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Misagenes

(136 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Musochanes). Son of Massinissa. In the Third Macedonian War in 171 BC, Massinissa supported Rome with food and dispatched M. as the commander of a Numidian auxiliary contingent with 1,000 horse, a similar number of infantry and 22 war elephants to northern Greece to fortify his own position (Liv. 42,29,8-11; 42,62,2; 42,65,12-14; 42,67,8; 44,4,11). On the return journey in 168 after completing the task, M.' transport fleet got into difficulties at sea and his horse troops suffere…

Massinissa

(936 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Lat. M. or Masinissa, Greek Μασανάσσης/ Masanássēs (Pol.), Μασαννάσας/ Masannásas (inscriptions), Numidian form of the name Massanassa). M. lived c. 230-148 BC (Pol. 36,16); son of Gaia, the eastern Numidian prince of the Massyli (IG XI 4, 1116; 1115 = Syll.3 652: Delos shortly before 167 BC; IDélos 1577; Liv. 24,49,1); brought up in Carthage (App. Lib. 10,37). From 212 BC he was commander of a Numidian cavalry corps in Spain in the service of Hasdrubal [3]. Here he defeated Roman troops at Castulo in 211 BC (App. Lib.…

Iugurtha

(623 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] 160-104 BC; grandson of  Massinissa, son of  Mastanabal, who with  Micipsa and  Gulussa was joint ruler of Numidia. Brought up in the ways of war by Micipsa, in 134 BC he was sent to  Numantia as commander of the Numidian archers, slingers and elephants. Owing to his military achievements he enjoyed great popularity and had personal relations with the Roman elite, esp. with  Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Africanus; he learned the Latin language (Sall. Iug. 5,4-9,1; 101,6; App. Hisp. 387…

Hiempsal

(143 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] [1] Heir to the rule of Micipsa, murdered in 117 BC Together with his brother Adherbal [4] and cousin  Jugurtha heir to the rule of  Micipsa; tripartition of the kingdom. In 117 BC murdered on the orders of Jugurtha (Sall. Iug. 9,4; 11f.) [1. 59]. Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] King of East Numidia, beginning of 1st cent. BC Son of Gauda; the king of eastern Numidia; in 88 BC Marius' son fled to him. Pushed out in 87 by  Hiarbas but after the success of Sulla's followers in 83 again the ruler. In 63, Caesar supporte…

Micipsa

(212 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Μικίψας/ Mikípsas). Eldest heir of Massinissa. He, Mastanabal and Gulussa were regents after Massinissa's death in 148 BC. He was in charge of the royal residence of Cirta (App. Lib. 106; Zon. 9,27 D.). After the death of his two brothers M. ruled alone (Sall. Iug. 5). In the Iberian theatre of war and in Sardinia M. and Mastanabal supported Rome with troops and supplies (App. Lib. 111; Sall. Iug. 7-8; Vell. 2,9,4; Plut. C. Gracchus 23,5). In 134 M. sent Iugurtha with auxiliary tr…

Massiva

(205 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] [1] Commander in the Second Punic War Nephew of Massinissa, grandson of Gaia. M. was taken prisoner by the Romans in 209 BC in the second Punic War as a cavalry commander in the service of Carthage. In order to initiate contact with Massinissa, Cornelius [I 71] Scipio freed him (Liv. 27,19,8-12; 28,35,8-13). Numidae, Numidia Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography M.-R. Alföldi, Die Geschichte des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H. G. Horn, C. B. Rüger (ed.), Die Numider, 1979, 43-74 C. Saumagne, La Numidie et Rome. Masinissa et Jugurth…

Bocchus

(261 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] [1] Mauretanian king, 110-181 BC B.I, Mauretanian king c. 110-81 BC: in the Jugurthine war was initially concerned about foedus and amicitia with Rome, then allied himself with his father-in-law,  Jugurtha (Sall. Iug. 80,3-6). After assuming command against Jugurtha in 107  Marius made contact with B., who was at the same time negotiating with Jugurtha; B. betrayed the latter in 105 (Sall. Iug. 105,1-108,2; 112,1-113,7) [1. 178], justified his own participation (Sall. Iug. 102,1-15), remained thereafter a σύμμαχος ( sýmmachos) of Rome (Plut. Marius 32,4) an…

Nabdalsa

(91 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] Wealthy Numidian noble and military commander under Iugurtha, against whom he plotted in 108 BC together with Jugurtha's confidant Bolmicar [4]. When the plot was discovered in documents, N. betrayed the conspirators to save himself; Jugurtha's acceptance of N.'s pleas was feigned, and he had most of the conspirators executed (Sall. Iug. 70,1-73,1). Numidae, Numidia Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography M.R.-Alföldi, Die Geschichte des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H.G. Horn, C.B. Rüger (ed.), Die Numider, 1979, 43-74  C. Saumag…

Hiarbas

(158 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(Ἱάρβας; Hiárbas). [German version] [1] H., Iarbas Mythical African King Mythical African King of the Maxitani (Just. Epit. 18,6,1), son of Ammon and a nymph (Verg. Aen. 4,198). He unsuccessfully courted  Dido (Verg. Aen. 4,213ff.; Ov. Fast. 3,553f.), then captured Carthage after her death (Ov. Fast. 3,551f.). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) Bibliography A. M. Guillemin, Comment Virgile construit un caractère. Iarbas, in: Humanités: revue d'enseignement secondaire et d'éducation 28, 1951, 20-22. [German version] [2] King of East Numidia around 100 BC Following the su…

Bogudes

(237 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Ruler of east Mauretania, 81 BC Son of and successor to  Bocchus I, ruler of east Mauretania as far as the Mulucha. The mariner  Eudoxus of Cyzicus paid a call on him (Posidonius in Str. 2,3,4). In 81 BC B. sided with  Pompeius, who was campaigning against the supporters of Marius at Sulla's behest, against  Hiarbas, of Numidia (Oros. 5,21,14; Plut. Pompon. 12) [1. 67-68; 2. 266-274].  Hiempsal Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 M.-R. Alföldi, Die Gesch. des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H. G. Horn, C. B. Rüger (ed.), Die Nu…

Adherbal

(236 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(drbl; Greek Ἀτάρβας; Atárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general, 307 BC Successful general at the defence of Carthage against  Agathocles in 307 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,59; 61) [1. 9]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 [1. 9-10], successful in battle against the Romans in 250 at  Lilybaeum and in 249 at the defence of Drepana (Pol. 1,46; 49-51). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Carthaginian ship commander under  Mago Carthaginian ship commander und…

Mastanabal

(96 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] Youngest of the sons and heirs of Massinissa; co-regent with Micipsa and Gulussa after the death of Massinissa in 148 BC, supreme judicial authority. M.'s sons were Iugurtha and Gauda (Sall. Iug. 5; Liv. Periochae 50; App. Lib. 106; Zon. 9,27 D.). Numidae, Numidia Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) Bibliography M.-R. Alföldi, Die Geschichte des numidischen Königreiches und seiner Nachfolger, in: H. G. Horn, C. B. Rüger (ed.), Die Numider, 1979, 43-74 H. W. Ritter, Rom und Numidien. Untersuchungen zur rechtlichen Stellung abhängiger Könige, 1987 C. Saumagne, La Numid…

Syphax

(318 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Σύφαξ/ Sýphax, Σόφαξ/ Sóphax). King of the Masaesylians in western Numidia (Liv. 28,17f.; 24,48,2; Sil. Pun. 16,170-17,631; Plin. HN 5,1,19; Str. 17,3,9; App. Lib. 36-121). Initially an opponent of Carthage (Liv. 24,48f.; 27,4,5), he was won over by the Scipiones (Cornelius [I 68] and [I 77]) as an ally in the Second Punic War in 213 BC and his army was trained in the Roman manner (Liv. 30,11,4; 30,28,3f.). The eastern Numidians under Gala and Massinissa conquered parts of his terri…

Gulussa

(140 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
[German version] Second son of  Massinissa; envoy to Rome (Liv. 42,23-24; 43,3,5-7; Liv. per. 48) [3. 429f.; 433]. In 150 BC envoy of  Massinissa to Carthage, on which occasion the attack on envoys led to war (App. Lib. 317-319; 336-339; Liv. per. 49) [2. 54; 3. 434]. When the inheritance was divided in 149 BC, military commander; in the 3rd Punic War on the side of Rome (App. Lib. 500-527; 596-604; Liv. per. 50) [3. 447ff.; 454]. Negotiation with Hasdrubal; acquainted with Scipio and Polybius (Po…