2] and Myndus, located at a distance of 80 stadia (14.8 km) from them, therefore near (Aşağı) Gölköy, which is the location also assumed for Caryanda, near the natural harbour of the Türkbükü bay or further to the west at the Ağaçbaşı-Limanı bay (Paşa Limanı). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. P. (1), RE 18,3, 654  G.E. Bean, J.M. Cook, The Halicarnassus Peninsula, in: ABSA 50,…

Tmolus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Τμῶλος/ Tmôlos). [German version] [1] Mountain chain in Lydia Mountain chain (up to 2157 m elevation) in Lydia, snow-covered in winter (Hom. Il. 2,866; 20,385), modern Bozdağ. The T. mountains were the source of the Pactolus, which in Antiquity bore auriferous sand; Sardis was on its banks (Plin. HN 5,110). In the T. mountains, vines were cultivated (Str. 14,1,15; Plin. HN 14,74; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,12), they were known for fields of saffron (Verg. G. 1,56; 4,380; Solin. 40,10). The T. were the residence…

Massabatae

(68 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μασσαβάται/ Massabátai, Μεσσαβάται/ Messabátai, Latin Messabatae). Inhabitants of the region of Massabatice (Μασσαβατική/ Massabatikḗ, Μεσ(σ)αβατική/ Mes(s)abatikḗ), which was named after them, in southern Media or northern Elymaeis (Str. 11,13,6; 16,1,18; Plin. HN 6,134), or - less likely - south of the Elymaeis region in the northernmost part of Persis (Ptol. 6,4,3; cf. Plin. HN 6,135). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. N. Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, 1984, 89.

Triopium

(263 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τριόπιον; Triópion). Promontory at the southwest extremity of Asia Minor (Hdt. 4,38; 7,153;  Scyl. 99; Plin.  HN 5,104), the Western Cape (modern Deveboynu) and in a wider sense the Cnidus (modern Reşadiye) peninsula. The place name, derived from the eponymous founder Triopas (Diod. 5,57,6; 5,61,2), can rather be explained by its geographical shape and location ('three faces'). The cape of T. was frequently of significance to naval strategy in the Aegean (Plut. Cimon 12,2; Thuc. 8…

Idyma

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἴδυμα; Ídyma). Ancient Carian settlement (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) on the eastern end of the gulf of Ceramus near Gökova, 4 km inland near İskele, by the river Idymus. Coins (from the 6th cent. BC onwards) showing a head of Pan and from the Hellenistic period with a Rhodian Apollo and fig leaf are preserved. In the mid-5th cent. BC I. was a member of the  Delian League and was ruled by Pactyes. In the 3rd/2nd cents. I. belonged to the Rhodian Peraea, was occupied in 201 …

Hermus

(350 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἑρμός; Hermós). [German version] [1] Att. asty deme of the phyle Acamantis Attic asty deme of the phyle Acamantis, with two bouleutaí. Position: on the ‘Sacred Road’ to Eleusis at the entrance to the pass near modern Daphni, modern Chaidari; there is the tomb of Pythionice, the wife of Harpalus (Plut. Phoc. 22,2; Paus. 1,37,5; [1]). Near Daphni there are funerary inscriptions of Hermeioi: IG II2 6072. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις. Ἀττικά, 1974, 468 with n. 6. W. Kolbe, s.v. H., RE VIII 1, 903 Traill, Attica, 47, 69, 110 no. 5…

Castolus

(154 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Καστωλός; Kastōlós). Town (and river?) in Lydia. The ‘plain of C.’ (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον; Kastōloû pedíon) was the perpetual rallying-point for the Persian army when on alert (cf. Cyrus the Younger:Xen. Hell. 1,4,3; Xen. An. 1,1,2; 9,7). The plain cannot be localized with certainty, but should be not far from Sardis, near the Persian royal road: according to inscriptions, possibly the plain of Burçak around Söğüt çayı; C. would then be the modern Bebekli. Formerly independent (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) with fortifications ( tetrapyrgia) around its plain, in imperia…

Alabanda

(368 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Ἀλάβανδα; Alábanda). C. 40 km south of the  Maeander valley in the middle Carian plain ( Caria) of Çine, its most important location in antiquity, on two hills lying close together (Str. 14, 2, 26) and in the subsequent plain to the north, on the left bank of the  Marsyas, today Araphisar. First mentioned in 480 BC (city tyrant Aridolis in Greek captivity: Hdt. 7,195 -- unclear how the news at Hdt. 8,136 is to be reconciled with …

Tralleis

(628 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Tribe in the south of Illyricum (Τράλλεις, Τράλλοι/ Trálleis, Trálloi). Tribe in the south of Illyricum, which, according to Hesych. s.v. Τραλλεῖς was of Thracian origin, but to Steph. Byz. (s.v. Βῆγις; Βόλουρος; Τραλλία) and Liv. (27,32,4; 31,35,1: Tralles; 38,21,2: Tralli) was of Illyrian extraction. The T. were known as mercenaries in Hellenistic armies (Diod. Sic. 17,65,1; Liv. 37,19; Hesych. loc. cit.). The towns of Begis and Bulorus were situated in their territory (according to Steph. Byz. loc. cit.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) …

Callipolis

(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…

Icarian Sea

(235 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰκάριος πόντος; Ikários póntos). Southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, from Samos to Mykonos (Plin. HN 4,51) respectively from Icarus, with Corassiae (Corseae, modern Fourni) and Samos, via Patmos, Leros and Kalymnos to Kos (Str. 10,5,13). References: Hom. Il. 2,145 (Ἰκάριος πόντος); Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 694; Auson. epist. 23 ( Icarius pontus); Ov. Fast. 4,283; 566; Plin. HN 4,68; 6,215 ( Icarium); Hdt. 6,96; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 5,2,1-6; 17,2; Diod. Sic. 4,77,6 (Ἰκάριον πέλαγος); Claud. in Eutropium 2,265 ( Icarium pelagus). The Icarian Sea (IS) breaks on the …

Thyatira

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture (Θυάτειρα/ Thyáteira, present-day Akhisar). City in northern Lydia in the valley of the central Lycus [18] on the road from Sardis to Pergamum, 57 km north-east of Magnesia [3]. In 281 BC Seleucus [2] I moved Macedonian military colonists to T., it was occupied by Attalus [4] I in 216 (Pol. 5,77,7), threatened by Philippus [7] V in 201 (Pol. 16,1,7), probably recaptured by Antiochus [5] III in 198 and in 190 by Eume…

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Ceramus

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέραμος; Kéramos). Town in south-western Caria on the northern coast of the gulf named after C. (Κεράμειος or Κεραμικὸς κόλπος; Kerámeios/ Keramikòs kólpos, sinus Ceramicus; modern Gökova körfezi), removed from the coast by the delta formation of the -- in the end subterranean -- Koca Çay (Str. 14,2,15), modern Kemerdere near Ören (Plin. HN 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Originally Carian, it was Hellenized from the 6th cent. BC (archaic kouros head, c. 540/530 [1]); in 454/3 BC, it was a member…

Telmissus

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τελμισσός/ Telmissós; by-form Τελμεσσός/ Telmessós: Syll.3 1047,7 f.). City in Caria (Cares) at modern Gürece, about 11 km (Polemon FHG 3, 128 Fr. 35) to the west of Halicarnassus, for the expansion of which T. had to relinquish part of its population c. 361 BC (Callisthenes FGrH 124 F 25; Plin. HN 5,107). With its Apollo sanctuary, still famous in the Roman Imperial period (HN 619), T. formed the League of the Telmisseis [1. 377-380]. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC T. was entirely absorbed into Halicarnassus. On…

Thyssanus

(109 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Θυσσανοῦς/ Thyssanoûs). Port in southern Caria (Cares; Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula on the Gulf of Syme (modern Sömbeki) at modern Ortaca. T. belonged to the Rhodean peraia, as a dámos ( demos [2] B) politically to Camirus on Rhodes, with a territory stretching as far as the southern and northern bays (e.g. with the remains of an acropolis at modern Cumhuriyet Mahallesi). After a temporary separation T. was returned to Rhodes by the Romans presumably c. 70 AD. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Blümel, Die Inschr…

Loryma

(161 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Λώρυμα; Lṓryma). Town on the south coast of Caria (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 247), east of the southern tip of Boz Burun in the heart of the peraea of Rhodes, belonged to Kasara (modern Asardibi), modern Bozuk Kale (‘castle ruin’). On the headland (Str. 14,2,4; 2,14; Larumna, Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104; Ptol. 5,2,8; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) over the approach to the bay lie the ruins of a Rhodian fortress (3rd/2nd cent. BC); on the southeastern side, rock inscriptions for Rhodian Zeus At…

Aperlae

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀπέρλαι/ Apérlai). Settlement on the southern coast of Lycia (Lycii, Lycia; Plin. HN. 5,100), in the northeastern corner of a westward opening bay, modern Sıcak İskelesi. In the 5th cent. BC Lycian city coins, in the 1st cent. BC Lycian League minting, and again c. AD 240 (HN 694). In the Roman period A. was the chief town of a sympoliteia of three neighbouring communities in the Lycian League (IGR 3, 692 f.): Apollonia (modern Kılınçlı), Isinda [1] (near…
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