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(116 words)

Author(s): Knuth, Hans Christian
[German Version] The term pastor (from Lat. pastor, “shepherd”) represents the official role of the Protestant minister usually called Pfarrer or Pfarrerin in German (Clergy); it is common in some areas of Germany, especially where Low German is spoken, and in other countries, such as the United States and France ( Le pasteur). There is no substantial difference in meaning between Pastor and Pfarrer. The term draws on the imagery of the Bible (esp. Ps 23 and John 10:11) to emphasize the function of the minister as a pastor, particularly the elements of care…

Church Governance

(762 words)

Author(s): Barth, Thomas | Knuth, Hans Christian
[German Version] I. Law – II. Practical Theology I. Law Church governance, or leadership, in the broader sense is the collective term for all the organs of church governance in a Protestant regional church. In the more limited sense, the church leadership is the organ responsible for the continuous leadership of the church. The term used may be church leadership, but sometimes also church government, church senate, church council, moderamen, or synodal council. Its specific configuration is appropriate to the type of leadership realized. In the broader sense, the church leade…


(5,886 words)

Author(s): Knuth, Hans Christian | Dahm, Karl-Wilhelm | Marhold, Wolfgang | Pirson, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Concept – II. History – III. Theology – IV. Sociology – V. Law – VI. Statistics I. Concept The term “clergy” refers to persons who are ordained and who are ordinarily called to full-time (recently also part-time or non-stipendiary) service to carry out the preaching office. Etymologically, “clergy” is derived from the Gk kleros, meaning “lot” or “inheritance,” possibly a reference to the tribe of Levi having the Lord as their lot (Deut 18:2). The etymological derivation of the German term Pfarrer is not completely clear. If it is derived from Lat. parricus, “fold…


(6,151 words)

Author(s): Schubert, Anselm | Knuth, Hans Christian | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Denominations: Lutheran Churches in History – II. Lutheran Churches Today – III. Statistical Survey – IV. Missions – V. Ecumenism I. Denominations: Lutheran Churches in History 1. General Lutheranism denotes that portion of Christianity that traces its historical and theological origin to the Reformation of Martin Luther and uses his works as its theological foundation. The Latin terms Lutherani and Lutheranismus were coined originally by Roman Catholic opponents of the Reformation movement in order to identify it as heretical (firs…