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(291 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀκάμας; Akámas). Son of Theseus, normally closely connected to his brother  Demophon. A similar history is assigned to both brothers. Their mother appears in different forms: Phaedra (Diod. Sic. 4,62; Apollod. epit. 1,18), Ariadne (schol. Od. 11,321) or Antiope (Pind. fr. 175). Although they are not found in the Iliad, according to the Ilioupersis (fr. 6 PEG) they are present in Troy and during the plundering of the city they free their grandmother Aethra from prison. In various sources both brothers are named as lovers of Priam's …


(673 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Ἄδραστος; Ádrastos). [German version] [1] Mythical figure, leader of the campaign of the Seven against Thebes Leader of the campaign of the Seven against Thebes. A. originally possessed connections to Sicyon, where his cult was old (see below). In the canonical history, however, he comes from Argus. According to the most detailed report of his youth (schol. Pind. N. 9,30 partly according to Menachmus of Sicyon, FGrH 131 F 10), he was the son of king Talaus, the son of  Bias and leader of one of the three rulin…


(399 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Αἰγεύς; Aigeús). Mythical king of Athens, one of the 10   eponymoi and father of Theseus. The canonical history depicts him as a son of king  Pandium, of Attica, who shared Attica between A. and his brothers Pallas, Lycus and Nisus. A. received the region around Athens. But his appearance there could also have occurred later: Beazley ARV2 259.1 shows the other brothers with Orneus, not with A. As king he was childless for a long time. Upon enquiring from the Delphic Oracle, he was told ‘not to open the tap of the wine skin, until back …


(1,013 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δαίδαλος; Daídalos). [German version] [1] Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor Mythical craftsman, sculptor and inventor, his very name belonging to a semantic field indicating objects created by astuteness and skill. In stories he is associated with Athens, Crete and Sicily. Judging from the development of artistic techniques, it is not impossible that the origins of the tradition lie at least partly in Crete, although whether D.'s name can be attested in the Linear B texts is a matter of dispute […


(505 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
(Ἐριχθόνιος; Erichthónios). [German version] [1] Earthborn from Athens Important figure of Athenian mythology; his birth from the earth is said to have taken place on the Acropolis and symbolized the autochthonal nature of Athenians. E.'s relation to the very similar sounding  Erechtheus is problematic; most of the early texts (e.g. Hom. Il. 2,546-51) speak of Erechtheus, not E., as the one born of the earth, and an original cult of E., which would differ from the one of Erechtheus, cannot be detected. …


(282 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἐρυσίχθων; Erysíchthōn: ‘tearing up the earth’ or ‘protector of the country’). Mythical figure whose story is best known through Callimachus' 6th hymn to Demeter. According to it, he was a Thessalian, son of Triopas. He felled a grove that was sacred to Demeter even though the goddess in human form had warned him against it. As punishment for that he was made eternally hungry; he used up all he owned trying to assuage his hunger. Callimachus portrayed him as an unmarried youth; in…


(309 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Αἰακός; Aiakós). Son of Zeus and  Asopus' daughter Aegina, was regarded as the founding hero of the island of Aegina. The history of the inhabitants or the re-inhabitants of the island is generally associated with him; for his benefit Zeus transformed all the ants into people (Hes. fr. 205 M-W). By his wife Endeis, A. fathered   Peleus and  Telamon; many stories give him a further third son with the name Phocus (seal), whose mother was the  Nereid Psamathe. Phocus lost his life th…


(357 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἐρεχθεύς; Erechtheús). Mythical king of Athens, with an important cult on the Athenian Acropolis. It is difficult to classify E. as a hero or a god: his cult title in the earlier period is Poseidon E. (e.g. IG I3 873; Eur. Erechtheus fr. 65,93-4), but he was ascribed a human past, and as a phyle hero ( Eponymos) has equal status with the other nine (although in the canonic order of phyles he is listed first). There is much cross-contamination between E. (written Erichtheus on the  Marmor Parium) and  Erichthonius; wh…


(335 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βούτης; Boútēs). [German version] [1] Attic hero Attic hero about whom several traditions exist. There was an altar of B. in the  Erechtheion, in the vicinity of the altars of Poseidon, Erechtheus and Hephaestus (Paus. 1,26,5), and this establishes a clear link to the traditions of the  Eteoboutadai who were the priests for Athena Polias and Poseidon Erechtheus. B. could indeed have been the title of Poseidon Erechtheus' priest [1]. In this context, the genealogies which claim the hero to be Poseidon'…


(253 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἄνακες; Ánakes). Cultic title of the  Dioscuri Castor and Polydeuces. The name, a parallel form of άνακτες ( ánaktes), ‘kings’ or ‘lords’, is a title used frequently in Attica, where the pair were cultically venerated in many demes and in the Anaceaon on the Agora. Because the A. are also attested in Attica, it is assumed that their origin was independent of the Dioscuri [1]; in any case their mythical identification dominated in classical Athens: paintings of the Dioscuri adorned the Agora sanctu…


(763 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
(Αἴας; Aías, Latin Aiax). Name of two Athenian heroes at Troy. [German version] [1] Greek hero for Troy, son of Telamon A. Τελαμώνιος (Telamonius), son of Telamon from Salamis and Periboea (Eriboea). In the Iliad he is the best fighter of the Achaeans after Achilles (Il. 2,768-9): he is a defensive fighter, carries a gigantic shield, ‘like a tower’. He does not have an aristeia of his own, but comes out on top in the battle with Hector (Il. 7,206-82). His best-known myth is set after the events of the Iliad. After Achilles' death, A. collected the body, while Odysseus held back the Trojans ( Aethio…


(121 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Εὐρυσάκης; Eurysákēs). In Athenian tradition a son of  Ajax (Soph. Aj. 340; 575). E.'s name (‘broad shield’) reflects an attribute of his father (cf. Astyanax, Neoptolemus, Telemachus). He had a sanctuary in the city deme of Melite, where he is supposed to have settled after he and his brother Philaeus had handed their hereditary homeland of Salamis to the Athenians (Plut. Solon 83d). The story is doubtless a transparent political invention. The circumstance attendant on it was E.'s office as priest in the Salaminioi lineage. Sophocles wrote a tragedy ‘E.’, whi…


(356 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Εὐρυσθεύς; Eurystheús). Mythical ruler of Argos. He was the antagonist of  Heracles, and charged him with the twelve labours. The rivalry between the two had been caused by Hera: after Zeus had declared that a son of his blood would be born that very day, and would rule over all that he surveyed, Hera delayed  Alcmene's labour and accelerated that of the wife of Sthenelus, who was a Perseid and therefore a descendant of Zeus (Hom. Il. 19,95-133). In some versions of the myth, at t…


(149 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
(Χιόνη; Chiónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia; mother of  Eumolpus by Poseidon. To avoid discovery she threw her child into the sea, but it was rescued by Poseidon (Eur. Erechtheus fr. 349 TGF; Apollod. 3,199-201). The name C., from χιών ( chiṓn) ‘snow’, is fitting for a daughter of the north wind; another C., daughter of Arcturus, was said to have been abducted by Boreas and given birth by him to the three Hyperborean priests of Apollo (Hecat. FGrH 264 F 12; Ps-Plut. Fluv. 5,3). Kearns, Emily (Oxford) [German version] [2] Daughter of…


(229 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
(Βουζύγης; Bouzýgēs). [German version] [1] Athenian heros Athenian hero, original ancestor of the family of  Buzygae; also the title of the priest for Zeus Teleios or ἐπὶ Παλλαδίῳ ( epì Palladíōi), who therefore would have been a member of this family. The hero, whose name literally means ‘he who puts oxen under the yoke’, was the first who put oxen into a yoke for the purpose of ploughing; his plough was kept on the Acropolis as a votive offering, and there was a connection between him and the act of sacred ploughing (schol…


(107 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Φιλωνίς; Philōnís). Daughter of Deion (or of Eosphorus and Cleoboea), mother of Autolycus [1] by Hermes and of Philammon by Apollo. Perhaps in Hes. fr. 64 M.-W., certainly in Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 120, who places her abode in the region of Parnassus; according to Conon FGrH 26 F 1 and 7, she lived in Attic Thoricus. The reconstruction of her name as a cult recipient in an illegible section of the sacrificial calendar of Thoricus is thus plausible (SEG 33, 44f. no. 147). Hyg. Fab. 65 names P. as the wife of Hesperus or Lucifer, and mother of Ceyx. Kearns, Emily (Oxford)


(448 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀρρηφόροι; Arrhēphóroi). Title with uncertain etymology which was given to two or four Athenian girls between seven and eleven years of age from a good family who lived for a year on the Acropolis and took part in various activities which were connected with the cult of Athena Polias. Together with the priestess of Athena, they set up the loom on the Chalkeia, on which the new péplos of the goddess was woven, and they also helped with the weaving themselves. The central scene on the Parthenon frieze is often equated with this role and interpreted as the handing over of the péplos…


(359 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Δεξαμενός; Dexamenós). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Olenus in Achaea Mythical king of  Olenus in Achaea, host of  Hercules; his name indicates that hospitality is his main function in the narrative. Hercules repaid his hospitality by saving D.'s daughter who was being pursued by the centaur Eurytion. There are various versions of the story: either D. was forced to betroth his daughter Mnesimache to Eurytion who was, however, killed by Hercules (Apollod. 2,91); or Eurytion tried to rape D.'s daugh…